PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0368861 29.04.1993
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0368861
Titel VORRICHTNG UND VERFAHREN ZUR BEHANDLUNG VON VERFAHRENSGASEN.
Anmelder A. Ahlstrom Corp., Noormarkku, FI
Erfinder RITAKALLIO, Pekka, SF-78500 Varkaus, FI
Vertreter Eitle, W., Dipl.-Ing.; Hoffmann, K., Dipl.-Ing. Dr.rer.nat.; Lehn, W., Dipl.-Ing.; Füchsle, K., Dipl.-Ing.; Hansen, B., Dipl.-Chem. Dr.rer.nat.; Brauns, H., Dipl.-Chem. Dr.rer.nat.; Görg, K., Dipl.-Ing.; Kohlmann, K., Dipl.-Ing.; Ritter und Edler von Fischern, B., Dipl.-Ing.; Kolb, H., Dipl.-Chem. Dr.rer.nat., Pat.-Anwälte; Nette, A., Rechtsanw., 8000 München
DE-Aktenzeichen 3879706
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, NL, SE
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 20.04.1988
EP-Aktenzeichen 889038501
WO-Anmeldetag 20.04.1988
PCT-Aktenzeichen FI8800057
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 8808741
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 17.11.1988
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 23.05.1990
EP date of grant 24.03.1993
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 29.04.1993
IPC-Hauptklasse B01D 53/12

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for treating process gases by cooling the process gas in the presence of solid particles respectively according to the preamble of claims 1 and 11.

Different high-temperature processes such as melting of ores or metal concentrates and processes with melting, reduction and fuming of metallurgical slags, calcination of cements, high-temperature processes in the chemical industry, etc. generate high-temperature gases containing components that tend to stick to the heat transfer surfaces, thus making the heat recovery from said gases as well as cooling of them difficult. Sticky compounds may also be generated in ordinary gasifying processes. Such compounds that foul heat transfer surfaces are, for example

  • compounds that evaporate in the process and condensate or sublimate by cooling,
  • molten drops that solidificate by cooling,
  • particles that tend to sinter,
  • fume or aerosol, characterized by a very small particle size, usually less than 1 µm, and by a tendency to stick to other fume particles and surfaces met with,
  • molten or solid compounds resulting from chemical or other reactions.

Depending on the case, a process gas may contain one or more of the components mentioned above. Their common feature is a tendency to stick to the heat transfer surfaces of the heat exchanger or the boiler when the gas flows through them.

As a result of this, the heat exchanger gradually becomes clogged thus losing its effect, which usually results in running down the process.

The harmful effects of fouling can, in many cases, be reduced by different kinds of blow sweepers or mechanical sweepers such as shakers or blow hammers. The blow sweepers have a disadvantage of consuming high-pressure steam and their sweep gas affecting the composition of the gas to be treated. For reducing gases, for example, air cannot normally be used.

Shakers and blow hammers have proved to be an effective sweeping method under various conditions. Their disadvantage is the restrictions set by them on the boiler structure. Furthermore, shakers are ineffective on superheaters in operation.

Experience has shown that, usually the fouling problem is greatest at a certain temperature range typical to the process where the sintering tendency of "dust" is highest. The reasons affecting such temperature range are explained more in detail in the following.

The following factors, among other things, affecting sintering are well known in the field of powder metallurgy and ceramics combustion technology:

  • particle size of powder; the finer the particles the lower the temperature in the beginning of sintering,
  • when a mixture of compounds reaches a eutectic temperature in a multi-component system, there will be melt formed in the system, such melt filling the pores between the particles, thereby causing highly effective sintering in a temperature range that can be very narrow indeed.

The components evaporated in the process, such as heavy metals and alkalis, tend to condensate or sublimate at a certain temperature characteristic of them. In connection with cooling, there is formed either melt which condensates on the heat transfer surfaces or on the surfaces of dust particles, thereby making them more sticky, or the evaporated components sublimate direct on the heat transfer surfaces. Phenomena of this kind occur, for example, in the alkali by-pass system in the cement kiln, which is why heat recovery is not usually succesful in this connection. Corresponding phenomena appear in gasifying processes if the product gas contains alkalis and/or residual tar.

When cooling down close to the solidification temperature, the melt drops in the process gas either easily stick to the existing process particles, thereby contributing to the sticking of dust to the heat transfer surfaces, or solidify direct on the heat transfer surfaces and sinter to them.

In fuming operations, metals are intentionally evaporated from molten slag for recovery. For example, Zn, Pb and Sn are separated from the gas phase after evaporation by changing the oxygen potential i.e. by reburning. Especially fine particles or drops are thus formed in the flue gas. The size of particles in this kind of fume is typically in the range of 0.1 to 1 µm or even smaller. The fume is characterized by an especially large surface activity and tendency to stick to the heat transfer surfaces, thereby impeding the boiler operation. Therefore, a great deal of fuming operations are still carried out without heat recovery.

A phenomenon, much like fuming and nowadays well known, appears in the electric reduction processes of ferromixtures.

For example, in the electric furnace reduction of ferrosilicon and silicon, silicon sublimates at a certain temperature zone as silicon monoxide, which oxidates, for example, in the hood of an open or half-closed furnace to silicon dioxide, forming SiO&sub2;-fume in the flue gas. With respect to the boiler operation, SiO&sub2;-fume has proved to be extremely difficult at temperatures exceeding 500oC. In practice, almost all silicon and ferrosilicon are still produced without waste heat recovery.

In reduction of ferromixtures and silicon in a closed electric furnace, there are formed variable amounts of silicon monoxide and zinc as well as alkali metal vapours depending on the impurities in the feed materials. In cooling of a gas like this, the temperature of which may be even 1000 to 1300oC when coming from the process, the silicon monoxide oxidizes to SiO&sub2;-fume, and other vapours mentioned above condensate either direct on the heat transfer surfaces or first as a fume in the flue gas. Thereafter, fumes stick to the heat transfer surfaces, which fairly soon results in decreased efficiency and usually also in clogging of the heat exchanger.

An example of chemical reactions induced by cooling and of fumes resulting from said reactions is the melting of sulphide-based lead concentrates which process generates Pb-PbO-rich flue gas containing SO&sub2; and being of the temperature of 1200 to 1300oC. As the gas is cooling in the boiler, evaporated Pb and PbO begin to condensate and, on the other hand, chemical balances charge so as to form lead sulphate at the temperature range of about 900 to 500oC, said lead sulphate separating from the gas phase as fume-like particles. At the same time, a great deal of heat is released due to condensation, and reaction heat is released from the sulphatizing reactions. The conditions for sulphatization are advantageous as the hot gas flow contacts heat transfer surfaces with effective cooling and as at the same time, the heat transfer surfaces operate as a base onto which the lead sulphite formed separates.

Sintering of particulate material, improved by the sulphatizing reaction appears in most melting processes of sulphide concentrates, whereby vapors, fumes, melt drops or particles of, for example, lead, copper, zinc, nickel and other metals and oxides are formed, which vapors, fumes, melt drops and particles sulphatize as the gas is cooled. As the melting technology has begun to use more and more oxygen enriched air and pure oxygen, local temperature peaks in the process as well as concentrations of sulphur oxides of gases rise, which results in an increased relative significance of the sulphatizing reaction with consequent fouling problems. Another simultaneous phenomenon has been the exploitation of more and more complex and impure deposits, which has, for example, raised zinc and lead contents in copper concentrates, and considerably increased the share of such components that vaporize and sulphatize intensively in process gas particles as well as fouling problems of heat transfer surfaces.

The problems of sulphatizing can somewhat be helped by blowing extra air into the radiation chamber of the boiler. This contributes to a very complete sulphatization already in the radiation chamber. Technically, this is not, however, advantageous to the process as the particulate material from boiler is usually returned to the beginning of the process. In this case, returning of sulphate increases the circulation load of sulphur and the energy consumption of the melting process.

The above gives a fairly clear illustration of the reasons for fouling of the heat transfer surfaces. In this connection, however, there is no reason for a more detailed approach.

Several means have been suggested to solve the fouling problems of boilers and heat exchangers. The following gives a more detailed description, by way of examples, of such known arrangements that utilize either fluidized bed technique or characteristics of said technique.

A method and apparatus according to the preamble of claims 1 and 11 are respectively known from EP-A-0 042 638. This document discloses a reactor for desulphurizing hot flue gases in a circulating fluidized bed reactor. No cooling of the flue gases and the circulated solids take place in this reactor. The main part of the solid particles recirculated in the system are not cooled. The circulating system according to this known reference primarily provides an environment for desulphurization of the flue gas. The temperature is controlled in the reactor by recirculating a part of the solid material through an external fluidised bed heat exchanger. Clean flue gas can then be used as fluidizing medium in the external heat exchanger and may therefore be introduced into the main reactor as transport fluid for the reintroduced solid material.

US-A-2,580,635 discloses a method of condensation sublimable compounds evaporated in a gas from said gas as fine particles. In the method described, the gas is cooled by fairly rough solids (grain size appr. 0.7 mm) in a vertical chamber where the gas flows upwards and the solid particles downwards. The solid particles, the grain size of which has to be carefully chosen in proportion to the flow velocity of the gas, are cooled in a separate system and then recirculated to the upper side of the system. The use of the method is limited to condensing of condensable vapors into a fume.

US-A-2,583,013 discloses a method of condensating from a gas such sublimable compounds that have evaporated in said gas. In the method solid particles are fed to the gas flow before the heat exchanger, whereby the gas cools in the heat exchanger in the presence of solid particles, and sublimation takes place on the surface of the solid particles suspended in the gas. The solid particles function as nuclei for sublimable material. They decrease fume formation, contribute to scouring of the heat transfer surfaces and improve heat transfer. Impeccable operation calls for a suspension density exceeding 16 kg/m³ at the heat exchanger and a gas flow velocity of 0.9 to 2.1 m/s.

US-A-2,721,626 discloses a method of cooling hot gases that contain solid particles and foul heat transfer surfaces by mixing solid particles into the gas flow, said particles being considerably larger in size (e.g. 10 to 20 mesh) than the solid particles present in the gas prior to the cooler and by leading said gas-solids mixture at a high velocity (3 to 23 m/s) through the cooler, whereby the amount and mesh of coarse solids is controlled to cause sufficient abrasion for keeping the heat transfer surfaces clean. After the cooler, original fine particles present in the process gas and the coarse solids added are separated from each other. The use of the method is limited by, for example, the erosion brought by coarse solids, which erosion improves in cleaning but also wears the heat exchanger, thus shortening its lifetime.

US-A-3,977,846 discloses a method of separating hydrocarbons (tars) from hot gas by condensating hydrocarbons on the surface of particles in a cooled fluidized bed. The method described uses a separate gas as a fluidizing medium and introduces the gas to be treated in a separate duct and through nozzles or openings in said duct to the middle area of the fluidized bed, whereby cooling of the gas and condensation of hydrocarbons take place rapidly so that the hydrocarbons cannot condensate on the reactor walls or on the cooling surfaces, which are disposed in a dense fluidized bed below the gas inlet openings. The method is restricted by the following: as the gas to be treated has to be introduced through nozzles or openings, it is applicable only if the gas does not contain any compounds that would sinter at the inlet temperature. Separate fluidizing medium is also an encumbrance. According to experience, disposition of the cooling pipes at the bottom of the fluidized bed foretells considerable costs and, due to erosion caused by the fluidized bed, also safety risks.

US-A-4,120,668 discloses a method for cooling gas containing melt drops and volatilized components before heat transfer surfaces either in a cooled fluidized bed or by means of circulating particles cooled in a circulating fluidized bed reactor. The process gas itself is used as a fluidizing medium, whereby the need for external gas can be avoided. Furthermore, the level of temperature in the fluidized bed or the ratio of gas flow to particle flow in the circulating fluidized bed reactor have been chosen so that the mixing temperature is below the solidification point of molten and condensating components. In a circulating fluidized bed reactor, particles are introduced into the gas flow through a separate control valve of the fluidized bed reactor, functioning as an intermediate tank, wherefrom particles, at a high velocity (appr. 10 m/s) flow into the process gas flow, thus mixing with the gas to be cooled.

The method relates especially to cooling of the product gas from a pressurized molten salt gasifier. When the method is applied in conditions, in which a high pressure prevails and in which a low eutectic temperature of the particles calls for a relatively low mixing temperature when compared with the gas inlet temperature, it generally results in large particle flows and high suspension densities, which cause erosion problems, for example in the heat exchanger section.

US-A-4,391,880 discloses methods of separating volatilized catalysts from product gases and of heat recovery by means of cooling the gas flow by mixing colder, cooled catalyst particles with it to such an extent that a desired temperature level can be reached, and by means of separating said particles from the gas flow and by cooling them in a separate fluidized bed cooler before returning the particles to the gas flow. A disadvantage of the system is its being composed of several single processes, between which there are large flows of solid particles.

DE-A-3439600 discloses a method of producing and cooling of sulphur-free gas by means of leading the product gases to a fluidized bed. In the method the product gas is led either from above or from the side to a cooled fluidized bed, which is fluidized by an after-cooled and purified product gas. Disposition of heat surfaces in a dense fluidized bed usually results in wearing problems and consequently in safety risks. Leading gas to a dense fluidized bed and using it for fluidization calls for a system where rather big pressure losses have to be won, which again raises the nominal effect.

FI-A-64997 discloses a method where the temperature of a gas containing melt drops is, before the heat exchanger, lowered below the eutectic temperature range of melt drops by means of mixing solid particles cooled in the heat exchanger, separated from the gas and recirculated, with the gas. In this method, solid particles are simply recycled from the particle separator and instantaneously mixed with the gas in the space above the gas inlet opening.

The method requires a certain minimum process gas flow, on one hand, to prevent particles from flowing out of the system through the gas inlet opening and, on the other hand, to lead the particles with gas flow through the cooler. This is a considerable restriction on the function of the method in practice. Furthermore, one has to consider the possibility of a sudden intermission of the process gas flow which causes the circulating particles in the system to flow down through the gas inlet opening.

Applications where low mixing temperatures are required due to low eutectic temperature of particles easily result in great densities of mass flow, i.e. over 5 kg/Nm³, which brings about greater pressure losses caused by the system as well as erosion problems.

Furthermore, one has to pay attention to the fact that, in those applications in which a low eutectic temperature or some other reason calls for a low mixing temperature and, on the other hand, a high temperature of heat transfer surfaces, the construction is disadvantageous. The length (= height) of the heat transfer surface easily grows to 20...50 m. The high construction together with the high density of the mass flow causes a pronounced meaning of the pressure loss as an obstacle because the pressure loss is proportional to e.g. the height of the heat exchanger.

A well-known and applicable method of cooling process gases is circulating of cooled and purified gas and mixing it with the process gas before the heat exchanger so as to achieve a temperature low enough for eliminating stickiness of particles. Circulating of gas involves three weaknesses:

  • 1. Depending on the inlet, mixing, and outlet temperatures, the amount of gas to be circulated has to be 1.5 to 4 times that of the process gas. Thus, the amount of gas to be treated in the boiler and the gas purifying equipment will be 2.5 to 5 times that of the process gas, which again results in high investment and operating costs.
  • 2. In cooling gas by mixing gas with it, the components, such as alkalis, heavy metals etc., evaporated in the process and condensating or sublimating in the cooling system, form a very finely dispersed gaseous suspension, ie. a fume. A fume is characterized by a lower sintering temperature than coarse dust of the same material, as earlier stated. Furthermore, the fume is characterized by a tendency to stick to the heat transfer surfaces as also mentioned earlier. Therefore, a mixing temperature low enough, i.e. a sufficient amount of circulating gas has to be used in order to provide a well-functioning arrangement. Separating of fumes from large gas flows is technically very difficult. Thus, use of circulating gas means highly expensive arrangements.
  • 3. A large increase in the amount of circulating gas, which for the reasons described above is necessary in practice, considerably lowers the partial pressure of condensating and sublimateing components. Consequently, to effect condensation and sublimation, the temperature must be lower than what is necessary with an undiluted or a little diluted gas. This, on the other hand, increases the need for circulating gas.

Spraying of water or some other evaporating liquid into the gas flow has been used in cooling of process gases and hereby cool the gas before the heat exchanger to a temperature low enough with respect to the stickiness of particles. The method has, for example, the following weaknesses:

  • if water is used, high consumption of water considerable increase in aqueous vapour content in the gas flow, great change in the oxygen potential and high fume formation producing particulate material that is very difficult to separate, as earlier stated. Due to the lowered temperature level, there is a great decline in the amount of heat that can be recovered, which is why heat recovery is usually disregarded. Water spraying is mostly used merely as a method of cooling the gas before filtering.
  • in the chemical industry, it is often possible to spray some liquid which is contained in the gas and than condensed from the gas in the process. In other words, it is a process in which the vaporization heat can be utilized. Cooling itself or transfer of heat from the process is effected in a condenser. By spraying the component condensed from the gas, it is easy to regulate the temperature level of the gas in, for example, selective condensation or sublimation without bringing to the gas any foreign components in terms of the process. Like water spraying, this method also involves high fume formation in practice, as to sublimating components. Sublimated fumes can usually be separated only by filtering or by an electric filter.

The above description gives a rather detailed picture of the phenomena associated both with cooling of high-temperature process gases and consequent fouling problems of heat exchangers, which problems again hamper cooling of gas, economically important heat recovery and purifying of gas, the latter being significant both for the process economy as well as in the environmental aspects.

The above also discloses a great number of known methods and their weaknesses.

The purpose of the present invention is to provide a simple and efficient method

  • of cooling gases of high-temperature processes, which gases contain evaporated, molten and/or solid components, and
  • of recovering heat in a most appropriate manner, for example, as a high-pressure or low-pressure steam etc. or by heating the powdered material to be fed in the process or by carrying out a thermal or chemical treatment of the powdered material such as the feed material of the process, by utilizing the heat of the process gas, and
  • of purifying gases by minimizing the formation of fumes and by adsorbing fumes, melt drops and particles from the gases to be cooled, and
  • of minimizing the occurrence of non-desirable chemical etc. reactions by cooling the gases at a velocity high enough over the desired temperature range, or
  • of accomplishing some other desired reaction or phenomenon such a chemical reaction that takes place at a certain temperature, suspension density or within a certain time.

All of the above alternatives are not usually possible in one application.

The method and apparatus according to the present invention are respectively defined by the features of claims 1 and 11. In the method of the invention, mixing of the process gas with gas and solid particles is favourably accomplished so as to cool the process gas from the inlet temperature to the desired mixing temperature at a high velocity, usually at 10³ - 10&sup5; oC/s or even more quickly, in the mixing compartment, whereby cooling to the mixing temperature is effected like quenching. Cooling from the inlet temperature to the mixing temperature is so quick that there will be no time whatsoever for any undesirable chemical reactions. In the presence of solid particles, condensating and sublimating take place heterogeneously onto the surface of the solids, which prevents formation of fumes that would be created through homogeneous nucleus formation.

The mixing temperature is preferably chosen so that the components and melt drops to be separated (sublimated/condensated) from the gas will solidify and the solid particles that possibly sinter will cool below the temperature at which the sintering begins and that possible undesirable chemical reactions induced by the change in temperature will be prevented in the absence of kinetic chances because of the low temperature and that desirable reactions take place in the kinetically favourable temperature range.

The method according to the invention is preferably applied so that the mixture of the process gas cooled to the mixing temperature, the cooling gas heated to the mixing temperature, and the flow of solids will be

   cooled further to a desired temperature, for example, in a heat exchanger,

   and the solids will be separated from the gas in an appropriate manner, whereafter a suitable amount of them will be returned to the mixing compartment where they will be mixed with the incoming process gas flow,

   and the gas flow will continue to the next stages of the process, such as after-cleaning, after-cooling, and

   after a suitable stage of process, part of the gas flow will possibly be returned to said mixing compartment, where it will be mixed with the incoming gas flow.

An essential advantage of the method is that, the proportion of the flow of solid particles to the gas flow, both being used for reaching the mixing temperature, can be chosen so as to achieve optimal conditions in which

   on one hand, fume formation will be minimized, i.e. the flow of solid particles is dense enough to function as a heterogeneous nucleus creator, to the surface of which the sublimating and condensating surface of which the sublimating and condensating components will "grow", fume particles adsorb and melt drops stick and solidify,

   and on the other hand, the density of formed suspension will minimize, whereby the harmful phenomena such as great pressure loss, pressure vibrations, wear, slowness of adjustment etc. related to the handling of dense suspension will be minimized or eliminated altogether.

Each characteristic of the present invention will be emphasized depending on the case. For example, when heat recovery is of primary importance, it is natural to strive for the highest possible mixing temperature, within the limits of the operation, in which the force on heat transfer is as big as possible. On the other hand, a sufficient suspension density must, however, be chosen in order to provide efficient adsorpotion of solidifying melts, fumes, and condensating components and minimize the cost of gas purifications. Further the amount and inlet temperature of the circulating gas affects the total amount of gas flowing through the heat surfaces, the density and the flow velocity of suspension and thereby the heat transfer figure and the total amount and cross section/length relation of the heat transfer surface, which may form a highly essential factor both in terms of structure and pressure losses, as earlier stated.

In special cases, use of liquids containing solved salts etc. may be applicable in order to establish a cooling effect. In this case, while the liquid is evaporating in the gas, the compounds solved in the liquid may simultaneously be adsorbed in the circulating particles instead of allowing them to form finely powdered particulate material which is difficult to separate.

Hence, the optimum arrangement is affected by so many factors that it is not possible to give a universal equation for calculating such an arrangment. The optimum arrangement has to be found case by case based on known terms. Essential to the present invention is its flexibility in establishing a well-operating arrangement in quite extensive terms.

Furthermore, the method according to the invention is featured by its adjustability regarding the process gas flow. Namely, use of circulating gas enables, if necessary, staying of solids in the circulation even though the flow of the process gas to be cooled will stop. The risk of solids falling out of the cooler is hereby eliminated.

The operating manner and the advantages of the method are further described by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which

Fig. 1
is a schematic illustration of an application of the method according to the invention,
Fig. 2
is an illustration of another application of the method of the invention,
Fig. 1 illustrates a system according to the invention, in which system the process gas is cooled and heat is recovered therefrom.

Process gas 1 is fed into a reactor 2 through an inlet opening 4 at the bottom 3 of said reactor. At the bottom part of the reactor is disposed a mixing chamber 5, at the funnel-type bottom 6 of which chamber there is an opening 7 disposed at a distance from the bottom of the reactor. The bottom of the reactor and the bottom of the mixing chamber form an air box 8 between themselves, into which box the cooled circulating gas 9 is fed. At the top part of the reactor is disposed a heat exchanger 10. After the heat exchanger, gas 11 flows to the first cyclone separator 12 in which solid particles will be separated therefrom.

At least part of the solids separated in the first separator is returned to the mixing chamber by means of a return pipe 16. Solids flow down along a slanted surface of the bottom of the return pipe towards the opening 7 where the process gas, cooled gas and returned solids will meet. The gas 13 partly purified in the first separator is led into another cyclone separator 14. Part of the gas 15 purified in the second separator is led into the air box 8 of the reactor. It is also possible to feed new solids to the mixing chamber through a pipe 17.

Example 1

In pressurized systems, the advantages of circulating gas are pronounced. The example below presents a molten salt gasifier mentioned earlier, and let us assume the following: pressure 10 bar inlet temperature of process gas 1000 oC mixing temperature before heat surfaces 600 oC outlet temperature after heat surfaces 300 oC saturated steam temperature 280 oC average specific heat of gas 100 -> 600oC 1.6 kJ/Nm³/oC average specific heat of circulating particles 0.8 kJ/kg/oC inlet temperature of circulating gas 300 oC average specific heat of circulating gas 300 -> 600oC 1.4 kJ/Nm³/oC

With relative circulating gas as a variable, the following values are obtained: Vcirculation/Vprocess Vtotal particle circulation kg/Nm³ process gas suspension density kg/Nm³ kg/m³ 0.00 1.00 2.667 3.667 8.339 0.25 1.25 2.229 1.783 5.777 0.50 1.50 1.792 1.194 3.735 0.75 1.75 1.354 0.774 2.420 1.00 2.00 0.917 0.458 1.433

The above table indicates that even as low amount of circulating gas as 75 % enables decreasing by 50 % the need for circulating particles, whereby the suspension density will fall by nearly a third. With a 100 % circulating gas, which is often still quite reasonable, it is possible to decrease the particle circulation to a third and the suspension density to a sixth of the original figures without circulating gas.

With as low as 1 to 5 kg/m³ suspension density, an average particle density around 10&sup7;/m³ and even higher is achieved, which normally suffices to bring about the above-mentioned desirable phenomena, i.e. to prevent fume formation and to adsorb ultra-fine particles already formed. By regulating the amounts of circulating gas and particulate material, it is easy to establish such case-by-case optimum conditions that, one one hand, the fume formation will be minimized and on the other hand, the suspension density and circulating particles flow with consequent harmful effects will also be minimized.

Example 2

In the example above, the gas inlet temperature 1000o are still quite low. The significance of circulating gas is hereby pronounced, primarily because of pressurizing. For example, in most applications related to melting of sulphide concentrates, the gas inlet temperature ranges from 1200 to 1400oC and an applicable mixing temperature from 500 to 700oC. Considering the high specific heat of gas, the significance of circulating gas can be seen quite clearly also in unpressurized systems, as shown by the following example: pressure 1 bar abs inlet temperature of process gas 1300 oC mixing temperature before heat surfaces 600 oC outlet temperature after heat surfaces 350 oC temperature of saturated steam 280 oC average specific heat of gas at the range 1300 -> 700oC 1.9 kJ/Nm³/oC average specific heat of circulating particles 0.9 kJ/kg/oC inlet temperature of circulating gas 350 oC average specific heat of circulating gas at the range 350 -> 700oC 1.6 kJ/Nm³/oC
Vcirculation/Vprocess Vtotal particle circulation kg/Nm³ process gas suspension density kg/Nm³ kg/m³ 0.00 1.00 3.619 3.619 1.015 0.25 1.25 3.175 2.540 0.713 0.50 1.50 2.730 1.820 0.511 0.75 1.75 2.286 1.306 0.366 1.00 2.00 1.841 0.921 0.258

Hence, by the use of circulating gas, the particle circulation can be easily halved, which leads to suspension density levels of the same magnitude as the total emissions from the process, which in cases like this is typically 0.1 to 0.5 kg/Nm³. A suspension under 1 kg/Nm³ behaves much like a gas flow, which highly simplifies the implementation of the equipment.

Fig. 2 discloses a circulating gas system where cooling of gas is effected after separation of solid particles, i.e. for purified gas. Here, the method according to the invention is intended for separating evaporated alkalis of cement furnaces from bypass gas, which operation requires a low mixing temperature. Fig. 2 differs from Fig. 1 only in that the circulating gas 9 is led through an intercooler 18 before feeding said gas to the air box 8 of the reactor 2. For this reason, the same reference numbers denote equivalent parts.

Example 3

The following example studies the effect of circulating gas on purifying the alkali bypass gas of a cement furnace as well as in heat recovery: pressure 1 bar abs inlet temperature of process gas 1050 oC mixing temperature before heat surfaces 350 oC outlet temperature after heat surfaces 250 oC temperature of saturated steam 180 oC average nominal heat of gas at the range 1050 -> 350oC 1.8 kg/kg/oC average nominal heat of circulating particles 0.9 kJ/kg/oC inlet temperature of circulating gas after intercooling 150 oC average nominal heat of circulating gas at the range 250 -> 350oC 1.5 kJ/Nm³/oC
Vcirculation/Vprocess Vtotal particle circulation kg/Nm³ process gas suspension density kg/Nm³ kg/m³ 0.00 1.00 14.000 14.000 6.135 0.25 1.25 13.167 10.533 4.616 0.50 1.50 12.333 8.222 3.603 0.75 1.75 11.500 6.571 2.880 1.00 2.00 10.667 5.333 2.337

By the circulating gas, which in this case has simply been subject to intercooling, the suspension density is easy to reduce to such a level where it is possible to eliminate pressure losses and other problems related to the handling of dense suspension at the same time not losing any essential advantages of the system. In this case, intercooling is a highly simple operation because there are no problems with fuel gases of the cement furnace, nor with acid dew points or water dew points for that matter. On the other hand, intercooling is effected with a fairly pure gas, which is why fouling of the intercooler is no problem.

Example of iron manufacturing:

In the field of iron deoxydation, several different methods have been developed in order to replace, for example, blast furnaces in the manufacture of iron. There is an interesting chance to utilize the heat content and deoxydation potential of the discharge gas of a converter that involves bottom blowing by coal and oxygen, in preheating and preoxydation of the process feed material before actual melting and final deoxydation.

Cooling of gas flow produced by a melting process or part of such flow by water spray, steam, or circulation of gas cooled by water spray is known from several connections. A disadvantage of these systems is, for example, changing of the gas analysis and oxygen balances or that the heat content of the gas is not possible to recover, as stated earlier. A further disadvantage, both in gas circulation and in water spraying is that, formation of fumes that are difficult to be separated cannot be prevented, as also stated earlier.

Several different process concepts are known in literature which strive for utilizing gases of the coal-oxygen blown melting process in pre-reduction of the process feed material. In these arrangements, it is recommended to cool, purify and reheat the gas before the pre-reduction process. The methods are complicated and, above all, they are too expensive to provide for sufficient economy.

By the method according to the invention, it is possible to simply cool the gases of the blast furnace to a suitable level of temperature in view of the deoxydation process as well as to purify them from fumes awkward to the deoxydation processes before leading the gases to said process by not affecting the analysis of the gas itself. Depending on the deoxydation process used, the gas has to be cooled to a temperature level of 700-1000oC. The method can be realized by, for example, a plant arrangement as shown in fig. 2. A suitable circulating particulate material can be chosen case by case, usually so that it is possible to return it to the process together with the particles separated from the process gas. Furthermore, it is possible to choose the circulating particles so that they will not, even at high temperatures, sinter or that it is possible to feed such materials in the circulating particles that prevent sintering of such particles. The advantage of the method is that the temperature of the gas is adjustable according to need, the gas is possible to be purified from fumes, and the heat released in cooling can be utilized in generating process steam or high-pressure steam, not affecting the analysis of the gas itself.

The above discloses application of the method according to the invention to temperature regulating and purifying of the gases of an oxygen-coal blown iron melting reactor before using the gases in the deoxydation process. In this connection, there is also another possiblity, which is to some extent analogous with the preheating of the feed material. Here the gases of the melting process are led into an apparatus (fig. 2) according to the invention, where the temperature is regulated suitable for pre-reduction by means of circulating gas and possibly by means of heat surfaces inserted in the circulating fluid bed reactor, and iron concentrate to be pre-reduced is used as circulating particles. The feed of the concentrate and the amount of both the circulating gas and the particles circulated is regulated so as to receive a retention time sufficient for the pre-reduction. Thereafter, the hot pre-reduced material is either fed direct into the blast furnace or it is cooled, possibly turned to brickets and used, after possible storing, for melting. Feed of hot material direct into the melting process is naturally the best way in terms of energy economy. In practice, there may be other factors that speak in favour of cooling and storing.

The gas leaving the pre-reduction stage at the same temperature as the deoxydated concentrate is still CO-H&sub2;-rich gas. This gas is further utilized either in preheating, air pre-heating or production of high-pressure steam.

The examples hereinabove present facilities provided by the method of the invention of utilizing the heat content and chemical potential of the process gases in preheating of the process feed material and in deoxydation. Furthermore, the description presents the possiblity of preventing certain reactions by cooling the gases past the desired range of temperature at a high cooling velocity.

The method of the invention also enables accomplishment of desirable reactions, as there is the opportunity to adjusting temperature, the solids retention time and the chemical potential of the gas.

The above description presents several advantages of the method of the present invention. The above examples indicate that a combination of circulating particles and circulating gas optimal can be optimized for each case. This may, however, result in too low an average particle density prevailing in the mixing section as to fume formation and adsorption. This aspect has to be considered in the arrangement. The examples above handled the density of the suspension circulated through the reactor, which density could by means of circulating gas be adjusted to a level of 0.5 kg/m³ and even below that. In this case, the average amount of particles depending on the grain size, is 10&sup6;/m³ cr even less, whereby the average distance between the particles will become as high as 10 mm. Prerequisite for prevention of fume formation and adsorption of ultra fine particles is usually a higher particle density, e.g. 10&sup7; - 10&sup8;/m³, at mixing whereby the distance between particles is 5...1 mm. There are several ways of arranging this kind of equipment. A simple and preferred way of implementation is to build the mixing section of the reactor in such a way that either a larger or smaller part of the particles therein is in internal circulation in the mixing section and that only part of the particles is led to the flow circulating through the upper part of the reactor which functions as a conveyor. This is simply realized, for example, so that the effective cross section of the mixing section is bigger than that of the conveying section. In this case, the average flow velocity of the mixing section is correspondingly smaller than that of the conveying section whereby the suspension density prevailing in the mixing section will be higher.

Furthermore, the geometry of the mixing section is so arranged that, there is formed an internal circulation which is forced to return to the mixing point. In this way, the suspension density of the mixing section and especially of the mixing point allows to be adjusted within a large range. Generally, a suspension density of 10&sup7; to 10&sup8; particles/m³ is sufficient at the mixing point, whereby the suspension contains, depending on the particle size and specific weight etc., 10 to 100 kg/m³ of solid particles. Thus, it is not a question of an actual conventional fluidized bed, where the suspension density is hundreds of kilograms/m³ and pressure losses correspondingly at a considerably higher level.

Fig. 3 and 4 illustrate a preferred embodiment of the apparatus according to the invention. Said figures present the lower part of the reactor 2 illustrated in Fig. 1, which lower section comprises the mixing chamber 5, which again comprises a conical bottom 6 tapering downwards, at the lowest point of which there is a gas inlet 7. To the air box 8, formed between the reactor bottom 3 and the mixing chamber bottom, is tangentially connected an inlet pipe 29 for cooling gas 9. To the reactor bottom is centrally fitted an inlet 4 for process gas 1. Return pipes 16 for separated solid particles, connected to the mixing chamber, lead the returned particles in a downwardly circulating movement towards the gas inlet opening 7. The cross surface of the mixing section is bigger than that of the reactor thereabove, which reactor functions as a conveyor.

It is obvious that the mixing section illustrated in Fig. 3 and 4 can also be arranged in another way. Therefore, the conical bottom of the mixing chamber may be provided with openings through which at least part of the gas to be cooled is led. Part of the solid particles may be fed into the mixing chamber through the gas inlet pipe 29.

The operating principle of the mixing section as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 brings out the characteristics of the method of the present invention, such as

  • a) the suspension density and temperature of the mixing section and especially of the mixing point are adjustable within a large range to a level appropriate for each case,
  • b) the density and solids flow of the suspension entering the conveyor and the particle separator can be minimized to an optimal level case by case, whereby problems related to a high suspension density, such as wear, system for treating solid particles, pressure losses, etc. will be minimized.

The invention is not limited to the applications and arrangements presented hereinabove, but various modifications, applications and constructions are possible within the inventive scope of the claims.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verfahren zur Behandlung von Prozeßgas durch Abkühlung des Prozeßgases in einem Reaktor, bei welchem Verfahren - das Prozeßgas mit fluidisierten Feststoffpartikeln in einer Mischkammer in Kontakt gebracht wird, wonach Feststoffpartikel in einer Abscheidestufe in einem oder mehreren Abscheidern aus dem Prozeßgas nach der Gasbehandlung abgeschieden und hauptsächlich in die Mischkammer zurückgeführt werden, und
    • das Prozeßgas zusätzlich zu den rückgeführten Feststoffpartikeln entweder gleichzeitig oder mit einem kurzen Intervall mit rückgeführtem Prozeßgas in Kontakt gebracht wird, das im Reaktor behandelt worden ist und aus dem Feststoffpartikeln in der Abscheidestufe abgeschieden sind, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß
    • das Prozeßgas-Feststoff-Gemisch durch die Heizflächen vor der Abscheidestufe weitergekühlt wird, so daß die rückgeführten Komponenten, d.h. die rückgeführten Feststoffpartikel und das rückgeführte Prozeßgas kühler sind als das zu behandelnde Prozeßgas.
  2. Verfahren zur Behandlung von Prozeßgas durch Abkühlung gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß mit Prozeßgas aus einem Prozeß abgezogene verdampfte Komponenten auf die Oberfläche von Feststoffpartikeln in der Mischkammer sublimiert werden, indem das Prozeßgas unter die Phasenübergangstemperatur der verdampften Komponenten abgekühlt wird.
  3. Verfahren zur Behandlung von Prozeßgas durch Abkühlung gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß im Prozeßgas enthaltene Rauch hauptsächlich zur Adsorption auf die Oberfläche der Feststoffpartikeln in der Mischkammer durch Abkühlung des Prozeßgases veranlaßt wird.
  4. Verfahren zur Behandlung von Prozeßgas durch Abkühlung gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß aus einem Prozeß mit Prozeßgas abgezogene geschmolzene Komponenten veranlaßt werden, sich auf der Oberfläche von Feststoffpartikeln festzusetzen und zu erstarren oder zu Feststoffpartikeln zu erstarren, indem das Prozeßgas in der Mischkammer unter die Phasenübergangstemperatur der geschmolzenen Komponenten abgekühlt wird.
  5. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß eine für die gewünschte Reaktion günstige Mischtemperatur und/oder Feststoff-Suspensionsdichte in der Mischkammer aufrechterhalten wird, indem die Mengen der mit dem Prozeßgas in der Mischkammer zu vermischenden rückgeführten Partikeln und/oder des rückgeführten Gases eingestellt werden.
  6. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Prozeßgas unter die Sinterungstemperatur der im Prozeßgas enthaltenen Partikeln abgekühlt wird.
  7. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Prozeßgas und das rückgeführte Prozeßgas miteinander in Kontakt gebracht werden, unmittelbar bevor sie mit Feststoffpartikeln in Kontakt kommen.
  8. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß mit dem Prozeßgas zu vermischendes rückgeführtes Prozeßgas mit einem Feststoffpartikelstrom vermischt wird, unmittelbar bevor es mit dem Prozeßgasstrom in Kontakt kommt.
  9. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß ein Teil der rückgeführten Feststoffpartikeln mit dem rückgeführten Prozeßgas vermischt und ein anderer Teil mit dem Prozeßgas vermischt wird, unmittelbar bevor die Gase miteinander in Kontakt gebracht werden.
  10. Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß rückgeführtes Prozeßgas mit Prozeßgas und rückgeführten Partikeln vermischt wird, unmittelbar bevor das Prozeßgas mit den festen fluidisierten Feststoffpartikeln in Kontakt kommt.
  11. Vorrichtung zur Behandlung von Prozeßgas durch Abkühlung des Prozeßgases in einem Reaktor, umfassend
    • einen vertikalen Reaktor (2) mit einer Eintrittsöffnung (4) für Prozeßgas in seinem Boden, wobei der Reaktor in seinem unteren Teil eine Mischkammer (5) aufweist und die Mischkammer einen konischen Boden (6) mit mindestens einer unten im konischen Boden oder in dessen unmitelbarer Nähe angeordneten Eintrittsöffnung (7) hat;
    • mindestens einen mit dem oberen Teil des Reaktors verbundenen Abscheider (12, 14) zur Abscheidung von Feststoffpartikeln aus aus dem Reaktor abgezogenen Prozeßgas;
    • einen mit der Mischkammer (5) verbundenen Eintrittsrohr (17) zur Eingabe von frischem Feststoff;
    • einen mit der Mischkammer verbundenen Eintrittsrohr (16) zur Rückführung von abgeschiedenen Feststoffpartikeln aus dem mindestens einen Abscheider in die Mischkammer;
    • einen Kanal (15) für den Abzug von behandeltem Prozeßgas aus dem mindestens einen Abscheider; und
    • einen den Abzugkanal (15) mit der Eintrittsöffnung (7) im konischen Boden (6) der Mischkammer (5) verbindenden Kanal (9) zur Rückführung von behandeltem Prozeßgas in die Mischkammer, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß
    • Heizflächen (10) im oberen Teil des Reaktors vor dem Abscheider angeordnet sind.
  12. Vorrichtung gemäß Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß
    • ein Windkasten (8) zwischen dem Reaktorboden (3) und dem konischen Boden (6) der Mischkammer gebildet wird und
    • ein Eintrittsrohr (29) für rückgeführtes Gas tangential an den Windkasten angeschlossen ist.
  13. Vorrichtung gemäß Anspruch 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß
    • die Eintrittsöffnung (7) des konischen Bodens der Mischkammer am untersten Punkt des konischen Bodens und konzentrisch mit der Eintrittsöffnung (4) des Reaktors angeordnet ist, und daß
    • der unterste Punkt des konischen Bodens (6) der Mischkammer in solch einem Abstand vom Reaktorboden angeordnet ist, der einen gleichmäßigen Strom von rückgeführtem Gas vom Windkasten (8) in die Mischkammer ermöglicht.
  14. Vorrichtung gemäß Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Eintrittsrohr (16) in der Reaktorwand angeordnet ist und derart mit der Wand einen schrägen Winkel bildet, daß die rückgeführten Feststoffpartikeln beim Einströmen in den Reaktor eine nach unten geneigte Bahn bilden.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A method of treating process gas by cooling the process gas in a reactor, in which method
    • the process gas is brought into contact with fluidized solid particles in a mixing chamber, whereafter solid particles are separated from the process gas in one or more separators in a separation stage following the treatment of the gas and mainly recirculated into the mixing chamber, and
    • the process gas is either simultaneously or at a short interval brought into contact with recirculated process gas, which has been treated in the reactor and from which solid particles have been separated in the separation stage, in addition to the recirculated solid particles,
    characterized in that
    • the process gas-solids mixture is further cooled by heat transfer surfaces prior to the separation stage so that the recirculated components, i.e. the recirculated solid particles and recirculated process gas, are cooler than the process gas to be treated.
  2. A method for treating process gas by cooling according to claim 1, characterized in that evaporated components discharged from a process with process gas are sublimated onto the surface of the solid particles in the mixing chamber by cooling the process gas below the temperature of the phase change of the evaporated components.
  3. A method for treating process gas by cooling according to claim 1, characterized in that fumes contained in process gas are mainly made to adsorb onto the surfaces of solid particles in the mixing chamber by cooling the process gas.
  4. A method for treating process gas by cooling according to claim 1, characterized in that molten components discharged from a process with process gas are made to stick and solidify onto the surface of solid particles or to solidify into solid particles by cooling the process gas in the mixing chamber below the temperature of the phase change of the molten components.
  5. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that a mixing temperature and/or solids suspension density favourable to the desired reaction is maintained in the mixing chamber by regulating the amounts of recirculated solid particles and/or recirculated gas to be mixed with the process gas in the mixing chamber.
  6. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the process gas is cooled below the sintering temperature of particles which are contained in the process gas.
  7. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the process gas and the recirculated process gas are brought into contact with each other immediately before their coming into contact with solid particles.
  8. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that recirculated process gas to be mixed with process gas is mixed with a flow of solid particles immediately before coming into contact with the process gas flow.
  9. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that a part of the recirculated solid particles is mixed with the recirculated process gas and another part with the process gas immediately before the gases are brought into contact with each other.
  10. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that recirculated process gas is mixed with process gas and recirculated solid particles immediately before the process gas comes into contact with the fluidized solid particles.
  11. An apparatus for treating process gas by cooling the process gas in a reactor, comprising
    • a vertical reactor (2) with an inlet opening (-) for the process gas at its bottom, said reactor having a mixing chamber (5) in its lower part, the mixing chamber having a conical bottom (6) with at least one inlet opening (7) disposed low in the conical bottom or in the immediate vicinity thereof;
    • at least one separator (12, 14) connected to the upper part of the reactor for separating solid particles from the process gas discharged from the reactor;
    • an inlet pipe (17) connected to the mixing chamber (5) for feeding fresh solids therein;
    • an inlet pipe (16) connected to the mixing chamber for recirculating separated solid particles from the at least one separator into the mixing chamber;
    • a duct (15) for discharging treated process gas from the at least one separator; and
    • a duct (9) connecting the discharge duct (15) with the inlet opening (7) in the conical bottom (6) of the mixing chamber (5) for recirculating treated process gas into the mixing chamber,
    characterized in that
    • heat transfer surfaces (10) are arranged in the upper part of the reactor ahead of the separator.
  12. An apparatus according to claim 11, characterized in that
    • an air box (8) is formed between the bottom (3) of the reactor and the conical bottom (6) of the mixing chamber and
    • an inlet pipe (29) for recirculated gas is tangentially fitted to the air box.
  13. An apparatus according to claim 12, characterized in that
    • the inlet opening (7) of the conical bottom of the mixing chamber is fitted to the lowest point of the conical bottom and concentrically with the inlet opening (4) of the reactor, and that
    • the lowest point of the conical bottom (6) of the mixing chamber is disposed at a distance from the reactor bottom which enables an even flow of recirculated gas from the air box (8) into the mixing chamber.
  14. An apparatus according to claim 11, characterized in that the inlet pipe (16) is fitted to the reactor wall and forms an oblique angle with the wall so as to form a downwardly slanted course for the recirculated solid particles as they enter the reactor.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Procédé de traitement de gaz produits industriellement en les refroidissant dans un réacteur, procédé qui consiste:



       à amener les gaz produits industriellement au contact de particules solides fluidisées dans une chambre de mixtion, après quoi on sépare les particules solides des gaz industriels dans un ou plusieurs séparateurs au cours d'une étape de séparation faisant suite au traitement de ceux-ci dans la chambre de mixtion, et



       soit simultanément, soit après un court intervalle, à amener les gaz industriels au contact des gaz industriels recirculés, dont les particules solides ont été séparées dans l'étape de séparation, en plus des particules solides recirculées,



    caractérisé en ce que:



       on refroidit, en outre, le mélange de gaz industriels et de particules solides à l'aide de surfaces de transfert de chaleur avant l'étape de séparation, ce qui fait que les composants recirculés, c'est à dire, les particules solides recirculées et les gaz industriels ou de traitement recirculés sont plus froids que les gaz industriels devant être traités.
  2. Procédé de traitement de gaz industriels selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on fait subir une sublimation aux composants évaporés d'un traitement avec où les gaz industriels sont sublimés à la surface des particules solides dans la chambre de mixtion, en refroidissant les gaz de traitement au-dessous de la température de changement de phase des composants évaporés.
  3. Procédé pour traiter des gaz industriels par refroidissement, selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on s'arrange pour adsorber les vapeurs contenues dans les gaz industriels principalement à la surface de particules solides dans la chambre de mixtion en refroidissant les gaz industriels.
  4. Procédé pour traiter des gaz industriels par refroidissement, selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce - qu'on fait en sorte que les composants en fusion évacués d'un traitement avec des gaz industriels, se collent et se solidifient en particules solides en refroidissant les gaz industriels dans la chambre de mixtion au-dessous de la température de changement de phase des composants fondus.
  5. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on maintint une température de mixtion et/ou une densité de solides en suspension favorable pour la réaction désirée dans la chambre de mixtion en réglant la quantité de particules solides recirculées et/ou de gaz reciculés devant être mélengés avec les gaz industriels dans la chambre de mixtion.
  6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on refroidit les gaz industriels au-dessous de la température d'agglomération ou d'agglutination des particules contenues dans les gaz industriels.
  7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on amène les gaz industriels et les gaz industriels recirculés au contact l'un avec l'autre immédiatement avant qu'ils viennent au contact des particules solides.
  8. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on mélange les gaz industriels recirculés devant être mélangés aux gaz industriels avec un courant de particules solides immédiatement avant qu'ils viennent au contact du courant de gaz industriels.
  9. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on mélange une partie des particules recirculées avec les gaz industriels recyclés, et une autre partie avec les gaz industriels immédiatement avant que ceux-ci soient mis au contact les uns avec les autres.
  10. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'on mélange les gaz industriels recirculés avec les gaz industriels et avec les particules solides recirculées immédiatement avant que les gaz industriels viennent au contact des particules solides.
  11. Appareil pour traiter des gaz industriels ou de procédés en les refroidissant dans un réacteur, qui comprend:



       un réacteur vertical (2) comportant une ouverture d'entrée (4) pour les gaz industriels à sa base, ledit réacteur comprenant une chambre de mixtion (5) à sa partie inférieure, ladite chambre de mixtion présentant un fond conique (6) percé de, au moins, une ouverture d'entrée (7) située à la partie inférieure de son fond conique ou au voisinage immédiat de celle-ci; au moins, un séparateur (12, 14) relié à la parti supérieure du réacteur afin de séparer les particules solides des gaz industriels issus du réacteur;



       un tuyau d'entrée (17) relié à la chambre de mixtion (5) afin de l'alimenter avec des matières solides fraîches;



       une tuyau d'entrée (16) relié à la chambre de mixtion afin de recirculer les particules solides séparées par le ou les séparateurs logés dans la chambre de mixtion;



       un conduit (15) pour évacuer les gaz industriels traités par le ou les séparateurs; et,



       un conduit (9) reliant le conduit d'évacuation (15) à l'ouverture (7) du fond conique (6) de la chambre de mixtion (5) afin de recirculer les gaz industriels traités dans la chambre de mixtion, caractérisé en ce que:



       des surfaces de transfert de chaleur (10) sont montées à la partie supérieure du réacteur, en avant du séparateur.
  12. Appareil selon la revendication 11, caractérisé en ce que un caisson pneumatique (8) est formé entre le fond (53) du réacteur et le fond conique (6) de la chambre de mixtion, et



       en ce qu'un tuyau d'entrée (29) pour les gaz recirculés est raccordé tangentiellement audit caisson pneumatique.
  13. Appareil selon la revendication 12, caractérisé en ce que



       l'ouverture d'entrée (7) du fond conique de la chambre de mixtion est située au point le plus bas de celui-ci et est concentrique à l'ouverture d'entrée (4) du réacteur,



       et en ce que le point le plus bas du fond conique (6) de la chambre de mixtion est placé à une distance suffisante du fond du réacteur pour permettre la circulation d'un courant régulier de gaz recirculé entre le caisson pneumatique (8) et la chambre de mixtion.
  14. Appareil selon la revendication 11, caractérisé en ce que le tuyau d'entrée (16) est monté sur la paroi du réacteur et forme un angle oblique avec la paroi de façon à présenter une surface inclinée vers le bas favorisant la circulation des particules solides entrant dans le réacteur.






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