||Mikrowellen-Überwachungsgerät von Wassergehalt.
||Texaco Development Corp., White Plains, N.Y., US
||Helms, David Albert, Houston, Texas 77096, US;
Hatton, Gregory John, Houston, Texas 77035, US;
Durrett, Michael Gregory, Houston, Texas 77080, US;
Dowty, Earl Leonard, Katy, Texas 77450, US;
Marrelli, John David, Houston, Texas 77009, US
||Stahlberg, W., Rechtsanw.; Hoormann, W., Dipl.-Ing. Dr.-Ing., 28209 Bremen; Goddar, H., Dipl.-Phys. Dr.rer.nat.; Liesegang, R., Dipl.-Ing. Dr.-Ing., Pat.-Anwälte, 80801 München; Kuntze, W.; Kouker, L., Dr., Rechtsanwälte; Winkler, A., Dr.rer.nat., Pat.-Anw.; Huth, M., Rechtsanw., 28209 Bremen; Tönhardt, M., Dipl.-Phys. Dr.rer.nat., Pat.-Anw., 40593 Düsseldorf; Ebert-Weidenfeller, A., Dr. jur., 28209 Bremen; Nordemann, A., Dr.jur., 28717 Bremen; Nordemann, W., Prof. Dr.; Vinck, K., Dr.; Hertin, P., Prof. Dr.; vom Brocke, K., 10719 Berlin; Omsels, H., 80801 München; Hummel, H.; Pasetti, M., Dr., 10719 Berlin; Titz, G., Rechtsanwälte, 04103 Leipzig
||DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, NL
|Sprache des Dokument
|EP date of grant
|Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt
The present invention relates to apparatus for obtaining a measure
of the percentage of water in a stream of petroleum, referred to herein for brevity
as microwave water cut monitors.
In accordance with the invention a petroleum stream microwave water
cut monitor includes test cell means which contains a reference petroleum multiphase
fluid sample and which has a sample stream of a petroleum stream whose water cut
is to be measured passing through it. A source supplies microwave energy to one
of a first pair of antennae which irradiates the petroleum stream flowing through
the test cell or the reference sample in the test cell with microwave energy. One
of a second pair of antennae receives the microwave energy that has passed through
either the petroleum stream or the reference sample. A detector detects the received
microwave energy and provides a signal representative thereof. An indicator provides
an indication of the water cut of the petroleum stream in accordance with the received
signal power i.e. intensity, and a phase difference between the transmitted microwave
energy and the received microwave energy.
An embodiment of the invention will now be described, by way of example,
with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:-
- Figure 1 is a partial simplified block diagram and a partial schematic of a
microwave water cut monitor constructed in accordance with the present invention.
- Figure 2 is a simplified block diagram of the test apparatus shown in Figure
- Figure 3 shows the test cell from Figure 2.
- Figures 4 and 5 are sections on lines 4-4 and 5-5 of the test cell shown in
The water cut monitor shown in Figure 1 includes a microwave transmitter
3 providing electromagnetic energy, hereinafter referred to as microwave energy,
at a microwave frequency. Transmitter 3 is low powered and may use a microwave
gun source. Transmitter 3 provides microwave energy to a directional coupler 4.
Directional coupler 4 provides microwave energy to a voltage controlled phase
shifter 5 and to test apparatus 8. All conductance or carrying of microwave energy
is accomplished by using waveguides and coaxial cables.
Test apparatus 8 has a line 10, carrying a sample stream of a multi-phase
petroleum stream, entering apparatus 8. The sample stream leaves test apparatus
8 by way of a line 11. Apparatus 8 will be described in more detail hereinafter.
Suffice to say at this point that microwave energy leaving test apparatus 8 in
line 11, hereinafter referred to as test microwave energy, is microwave energy
that has been passed either through the sample stream or through a reference sample.
The test microwave energy is applied to a directional coupler 18. Directional
coupler 18 provides the test microwave energy to a detector 22 and to a mixer 28.
Detector 22 provides a signal E1 corresponding to the power, i.e. intensity of
the test microwave energy from the test apparatus 8.
Voltage control phase shifter 5 provides microwave energy, hereinafter
called the reference microwave energy, to mixer 28 which mixes the reference microwave
energy and the test microwave energy to provide two electrical signals E2, E3,
representative of the phases of the reference microwave energy and the test microwave
A differential amplifier 30 provides an output signal E0 in accordance
with the difference between signals E2 and E3. Signal E0 is a function of the phase
difference between the reference microwave energy and the test microwave energy
and is provided to a feedback network 34. Feedback network 34 provides a signal
C to voltage control phase shifter 5, controlling the phase of the reference microwave
energy, and to a mini-computer means 40. Signal E0, and hence signal C, decreases
in amplitude until there is substantially 90° phase difference between the reference
microwave energy and the test microwave energy. Voltage control phase shifter
5 indicates the amount of phase shift required to eliminate the phase difference.
Signals E1, C and T (the temperature of the test cell as described
below) are provided to a mini-computer means 40 which contains within it memory
means having data related to phase and power for various percentages of water
cuts that could be encountered in the production stream. Phase Shifter 5 also provides
an enable signal to computer means 40 allowing computer means 40 to utilize signals
T, C and E1 to select the proper water cut value. Computer means 40 provides signals,
corresponding to the selected water cut value, to readout means 44 which may be
either display means or record means or a combination of the two.
With reference to Figures 1 and 2, test apparatus 8 includes a test
cell 53. Test cell 53 will be described more fully hereinafter. Microwave energy
from directional coupler 4 enters switch means 58 which provides microwave to
test cell 53 through either a line 62 or a line 64. Line 62 provides the microwave
to an antenna 63 which radiates the microwave energy into the sample stream. Similarly,
when microwave energy is provided by line 64, it is provided to an antenna 65.
Antenna 65 radiates the microwave energy into the reference sample. Line 66 carries
test microwave energy received by an antenna 67 after it has passed through the
sample stream. Similarly, line 69 carries microwave energy received by an antenna
70 after it has passed through the reference sample. Switch means 72 receives
the test microwave energy from either line 66 or line 69 and provides it to directional
A reference sample source 77 provides the reference sample fluid
to test cell 53 by way of a line 80 having a valve 84. A channel in test cell 53
connects line 80 to another line 88 having a valve 90. In operation, source 77
provides the reference fluid through test cell 53. A measurement could be made
while it is flowing, or sample fluid could be contained in a static condition
in test cell 53 by closing valve 90 until the channel within test cell 53 is completely
filled. To drain the reference sample fluid from test cell 53 valve, 84 is closed
while valve 90 is opened.
With reference to Figure 3, there is shown test cell 53 having microwave
entrance ports 95 and 98. On the other side of test cell 53 as represented by dash
lines are microwave exit ports 105 and 108. Connecting microwave entrance port
95 and microwave exit port 105 is a microwave channel 110. Similarly a microwave
channel 112 connects microwave entrance port 98 with microwave exit port 108.
Also shown in Figure 3 are fluid channels 116 and 120. Since fluid
channels 116 and 120 are in line in this view of test cell 53 only one set of dash
lines represents them. This can be seen better in Figure 4 which has a cut away
view of test cell 53 in the direction of the arrows 4-4. There is shown a body
125 which may be made of metal having fluid channels 116 and 120 passing through
it longitudinally and microwave channels 110 and 112 for the microwave energy cut
transversely through it. It should be noted that channels 110 and 112 are shown
as being offset from each other. However this offset is not necessary to the practice
of the present invention.
It should also be noted that fluid channels 116, 120 have a rectangular
cross-section so that the microwave energy that passes through the fluids, always
has the same distance of passage.
Referring to Figure 5, there is a view of test cell 53 along the
line in the direction of 5-5, shown in Figure 3. Channel 110 is filled with a solid
material 130, such as high density polytetrafluoroethylene, that is conductive
to microwave energy, except for that portion of channel 110 that forms a cross-section
of fluid channel 116. Cut into body 125 is microwave entrance port 95. Further
there is another chamber 134 which connects microwave entrance port 95 and enters
into material 130 in channel 110. This is for the insertion of microwave antenna
63, which may be of the commercial type made by Omni Spectra, Part No. 2057-5134-02,
slightly modified for the present application. Similarly, microwave exit port
105, for antenna 67, is shown with an additional chamber 135 which enters into
material 130. Again this is for the purpose of monitoring the sample stream. Basically
it is the same type of antenna as is entered with entrance port 95, but again
modified for the present application. The microwave energy when applied to the
antenna 63 enters material 130 and is directed to cross channel 116 until it reaches
the antenna 67 inserted in exit port 105.
Referring also to Figure 2, lines 10 and 11 are connected in the
conventional manner to channel 116 so that the sample stream in line 10 will flow
through test cell 53 to line 11. Similarly, lines 80 and 88 are connected to fluid
channel 120 in such a manner that the sample fluid in line 80 will enter fluid
channel 120 and exit test cell 53 through line 88. Similarly antenna 65 in entrance
port 98 is connected to line 64 and antenna 70 in exit port 108 is connected to
As can be seen in Figure 3, temperature sensor 140 which is a thermocouple,
is inserted into a chamber cut into block 125 and thus reads the temperature of
block 125 as the temperature of the reference or of the production stream sample.
Basically, the reference sample's power and phase shift is used as
base line data in mini-computer means 40. The base line data and the test data
derived from the petroleum sample stream are temperature corrected by mini-computer
means 40. Mini-computer means 40 determines the water-cut in accordance with the
corrected base line data, the corrected test data and look-up table stored in
- 1. A petroleum stream microwave water cut monitor characterized by:
a test cell (53) arranged to receive a reference petroleum multiphase fluid sample
and to allow a sample stream of a petroleum stream to flow through it;
a source (3) for supplying microwave energy;
first antenna means (63,65) connected to the source (3) to transmit microwave energy
into a selected one of the petroleum sample stream and the reference sample;
second antenna means (67,70) for receiving microwave energy that has passed through
the petroleum sample stream or the reference sample and for providing the received
microwave energy as test microwave energy;
a detector (22) connected to the second antenna means (67,70) to detect the power
of the test microwave energy and to provide a power signal (E1) representative
indicator means (5,34,40,44) connected to the second antenna means (67,70), to
the source (3) and to the detector (22) to provide an indication of the water cut
of the petroleum stream in accordance with the power signal (E1) and the phase
difference (E0) between the transmitted microwave energy and the received microwave
- 2. A monitor according to claim 1 characterized by:
means (140) for sensing the temperature of the reference sample and of the sample
stream and providing a temperature signal (T) representative thereof; and
wherein the indicator means (5,34,40,44) provides the indication of the water cut
in accordance with the power signal (E1), the phase difference (E0) between the
transmitted energy and the received microwave energy and the temperature signal
- 3. A monitor accorlliny to claim 1 or claim 2 characterized in that the test
cell (53) includes:
a body (125) having two channels (116,120) therein for fluid passage and two channels
(110,112) for microwave energy passage;
a fluid source (77) for providing the reference sample to one of the fluid channels
means (10) for receiving the sample stream and providing it to the other fluid
means (11) for allowing the sample stream to exit from the body; and
wherein one fluid channel (116) and one microwave channel (110) intersect each
other at right angles, and the other fluid channel (120) and the other microwave
channel (112) intersect each other at right angles.
- 4. A monitor according to claim 3 characterized in that each microwave channel
(110,112) contains a material (130), except for that portion of the microwave channel
that crosses a fluid channel, that is impervious to fluids but permits passage
of the microwave energy.
- 5. A monitor according to claim 4 characterized in that the solid material
in the microwave channel is polytetrafluoroethylene.
- 6. A monitor according to any one of claims 1 to 5 characterized in that the
first antenna means (63,65) includes:
a first transmitter antenna (63) spatially arranged with one of the microwave channels
(110) for transmitting microwave energy into the one microwave channel;
a second transmitter antenna (65) spatially arranged with the other microwave channel
(112) for transmitting microwave energy into the other microwave channel; and
first switch means (58) connected to the source (3) and to the first and second
transmitter antennas (63,65) for providing the microwave energy supplied by the
source to either the first transmitter antenna or to the second transmitter antenna;
the second antenna means (67,70) includes:
a first receiving antenna (67) spatially arranged with the one microwave channel
a second receiving antenna (70) spatially arranged with the other microwave channel
second switch means (72) connected to the first and second receiving antennas (67,70)
and cooperating with the first switch means (58) for passing microwave energy
that has passed through a fluid and has been received by a receiving antenna to
the detector (22) and to the indicator means (5,34,40,44).
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