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Elektrischer Isolator und Verfahren zu dessen Herstellung. - Dokument EP0284274
 
PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0284274 16.06.1994
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0284274
Titel Elektrischer Isolator und Verfahren zu dessen Herstellung.
Anmelder Sediver, Société Européenne d'Isolateurs en Verre et Composite, Nanterre, FR
Erfinder Alfieri, Massimo, I-43100 Parma, IT;
Lodi, Zelindo, I-43036 Fidenza Parma, IT;
Trevisan, Gianfranco, I-43036 Fidenza Parma, IT
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 3889487
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, GR, LI, LU, NL, SE
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 15.03.1988
EP-Aktenzeichen 883022535
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 28.09.1988
EP date of grant 11.05.1994
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 16.06.1994
IPC-Hauptklasse H01B 17/14
IPC-Nebenklasse H01B 19/00   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to an electrical insulator, and to methods for preparing the same.

It is known, e.g. from Italian Patent No. 1,114,909, that in composite insulators with a ribbed covering of an organic material, the mechanical support function is entrusted to a central cylindrical component of fiberglass-refinforced resin.

Such component is generally manufactured as a solid cylindrical rod (either continuously or batchwise) by the pultrusion method, or by the method of stratification of fiberglass roving clothes, followed by a tool machining.

Another geometrical shape of the product is that of a hollow cylindrical body, obtained by the method consisting in filament winding of continuous fibers, impregnated with a thermosetting resin, with said continuous fibers being generally wound according to a helical pattern.

One of the critical points of these composite insulators turns out to be the connections, i.e. the connection with the end terminal parts destined to transmit the stresses from the insulators both towards the support elements, and towards the electrical conductors. The realization of these connections depends:

  • -- on the geometrical shape of the end of the element of fiberglass-reinforced resin;
  • -- on the geometrical shape of the metal part destined to be coupled with it;
  • -- on the method used for connecting the above said first element with the above said second element; and
  • -- on the technology used for practically accomplishing said connection.

The most common connections for composite insulators up to date used, or anyway known, are classified according to the essential geometries of the ends of the articles, and of the fastening methods. Therefore connections with cylindrical ends, with conical ends, or with ends would on a metal insert, performing the function of terminal, exist.

For the first type, the solid cylindrical rods as previously described are used.

The connection is obtained by means of a radial compression stress, according to the following methods:

  • -- plastic deformation of a cylindrical and hollow metal terminal, inside which the end of the rod is inserted, according to the technique of compression, as disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 3,898,372;
  • -- application of resin cones to the ends of the rod, and insertion inside metal terminals having opposite conicity (principle of Morse cones), as described in "IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems", Volume PAS-102, No. 9, September 1983, page 3, 123.

According to this method, the slipping of the cones on the rod is partially counteracted by adhesive forces and, mainly, by means of a pre-tensioning step, which generated strong radial stress components.

According to an alternative route, the cones of resin can be replaced by conical metal jaws.

The drawbacks of this first type of juncture are mainly due to the difficulty met in metering the radial compression stress sufficient to supply an axial component which is at least equal to the rated tensile stress of the insulator, but not so high as to endanger the strength of the end of the rod, considering that this is a permanent stress, destined to last throughout the life of the insulator.

In the second type of juncture, with the article having conical ends, said conical ends are coupled with metal terminals having an opposite conicity, generally with the insertion of a filling material (either a resin or cement) capable of transmitting the stresses, according to techniques known for a long time in the art, and tested on "cap-and-pin" insulators and "rod" insulators of ceramic and glass.

The main differences between the various solutions derive from the technologies used to form the end cones which, in any case, have as their outer surface the resin-impregnated fiberglass.

The end cones can be formed either by means of the tool-machining of a cylindrical rod, or by acting on the end of the same rod during the polymerization of the resin, with the following geometries:

  • -- tapered-end-shape (the diameter of the smallest cross-section of the cone is smaller than the diameter of the rod);
  • -- threading;
  • -- elliptical-cross-section cone obtained by "squashing" the cylindrical rod;
  • -- wedge-shaped ends, by forcibly inserting a small-angle cone into the center of the end cross seciton of the end of the cylindrical rod.

The drawbacks of this second type of couplings reside in the methodology used for forming the cones, which requires either the removal of fiberglass in case of tool machining, or the deformation thereof during the polymerization, with an unavoidable weakening, in all cases, of the juncture, which thereupon becomes the weak point of the insulator. CH-A-576690 discloses an insulator according to the preamble of claim 1. DE-A-2 046 774 discloses a fibre-glass reinforced insulator. SU-1148-050-A discloses shaping a fibre-glass air-blast circuit breaker cylinder.

The third type of connection, i.e., that type wherein the fiberglass is wound on a metal terminal provided with a shoulder, is disclosed in French Patent No. 1,390,405 and in French Patent Application No. 73/30,900, relating to line insulators.

According to these patents, an insulating tube, filled with an expanding insulating material, is inserted inside two metal terminals provided with a shoulder having a suitable shape.

The glass filament, impregnated with resin, is wound, in a helical pattern, with a suitable winding angle, both the tube and the outer surfaces of the two metal terminals being such as to permanently connect them with each other. The whole structure is then coated with a ribbed insulating material.

The main drawbacks shown by this type of connection are the following:

  • -- a larger diameter, with the strength being the same, and hence higher costs and larger overall dimensions of the external ribbed coating, in as much as both the tube and its filling do not transmit longitudinal stresses;
  • -- possibility of partial discharges, with consequent decay in insulation, due to the strong electrical gradient generated by the metal parts inserted in the article, due to the possible presence of vacuoles inside the tube filling; and
  • -- poor protection against the penetration of moisture in correspondence of, and along, the surfaces of the metal parts, which, among others, are electrically separated from each other only by the cylinder of insulating material.

The present invention also provides an electrical insulator, comprising a support structure and a covering, the insulator further comprising connections for connecting the insulator to support elements and electrical conductors, the support structure being made of fibre glass-reinforced resin, and comprising a central cylindrical portion (A) and ends (B) having the shape of solids having a surface of revolution, with axial symmetry, having diameters larger than the diameter of the central cylindrical portion (A), characterised in that the ends (B) are radiused with the central cylindrical portion (A) without discontinuity, in that said central cylindrical portion (A) and said ends (B) comprise superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments (2) impregnated with a thermosetting resin, wound around a cylindrical element (1) with a helical winding angle smaller than 90°, and in that the superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments (2) are alternated, in the vicinity of the end portions of the cylindrical element, with further layers of filaments (3) wound with a winding angle larger than the helical winding angle.

By the term "helical winding angle" as used in the disclosure and in the claims, the acute angle is understood which is formed between the projections, on the same longitudinal plane, of the wound filaments and of the longitudinal axis of the body.

In the support structure of the present invention, the ends having the shape of solids with surfaces of revolution, with axial symmetry, may be constituted by superimposed and cross layers of glass filaments alternating, in the vicinity of the end portions of the cylindrical element, with further layers of glass filaments wound with a winding angle larger than the winding angle of the helical winding.

As an alternative, said ends may consist of superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments wound around a cylindrical element constituted by a cylinder of insulating material having the end portions already shaped as solids with surfaces of revolution, with axial symmetry, with diameters larger than the diameter of said cylinder.

A method for preparing the electrical insulator of the present invention, provided with a support structure, comprises:

  • (a) winding around a cylindrical element at least one continuous glass filament, impregnated with a thermosetting resin, with a helical winding angle smaller than 90°;
  • (b) alternating and super imposing upon the helical windings, in the vicinity of the end portions of the central cylindrical body, other windings, with a winding angle larger than the winding angle of the preceding (a) stop; and
  • (c) polymerizing and curing the impregnating resin.

The ends of the support structure for electrical insulators, according to the present invention, have preferably the shape of a frustrum of a cone, and may be obtained by alternating, in correspondence to the end portions of the cylindrical element to the superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments, further layers of filaments wound with an approximately right winding angle, less and less extended in the longitudinal direction, and having their beginning more and more shifted towards the end sections, such as stepwise and gradually to increase the winding diameter.

A further method for preparing the support structure of the present invention comprises:

  • (a) winding at least one continuous glass filament, impregnated with a thermosetting resin, with a helical winding angle smaller than 90°, around a cylindrical element having its ends already shaped as solids with a surface of revolution, with axial aymmetry, with diameters larger than the diameter of said cylindrical element; and
  • (b) polymerizing and curing the impregnating resin.

The cylindrical element around which the helical winding of the continuous filament is applied, is preferably constituted by a bundle of parallel glass fibers impregnated with a resin.

This bundle, whose thickness is of a few mm, such as up to 10 mm, may be obtained by using the same filament used as the winding filament.

As an alternative, the cylindrical element may be constituted by solid cylinders of a few millimeters of diameter obtained, e.g., by pultrusion, or by hollow cylinders, to be filled with an insulating material; such cylinders may remain inserted inside the end article, provided that they have a good mechanical strength, optimum electrical qualities, physical properties similar to those of the wound article, and high enough elasticity to follow the deformations thereof.

As a second alternative, the winding may be started on rigid rods, also of a metal material, to be removed at the end of the same winding step; the so-formed hollow may then be filled with an insulating material, or it may be left empty, when the use of the structure as a bushing or hollow insulator is contemplated.

The helical winding angle is selected as a function of the stresses that the support structure of the present invention must withstand; preferred is an angle within the range of from 1 to 60°, and, more preferably, of from 5 to 30°, to endow the article with an axial tensile strength of the same order of magnitude as that of a parallel-fiber pultruded rod having the same diameter, with a strength of resistance to a radical component of the stress being at the same time obtained in the article.

Such a radial resistance is very useful in case of stresses different from pure tensile stresses, such as the stresses due to aeolian vibrations, to sudden load detachments, to unsymmetrical loads, and so forth.

The glass filament used to prepare the support structure for insulators of the present invention has a count preferably within the range of from 600 to 4,800 tex, and is preferably impregnated with cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, such as the epoxy resins based on diphenylolpropane and epichlorohydrin.

Further examples of thermosetting resins which may be used are vinyl ester resins, unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethane resins, and so forth.

Glass filament is preferred in the manufacture of the support structure of the present invention, because, besides being endowed with well-known excellent dielectric, chemical and physical properties, it gives the composite the optimum elasticity of this type of articles.

The selection of the glass filament, to prepare the support structure of the present invention, should not be considered as limitative, however, inasmuch as filaments made from other materials having properties similar to glass may be used. Examples of such materials are the aramidic polymers used, e.g., in the preparation of Kevlar fibers.

The support structure for electrical insulators of the present invention shows preferably ends in the shape of the frustrum of a cone, which are suitable for the assemblage with metal parts having opposite conicity, with the interposition of a bonding material, according to techniques known in the field of insulators, without suffering from the drawbacks due to such method of formation of the cones, as hereinabove described. In fact, the outer surface of the conical end is completely coated, with cross-wound layers, by the glass fiber, without solution of continuity, with a geometric precision and a uniform tension, is carefully impregnated with resin, and is polymerized and heat-cured in a heating apparatus, thus, avoiding interruptions in the process, forced deformations or cutting of the fibers, as encountered in other methodologies.

Another advantage displayed by the present invention relates to the ends of the article and the possibility of accurately radiusing them to the cylindrical portion, avoiding reductions in strength which are caused by sharp changes in cross section, typical of other structural solutions.

Due to the same reasons of uniformity in manufacturing, the same cylindrical portion shows not indifferent advantages as compared to the pultruded-rod solution, besides the advantage of withstanding stresses different from the already-described axial tensile stress; in pultruded rods, reductions in strength are likely to be easily found, which are due to the uneven pulling tension of the glass fibers, which are, all together, pulled parallel to the extruder. An uneven co-operation and distribution of stresses between the fibers may derive therefrom, with a consequent reduction in tensile strength.

Articles made of fiberglass-reinforced resin of the present invention may be used as such, as the mechanical support for any types of composite insulators for substations, and for overhead electrical lines, and with any adequate types of covering. They may have diameters within the range of from 10 to 800 mm, and lengths within the range of from 100 mm to 6,000 mm.

They may furthermore be used with any voltage values, even larger than 300 KV, for alternating currents or for continuous currents, for both indoor and outdoor use.

The invention will further be described, by way of example, only with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows a longitudinal sectional view, and a view thereof, of a support structure for electrical insulators according to the invention.

Referring to the drawings, the support structure comprises a cylindrical central body A and ends B.

The cylindrical central body A comprises, in its turn, a cylindrical element 1, constituted by a bundle of filaments, and superimposed and crossed layers 2 which are obtained by winding the filament according to a helical pattern around the cylindrical element 1 as described above.

The ends B, radiused to the central body without solution of continuity, comprise the cylindrical element 1, the layers 2, and further layers 3 obtained by winding the filaments at a nearly right angle in correspondence to the end portions of the cylindrical element 1.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Elektrischer Isolator mit einer Trägerstruktur und einer Hülle und mit Verbindungen, um den Isolator mit Tragelementen und mit elektrischen Leitern zu verbinden, wobei die Trägerstruktur aus glasfaserverstärktem Harz besteht und einen zentralen zylindrischen Bereich (A) sowie Enden (B) in Form von Körpern mit axialer Drehsymmetrie und mit größeren Durchmessern als dem Durchmesser des zentralen zylindrischen Bereichs (A) aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Radius der Enden (B) stetig in den des zentralen zylindrischen Bereichs (A) übergeht, daß der zentrale zylindrische Bereich (A) und die Enden (B) kreuzweise übereinanderliegende Schichten aus Glasfasern (2) aufweisen, die mit einem wärmehärtenden Harz imprägniert sind und um ein zylindrisches Element (1) mit einem Spiralwicklungswinkel kleiner als 90° gewickelt sind, und daß die kreuzweise übereinanderliegenden Schichten aus Glasfasern (2) in der Nähe der Endbereiche des zylindrischen Elements mit weiteren Glasfaserschichten (3) abwechseln, die mit einem größeren Wicklungswinkel als dem vorhergenannten Wicklungswinkel gewickelt sind.
  2. Elektrischer Isolator nach Anspruch 1, in dem die Trägerstruktur einen Durchmesser zwischen 10 und 80 mm und eine Länge zwischen 100 und 600 mm besitzt.
  3. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines elektrischen Isolators nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Herstellung einer Trägerstruktur für den Isolator folgende Verfahrensschritte enthält:
    • (a) um ein zylindrisches Element (1) wird mindestens eine kontinuierliche Glasfaser (2), die mit einem wärmehärtenden Harz imprägniert ist, mit einem spiralförmigen Wicklungswinkel kleiner als 90° herumgewickelt;
    • (b) in der Nähe der Endbereiche (B) des zylindrischen Elements werden abwechselnd und über die Spiralwicklungen weitere Wicklungen (3) mit einem größeren Wicklungswinkel als im vorhergehenden Verfahrensschritt (a) aufgebracht, und
    • (c) das imprägnierende Harz wird polymerisiert und gehärtet.
  4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Enden der Trägerstruktur vorzugsweise kegelstumpfförmig sind und dadurch erhalten werden, daß abwechselnd in Höhe der Endbereiche des zylindrischen Elements auf die übereinandergelegten und gekreuzten Schichten von Glasfasern (2) weitere Faserschichten (3) aufgebracht werden, die mit einem Wicklungswinkel von etwa 90° aufgebracht werden, in Längsrichtung immer kürzer werden und immer näher bei den Endquerschnitten beginnen, so daß der Durchmesser der Wicklung schrittweise und graduell zunimmt.
  5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3 oder 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das zylindrische Element (1) ein Bündel paralleler Glasfasern enthält, die mit einem Harz imprägniert sind.
  6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Faserbündel aus denselben Fasern wie die Wicklung besteht.
  7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3 oder 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das zylindrische Element (1) Vollstabzylinder enthält oder Hohlzylinder, die mit einem isolierenden Material gefüllt werden können.
  8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3 oder 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das zylindrische Element (1) steife Stäbe enthält, die nach dem Wickeln entfernt werden können.
  9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 3 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der spiralförmige Wicklungswinkel zwischen 1° und 60° gewählt wird.
  10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der spiralförmige Wicklungswinkel im Bereich zwischen 5° und 30° liegt.
Anspruch[en]
  1. An electrical insulator, comprising a support structure and a covering, the insulator further comprising connections for connecting the insulator to support elements and electrical conductors, the support structure being made of fibre glass-reinforced resin, and comprising a central cylindrical portion (A) and ends (B) having the shape of solids having a surface of revolution, with axial symmetry, having diameters larger than the diameter of the central cylindrical portion (A), characterised in that the ends (B) are radiused with the central cylindrical portion (A) without discontinuity, in that said central cylindrical portion (A) and said ends (B) comprise superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments (2) impregnated with a thermosetting resin, wound around a cylindrical element (1) with a helical winding angle smaller than 90°, and in that the superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments (2) are alternated, in the vicinity of the end portions of the cylindrical element, with further layers of filaments (3) wound with a winding angle larger than the helical winding angle.
  2. An electrical insulator as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the support structure has a diameter within the range from 10 to 800 mm, and a length within the range from 100 to 6,000 mm.
  3. A method for preparing an electrical insulator according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the preparing of a support structure for the insulator comprises:
    • (a) winding around a cylindrical element (1) at least one continuous glass filament (2), impregnated with a thermosetting resin, with a helical winding angle smaller than 90°;
    • (b) alternating and superimposing upon the helical winding, in the vicinity of the end portions (B) of the cylindrical element, other windings (3), with a winding angle larger than the winding angle of the preceding step (a); and
    • (c) polymerizing and curing the impregnating resin.
  4. A method as claimed in Claim 3, characterized in that the ends of the support structure have preferably a shape of the frustrum of a cone, and are obtained by alternating, in correspondence to the end portions of the cylindrical element, to the superimposed and crossed layers of glass filaments (2), further layers of filaments (3), wound with a winding angle of approximately 90°, less and less elongated in the longitudinal direction, and having their beginning more and more shifted towards the end sections, such as to stepwise and gradually increase the winding diameter.
  5. A method as claimed in Claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the cylindrical element (1) comprises a bundle of parallel glass fibres impregnated with resin.
  6. A method as claimed in Claim 5, characterized in that the fibre bundle is obtained from the same filament constituting the winding.
  7. A method as claimed in Claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the cylindrical element (1) comprises solid cylinders, or hollow cylinders adapted to be filled with an insulating material.
  8. A method as claimed in Claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the cylindrical element (1) comprises rigid rods adapted to be removed at the end of the winding step.
  9. A method as claimed in any of Claims 3 to 8, characterized in that the helical winding angle is within the range of from 1° to 60°.
  10. A method as claimed in Claim 9, characterized in that the helical winding angle is within the range of from 5° to 30°.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Isolateur électrique, comportant une structure support et une gaine, l'isolateur comportant en outre des connexions pour connecter l'isolateur aux éléments supports et conducteurs électriques, la structure support étant faite de résine armée de fibres de verre, et comportant une portion cylindrique centrale (A) et des extrémités (B) ayant la forme de solides présentant une surface de révolution, à symétrie axiale, et des diamètres supérieurs au diamètre de la portion cylindrique centrale (A), isolateur caractérisé par le fait que les extrémités (B) sont arrondies au même rayon que la portion cylindrique centrale (A), sans discontinuité, par le fait que ladite portion cylindrique centrale (A) et lesdites extrémités (B) comportent des couches, superposées et croisées, de filaments de verre (2) imprégnés d'une résine thermodurcissable, enroulées autour d'un élément cylindrique (1) avec un angle d'enroulement hélicoïdal inférieur à 90°, et par le fait que les couches, superposées et croisées, de filaments de verre (2) alternent, au voisinage des portions d'extrémité de l'élément cylindrique, avec d'autres couches de filaments (3) enroulées avec un angle d'enroulement supérieur à l'angle d'enroulement hélicoïdal.
  2. Isolateur électrique selon la revendication 1 dans lequel la structure support a un diamètre situé sur la plage allant de 10 à 800 mm et une longueur située sur la plage allant de 100 à 6000 mm.
  3. Procédé de préparation d'un isolateur électrique conforme à la revendication 1 ou 2,

       caractérisé par le fait que la préparation d'une structure support pour l'isolateur consiste à:
    • (a) enrouler, autour d'un élément cylindrique (1), au moins un filament continu de verre (2), imprégné d'une résine thermodurcissable, sous un angle d'enroulement hélicoïdal inférieur à 90°;
    • (b) au voisinage des portions d'extrémité (B) de l'élément cylindrique, faire alterner, et superposer à l'enroulement hélicoïdal, d'autres enroulements (3), d'un angle d'enroulement supérieur à l'angle d'enroulement de l'étape précédente (a); et
    • (c) polymériser et faire durcir la résine imprégnée.
  4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, caractérisé par le fait que les extrémités de la structure support ont de préférence la forme d'un tronc de cône et s'obtiennent en faisant alterner avec les couches, superposées et croisées, de filaments de verre (2) et en correspondance avec les portions d'extrémités de l'élément cylindrique, d'autres couches de filaments (3) qui s'enroulent sous un angle d'enroulement d'environ 90°, s'étendent de moins en moins selon la direction longitudinale, et ont leur début de plus en plus décalé vers les portions d'extrémité, de façon à augmenter pas à pas et graduellement le diamètre d'enroulement.
  5. Procédé selon la revendication 3 ou 4, caractérisé par le fait que l'élément cylindrique (1) est constitué d'un faisceau de fibres parallèles de verre imprégnées de résine.
  6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, caractérisé par le fait que le faisceau de fibres est obtenu à partir du même filament que celui qui constitue l'enroulement.
  7. Procédé selon la revendication 3 ou 4, caractérisé par le fait que l'élément cylindrique (1) comporte des cylindres pleins, ou des cylindres creux prévus pour être remplis d'un matériau isolant.
  8. Procédé selon la revendication 3 ou 4, caractérisé par le fait que l'élément cylindrique (1) comporte des tiges rigides prévues pour être enlevées à la fin de l'étape d'enroulement.
  9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 3 à 8, caractérisé par le fait que l'angle d'enroulement hélicoïdal se situe sur la plage allant de 1° à 60°.
  10. Procédé selon la revendication 9, caractérisé par le fait que l'angle d'enroulement hélicoïdal se situe sur la plage allant de 5° à 30°.






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