The invention concerns elastomeric films and more specifically concerns
laminates. These laminates are particularly useful in garment applications.
U.S. Patent No. 4,880,682 describes a three-layer composite material
where the central core layer is elastic and the outer skin layers are inelastic.
The film is manufactured by coextrusion, stretching the resultant film and relaxing
the stretched film. The contraction of the elastomeric core causes the skins to
separate from the core creating a rippled surface on the skins. The film after
stretching is described as reaching its fully relaxed state within about 10-15
Elastomeric films have for some time been used and discussed in the
literature with regard to their applications in disposable products, such as baby
diapers and adult incontinent devices. These elastomeric webs or films are used
primarily in the body hugging portions of garments. In diapers, for example, elastomeric
bands are typically used in the waistband portions such as discussed in U.S. Pat.
No. 4,681,580, issued to Reising et al., and Lash, U.S. Pat. No. 4,710,189. Both
these patents describe the use of elastomeric materials which have a heat stable
and a heat unstable form. The heat unstable form is created by stretching the material
when heated around its crystalline or second phase transition temperature followed
by a rapid quenching to freeze in the heat unstable extended form. The heat unstable
elastomeric film can then be applied to the, e.g., diaper and then heated to its
heat stable elastomeric form. This will then result in a desirable shirring or
gathering of the waistband of the diaper. A problem with these materials, other
than cost, is the fact that the temperature at which the material must be heated
to release the heat unstable form is an inherent and essentially unalterable property
of the material to be used. This extreme inflexibility can cause problems. First,
it is more difficult to engineer the other materials with which the waistband is
associated so that they are compatible with the temperature to which the elastomeric
member must be heated in order to release the heat unstable form. Frequently this
temperature is rather high which can potentially cause significant problems with
the adhesive used to attach the elastomeric waistband, or, e.g., the protective
back sheet or top sheet of the diaper. Further, once chosen the elastomer choice
can constrain the manufacturing process rendering it inflexible to lot variations,
market availability and costs of raw materials (particularly elastomer(s)), customer
Elastomers discussed in the above two patents, suitable for use in
diapers, include those described in more detail by Massengale et al., U.S. Pat.
3,819,401, Koch et al., U.S. Pat. 3,912,565, Cook U.S. Pat. RE 28,688 and commercial
materials, which are believed to correspond to those described in Hodgson et al.,
U.S. Pat. 4,820,590 issued to Exxon Chemical Patents Inc.
Other materials and methods have been proposed, for example Berger,
U.S. Pat. 3,694,815, proposed a method for attaching a stretched relaxed elastic
ribbon to a garment by stretching conventional elastic ribbons and immediately
freezing the elastomeric material at relatively extreme low temperatures (e.g.,
well below ambient). This process would obviously severely constrain the processing
conditions and materials which could be used when attaching the elastomeric strand
to its backing. UK Pat. Application 2190406 A proposed maintaining a conventional
elastomer in a stretched condition, while attaching to the member to be shirred
(e.g., a diaper), by a rigidifying member, which would then be removed or destroyed
following the attachment procedure. As described, the elastomers are first stretched
then applied to the rigidifying member in its stretched form. Finally, Matray
et al., UK Pat. 2,160,473 proposes an elastomer which will shrink at an elevated
temperature (e.g. at or above 175°F or 79.4°C). The allegedly novel feature of
this material, compared to the heat shrink materials discussed above, is that
it does not require preheating during the stretching operation but rather could
be stretched at ambient temperatures by a differential speed roll process or by
"cold rolling". The polymer proposed was a copolymer having alternating segments
of polyamidepolyether block polymers, commercially available under the trade name
Pebax, particularly Pebax Extrusion grades 2533 and 3533. As an alternative, this
patent application proposed placing a thin EVA(ethylene-vinyl acetate) layer(s)
over the elastomer by, e.g., coextrusion. The skin layer is chosen to prevent blocking
or to be compatible with a later applied adhesive. It was noted that this layer
can also produce a pleasing hand but so as not to interfere with heat shrinkability.
Problems with these elastomeric films include the difficulties inherent
in applying a stretched elastic member to a flexible substrate such as a disposable
diaper. Although some of the elastomers proposed have the advantage that they
can be applied at ambient conditions in a heat stretched unstable form, subsequent
often extreme heating is required to release the heat unstable form to a contracted
heat stable form. The temperature of this heat release is generally inflexible
as it is determined at the molecular level of the elastomer. As such the other
materials applied to the elastomer, and the process conditions at which the elastomer
is used, must be carefully selected to be compatible with this heating step.
Elastomers also exhibit relatively inflexible stress/strain characteristics
which cannot be chosen independently of the activation temperature. Materials
with a high modulus of elasticity are uncomfortable for the wearer. Problems with
a relatively stiff or high modulus of elasticity material can be exaggerated by
the coefficient of friction and necking of the elastomer which can cause the material
to bite or grab the wearer.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to non-tacky, microtextured, multi-layer
elastomeric laminates as claimed in the claims. The laminates of the present invention
are comprised both of an elastomeric polymeric core layer(s), which provides elastomeric
properties to the laminate and one or more polymeric skin layers which are capable
of becoming microtextured. This microtexturing increases the comfort level of
the elastomeric material which is complemented by a significant lowering of the
laminate's coefficient of friction and modulus. In preferred embodiments of the
present invention the skin layer further can function to permit controlled release
or recovery of the stretched elastomer, modify the modulus of elasticity of the
elastomeric laminate and/or stabilize the shape of the elastomeric laminate (i.e.,
by controlling further necking). The laminates can be prepared by coextrusion of
the selected polymers or by application of one or more elastomer layers onto one
or more already formed skin layer(s). Coextrusion is preferred. The novel non-tacky
microtextured laminate is obtained by stretching the laminate past the elastic
limit of the outer skin layers. The laminate then recovers, which can be instantaneous,
over an extended time period, which is skin layer controllable, or by the application
of heat, which is also skin layer controllable.
Stretching of the laminate can be uniaxial, sequentially biaxial,
or simultaneously biaxial. It has been found that the method and degree of stretch
allows significant control over the microtextured surface that results, allowing
formation of novel surfaces. The invention thus further provides various novel
surfaces and also a method for the controlled production of these surfaces.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional segment of an extruded laminate 1 of
the invention before microstructuring.
Fig. 2 is the cross-sectional segment of Fig. 1 of the laminate with
microstructuring caused by uniaxially stretching a film of the invention.
Fig. 3 is a scanning electron micrograph (200x) of a microstructured
laminate of the invention that has been uniaxially stretched.
Fig. 4 is a schematic representation of a process and apparatus used
to coextrude the laminates of the invention.
Fig. 5 is a diagram showing the stress-strain characteristics of
a laminate and its component layers.
Fig. 6 shows an electron micrograph (1000x) of a sample of the present
invention which was sequentially biaxially stretched.
Fig. 7 shows an electron micrograph (1000x) of a sample of the present
invention with a polyethylene skin which was simultaneously biaxially stretched.
Fig. 8 is a photograph of a unstretched laminate of the invention
that has been marked with ink.
Fig. 9 is a photograph of the stretched laminate of Fig. 8 marked
with the same ink.
Fig. 10 is a diagram showing the relationship between the shrink
mechanism and the core/skin ratio and stretch ratio for an uniaxially stretched
Fig. 11 (T-N) are stress/strain curves for a series of laminate films.
Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show scanning electron micrographs (100x) of
fine, medium and coarse textures, respectively, for a series of invention laminates
with the same core and skin compositions.
Figs. 15 and 16 are scanning electron micrographs (100x) of the surface
of laminates which have been sequentially biaxially stretched.
Fig. 17 is a scanning electron micrograph (100x) of a 13 layer laminate
of the invention.
Fig. 18 is a scanning electron micrograph (100x) of a simultaneously
biaxially stretched invention laminate which has a polypropylene skin.
Fig. 19 is a scanning electron micrograph (100x) of a non-textured
laminate prepared by a prior art method.
Fig. 20 is a diagram showing the relationship between the shrink
mechanism and the core/skin ratio and stretch ratio for a second uniaxially stretched
Fig. 21 is a diagram showing the relationship between the core/skin
ratio, the percent of total recovery and activation temperature.
Fig. 22 is a scanning electron micrograph (400x) of a uniaxially
stretched laminate with continuous skin core contact and no cohesive failure.
Fig. 23 is a scanning electron micrograph (1000x) of a uniaxially
stretched laminate with cohesive failure of the elastomer under the folds.
Fig. 24 is a scanning electron micrograph (400x) of a uniaxially
stretched laminate with intermittent skin/core contact.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates broadly to novel non-tacky, multi-layer
elastomeric laminates comprising at least one elastomeric layer and at least one
relatively nonelastomeric skin layer. The skin layer is stretched beyond its elastic
limit and is relaxed with the core so as to form a microstructured surface. Microstructure
means that the surface contains peak and valley irregularities or folds which
are large enough to be perceived by the unaided human eye as causing increased
opacity over the opacity of the laminate before microstructuring, and which irregularities
are small enough to be perceived as smooth or soft to human skin. Magnification
of the irregularities is required to see the details of the microstructured texture.
The elastomer can broadly include any material which is capable of
being formed into a thin film layer and exhibits elastomeric properties at ambient
conditions. Elastomeric means that the material will substantially resume its
original shape after being stretched (elongated a given percentage from a stable,
relaxed state). Further, preferably, the elastomer will sustain only small permanent
set following deformation and relaxation which set is preferably less than 20 percent
and more preferably less than 10 percent of the original length at moderate elongation,
e.g., about 400-500%. Generally, any elastomer is acceptable which is capable of
being stretched to a degree that causes relatively consistent permanent deformation
in a relatively inelastic skin layer. This can be as low as 50% elongation. Preferably,
the elastomer is capable of undergoing between 300 to 1200% elongation at room
temperature, and most preferably between 600 to 800% elongation at room temperature.
The elastomer can be both pure elastomers and blends with an elastomeric phase
or content that will still exhibit substantial elastomeric properties at room temperature.
Heat-shrinkable elastics are contemplated for use in the present
invention, however, other non-heat shrinkable elastomers can be used while retaining
the advantages of heat shrinkability with the added dimension of the possibility
of substantially controlling the heat shrink process. Non-heat shrinkable means
that the elastomer, when stretched, will substantially recover sustaining only
a small permanent set as discussed above. Therefore, the elastomeric layer can
be formed from non-heat-shrinkable polymers such as block copolymers which are
elastomeric, such as those known to those skilled in the art as A-B or A-B-A block
copolymers. Such copolymers are described, for example, in U.S. Patent Nos. 3,265,765;
3,562,356; 3,700,633; 4,116,917 and 4,156,673. Styrene/isoprene, butadiene, or
ethylene-butylene/styrene (SIS, SBS, or SEBS) block copolymers are particularly
useful. Other useful elastomeric compositions can include elastomeric polyurethanes,
ethylene copolymers such as ethylene vinyl acetates, ethylene/propylene copolymer
elastomers or ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer elastomers. Blends of these
elastomers with each other or with modifying non-elastomers are also contemplated.
For example, up to 50 weight percent, but preferably less than 30 weight percent,
of polymers can be added as stiffening aids such as polyvinylstyrenes, polystyrenes
such as poly(alpha-methyl)styrene, polyesters, epoxies, polyolefins, e.g., polyethylene
or certain ethylene/vinyl acetates, preferably those of higher molecular weight,
or coumarone-indene resin. The ability to use these types of elastomers and blends
provides the invention laminate with significant flexibility.
Viscosity reducing polymers and plasticizers can also be blended
with the elastomers such as low molecular weight polyethylene and polypropylene
polymers and copolymers, or tackifying resins such as Wingtack™, aliphatic
hydrocarbon tackifiers available from Goodyear Chemical Company. Tackifiers can
also be used to increase the adhesiveness of an elastomeric layer to a skin layer.
Examples of tackifiers include aliphatic or aromatic liquid tackifiers, polyterpene
resin tackifiers, and hydrogenated tackifying resins. Aliphatic hydrocarbon resins
Additives such as dyes, pigments, antioxidants, antistatic agents,
bonding aids, antiblocking agents, slip agents, heat stabilizers, photostabilizers,
foaming agents, glass bubbles, starch and metal salts for degradability or microfibers
can also be used in the elastomeric core layer(s).
Short fibers or microfibers can be used to reinforce the elastomeric
layer for certain applications. These fibers are well known and include polymeric
fibers, mineral wool, glass fibers, carbon fibers, silicate fibers and the like.
Further, certain particles can be used, including carbon and pigments.
Glass bubbles or foaming agents are used to lower the density of
the elastomeric layer and can be used to reduce cost by decreasing the elastomer
content required. These agents can also be used to increase the bulk of the elastomer.
Suitable glass bubbles are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 4,767,726 and 3,365,315.
Foaming agents used to generate bubbles in the elastomer include azodicarbonamides.
Fillers can also be used to some extent to reduce costs. Fillers, which can also
function as antiblocking agents, include titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate.
The skin layer can be formed of any semi-crystalline or amorphous
polymer that is less elastic than the core layer(s) and will undergo permanent
deformation at the stretch percentage that the elastomeric laminate will undergo.
Therefore, slightly elastic compounds, such as some olefinic elastomers, e.g. ethylene-propylene
elastomers or ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer elastomers or ethylenic copolymers,
e.g., ethylene vinyl acetate, can be used as skin layers, either alone or in blends.
However, the skin layer is generally a polyolefin such as polyethylene, polypropylene,
polybutylene or a polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer, but may also be wholly
or partly polyamide such as nylon, polyester such as polyethylene terephthalate,
polyvinylidene fluoride, polyacrylate such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (only in
blends) and the like, and blends thereof. The skin layer material can be influenced
by the type of elastomer selected. If the elastomeric layer is in direct contact
with the skin layer the skin layer should have sufficient adhesion to the elastomeric
core layer such that it will not readily delaminate. Skin-to-core contact has
been found to follow three modes: first, full contact between the core and microtextured
skin (Fig. 22); second, cohesive failure of the core under the microtexture folds
(Fig. 23); and third, adhesive failure of the skin to the core under the microtexture
folds with intermittent skin/core contact at the fold valleys (Fig. 24). However,
where a high modulus elastomeric layer is used with a softer polymer skin layer
attachment may be acceptable yet a microtextured surface may not form.
The skin layer is used in conjunction with an elastomeric layer and
can either be an outer layer or an inner layer (e.g., sandwiched between two elastomeric
layers). Used as either an outer or inner layer the skin layer will modify the
elastic properties of the elastomeric laminate.
Additives useful in the skin layer include, but are not limited to,
mineral oil extenders, antistatic agents, pigments, dyes, antiblocking agents,
provided in amounts less than about 15%, starch and metal salts for degradability
and stabilizers such as those described for the elastomeric core layer.
Other layers may be added between the core layer and the outer layers,
such as tie layers to improve the bonding of the layers. Tie layers can be formed
of, or compounded with, typical compounds for this use. However, any added layers
must not significantly affect the microstructuring of the skin layers.
Fig. 10, for a polypropylene/styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS)/polypropylene
laminate, indicates the possible control of the shrink recovery mechanism for
a uniaxially stretched laminate. The numbers on the X-axis are the core thickness
to skin thickness ratios, and therefore, the left hand side represents thick skin
constructions, and the right hand side represents thin skin constructions. The
Y-axis is the stretch ratio employed.
At very thick skins, there is almost no surface microstructure produced
at any stretch ratio, even with the application of heat; no shrink region J of
Fig. 10. With a core/single skin ratio of about 3 to 5 and 500% stretch, the laminate
requires applied heat to recover fully after it has been stretched; heat shrink
region K. With a ratio of from about 6 to 7, the structure recovers slowly at
ambient conditions, which can also be controlled with heat; time shrink region
L. From a ratio of about 6 on up, the laminate will essentially instantly recover;
i.e. it snaps back; instant shrink region M. For other elastomeric laminate compositions
this relationship will remain valid but the ratios which define the transition
from one relaxation zone to another will change.
Diagram 10 also shows the effect of the stretch ratio on the shrink
mechanism. Generally, increasing the stretch ratio will modify a laminate shrink
mechanism from no shrink to heat shrink to time shrink to instant shrink.
It was also noted that for most elastomeric laminates over a core/skin
ratio of about 3 to somewhat above 7, the laminate retained a relatively constant
width after it had been restretched. Specifically, if the width of the stretched
and recovered material is measured, and if the film is restretched and measured
or allowed to recover again and measured, the width remains within at least 20%
of its first measured stretch width, preferably within at least 10%. This non-necking
characteristic helps prevent the laminate from biting into the skin of a wearer
when it is used in a garment. Generally, the skin layer will hinder the elastic
force of the core layer with a counteracting resisting force. The skin will not
stretch with the elastomer after the laminate has been activated, the skin will
simply unfold into a rigid sheet. This reinforces the core, resisting or hindering
the contraction of the elastomer core including its necking tendency.
Fig. 20 shows a second shrink mechanism diagram for polypropylene/styrene-isoprene-styrene
(SIS)/polypropylene laminates prepared in accordance with those of Example 29.
As can be seen, the change in skin layer effects the shrink mechanisms yet the
general relationship between the core/skin ratio and the stretch ratio to the
shrink mechanism remains the same. Other variables will affect the above relationship
such as overall laminate thickness and the presence of tie layers. However, the
general relationship between the core/skin ratio and the stretch ratio to the relaxation
method will still be present.
A further unique feature of the present invention lies in the ability
to significantly reduce the coefficient of friction (C.O.F.) of the elastomeric
laminate. The microtexturing is the major factor contributing to this C.O.F. reduction
which, as discussed above, is controllable not only by the manner in which the
laminate is stretched but also by the degree of stretch, the overall laminate
thickness, the laminate layer composition and the core to skin ratio. The dependence
of C.O.F. on core/skin ratio is shown in Table II. As the ratio increases the
C.O.F. decreases. Thus, fine texture yields lower C.O.F. values. Preferably, the
C.O.F. of the laminate to itself will be reduced by a factor of 0.5 and most preferably
by at least a factor of 0.1 of the microtextured laminate to itself in the direction
of stretch, when a microstructured surface is formed in accordance with the invention,
as compared to the as cast laminate. This ability to reduce C.O.F. is extremely
advantageous as it contributes to a softer texture and feel for the laminate,
which is desirable for use in the medical and apparel fields.
Writability of the film is also increased by the microstructured
surface that results when the stretched film recovers. Either organic solvent or
water-based inks will tend to flow into the microstructured surface channels and
dry there. Fig. 8 shows the surface of an unstretched, untextured laminate where
the ink clearly beads up. Fig. 9 demonstrates the improvement in writability for
the laminate of Fig. 8 after stretching and recovery to create a microtextured
surface (see example 26).
The laminates of the present invention may be formed by any convenient
layer forming process such as pressing layers together, coextruding the layers
or stepwise extrusion of layers, but coextrusion is the presently preferred process.
Coextrusion per se is known and is described, for example, in U.S. Patent Nos.
3,557,265 to Chisholm et al and 3,479,425 to Leferre et al.
Fig. 1 shows a three-layer laminate construction in cross section,
where 3 is the elastomeric layer and 2 and 4 are the skin layers, which may be
the same polymer or different polymers. This three layer arrangement is preferably
formed by a coextrusion process.
One particularly advantageous coextrusion process is possible with
special multilayer, e.g. a three-layer, combining adapters made by Cloeren Co.,
Orange, Texas. Such a scheme for producing the present invention is shown schematically
in Figure 4, for a three layer adapter. AA, BB, and CC are extruders. AA', BB'
and CC' are streams of thermoplastic materials flowing into the feedblock or manifold
die. D is the 3 or more (e.g., 5-layer) layer feedblock. E is the die, F is a
heated casting roll, and G and H are rolls to facilitate take-off and roll-up of
The die and feedblock used are typically heated to facilitate polymer
flow and layer adhesion. Generally, the temperature of the die is not critical
but temperatures are generally in the range of 350 to 550°F (176.7 to 287.8°C)
with the polymers exemplified.
Whether the laminate is prepared by coating, lamination, sequential
extrusion, coextrusion or a combination thereof, the laminate formed and its layers
will preferably have substantially uniform thicknesses across the laminate. Preferably,
the layers are coextensive across the width and length of the laminate. With such
a construction the microtexturing is substantially uniform over the elastomeric
laminate surface. Laminates prepared in this manner have generally uniform elastomeric
properties with a minimum of edge effects such as curl, modulus change, fraying
and the like.
Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the common dimensions which are
variable for uniaxially stretched and recovered laminates. The general texture
is a series of regular repeating folds. These variables are the total height A-A',
the peak-to-peak distance B-B' and the peak-to-valley distance C-C'. These variables
were measured for a series of polyolefin/styrene-isoprene-styrene/polyolefin laminates.
General ranges for A-A', B-B' and C-C' were noted. For total height (A-A'), the
range measured was from 0.79 to 32 mils(0.02 to 0.81 mm). For peak-to-peak distance
(B-B'), or the fold period, the measured range was from 0.79 to 11.8 mils(0.02
to 0.30 mm). For peak-to-valley distance (C-C'), the measured range was from 0.04
to 19.7 mils(0.001 to 0.5 mm). These ranges are only exemplary of the surface
characteristics obtainable by the practice of the present invention. Laminates
of other compositions will demonstrate different microstructures and microstructure
dimensions. It is also possible to obtain dimensions outside the above ranges by
suitable selection of core/skin ratios, thicknesses, stretch ratios and layer
Fig. 3 shows a scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a polybutylene/styrene-isoprene-styrene
(SIS)/polybutylene laminate of Example 6 which has been stretched past the elastic
limit of the outer skin layers in the longitudinal direction and allowed to recover
to form a microstructured surface. The microstructured surface corresponds to
that shown schematically in Fig. 2.
The microstructured surface consists of relatively systematic irregularities
whether stretched uniaxially, as was the Fig. 3 laminate, or biaxially. These
irregularities increase the opacity and decrease the gloss of the surface layers
of the laminate, but generally do not result in cracks or openings in the surface
layer when the layer is examined under a scanning electron microscope. Biaxial
stretching will create a laminate which will stretch in a multitude of directions
and retain its soft feel, making the so stretched laminate particularly well suited
for garment use.
It has also been found that the fold period of the microstructured
surface is dependent on the core/skin ratio, as shown in Example 3. The periodicity
is also indicative of the texture of the surface as per Table II and Figs. 12-14,
which figures show fine, medium and coarse textures, respectively. This is again
another indication of the control possible by careful choice of the parameters
of the present invention.
It has also been found that the manner in which the film is stretched
effects a marked difference in the texture of the microstructured surface. When
the laminate is stretched first in one direction and then in a cross direction,
the folds formed on the first stretch become buckled folds and can appear worm-like
in character, as shown in Fig. 6, with interspersed cross folds as in Figs. 15
or 16. Fig. 6 is the laminate of Example 6, Fig. 15 is a laminate of LLDPE/SIS/LLDPE
(linear low density polyethylene) with a core/skin ratio of 15.3 and Fig. 16 is
a laminate of PP/SIS/PP with a core/skin ratio of 18 (Example 24). Other textures
are also possible to provide various folded or wrinkled variations of the basic
regular fold. When the film is stretched in both directions at the same time the
texture appears as folds with length directions that are random, as shown in Fig.
7 (a laminate prepared as per Example 19A with skin/core/skin thicknesses of 5/115/5
µm respectively) or Fig. 18 (Example 24). Using any of the above methods of stretching,
the surface structure is also dependent upon the materials used, the thickness
of the layers, the ratio of the layer thicknesses and the stretch ratio.
The degree of microtexturing of elastomeric laminates prepared in
accordance with the invention can also be described in terms of increase in skin
surface area. Where the laminate shows heavy textures the surface area will increase
significantly. This is demonstrated for linear low density polyethylene(LLDPE)/SIS/LLDPE
laminates in Table VIII, Example 16. In this example, as the stretch ratio increases
so does the percent increase in surface area, from the unstretched to the stretched
and recovered laminate; from 280 at a stretch ratio of 5, to 530 at a stretch
ratio of 12. Generally, the microtexturing will increase the surface area by at
least 50%, preferably by at least 100% and most preferably by at least 250%. The
increase in surface area directly contributes to the overall texture and feel of
the laminate surface.
Increased opacity of the skin and hence the laminate also results
from the microtexturing. Generally, the microtexturing will increase the opacity
value of a clear film to at least 20%, preferably to at least 30%. This increase
in opacity is dependent on the texturing of the laminate with coarse textures increasing
the opacity less than fine textures. The opacity increase is also reversible to
the extent that when restretched, the film will clear again.
It is also possible to have more than one elastomeric core member
with suitable skins and/or tie layer(s) in between.
With certain constructions, the microtextured skin layers may tend
to delaminate and/or the underlying elastomer may tend to degrade over time. This
tendency may particularly occur with ABA block copolymers. Residual stress created
during the stretching and recovery steps of activating the material to its elastomeric
form can accelerate this process significantly. For those constructions prone
to such degradation or delamination, a brief relaxing or annealing following activation
may be desirable. The annealing would generally be above the glass transition
point temperature (Tg) of the elastomer, above the B block Tg
for ABA block copolymers, but below the skin polymer melting point. A lower annealing
temperature is generally sufficient. The annealing will generally be for longer
than 0.1 seconds, depending on the annealing temperature. With commercial ABA block
copolymers (e.g., Kraton™ 1107) an annealing or relaxing temperature of
about 75°C is found to be sufficient.
The skin layer-to-core layer contact in the stretched and activated
film has been observed to vary depending on the skin and core compositions. With
certain preferred constructions, the core and skin remain in full contact with
the core material, filling the folds formed in the skin layers as shown in Fig.
2. This construction is extremely durable and not as subject to delamination,
particularly when annealed following activation. A variation of this continuous
contact construction is also possible where the elastomer fills the skin folds
but is observed to cohesively fail under the folds. It is believed this occurs
with thicker and/or more rigid skins that expose the underlying elastic to more
concentrated stresses during relaxation. An entirely different skin/core adhesion
mode is also possible. Namely, the core in some cases can completely retract from
the skin under the folds, but remain sufficiently attached such that the skin
does not delaminate(see Example 32, adhesive failure). This construction is not
desirable generally as during use it is more easily subject to delamination as
well as exposing the core to air which may accelerate degradation of the elastomer.
The laminate formed in accordance with the above description of the
invention will find numerous uses due to the highly desirable properties obtainable.
For example, the microtexture gives the elastomeric laminate a soft and silky
feel. The laminate can further be non-necking. This renders the elastomeric laminate
particularly well suited for a variety of commercially important uses particularly
in the garment area, where elastic webs are used in areas to engage or encircle
a body portion alone or as part of a garment. Examples of such garments include
disposable diapers, adult incontinence garments, shower caps, surgical gowns, hats
and booties, disposable pajamas, athletic wraps, clean room garments, head bands
for caps or visors or the like, ankle bands (e.g., pant cuff protectors), wrist
bands, rubber pants, wet suits and the like.
When used as rubber pants or possibly as surgical gowns, the laminate
could comprise substantially the entire garment in which case the garment itself
as a whole would engage the body.
The laminate can be extensively used in disposable diapers, for example
as a waistband, located in either the front or side portions of the diaper at waist
level, as leg elastic, as a soft outer cover sheet or in adjustable slip-on diapers,
where the elastomeric laminate could be used as, or in, side panels around the
hip that create a tight fitting garment. The laminates can be applied as continuous
or intermittent lengths by conventional methods. When applied, a particular advantage
of the laminate is the ability to use thin elastomers with high stretch ratios.
This creates a great deal of gathering or shirr when applied to the garment when
stretched, which gives the shirred portion a cushion-like feel, despite the thinness
of the elastomer.
Garments often are shirred to give a snug fit. This shirring can
be easily obtained by applying the laminate while in an unstable stretched condition
and then affecting the shirr by application of heat. The elastomeric laminate
can be adhered to the garment by ultrasonic welding, heat sealing and adhesives
by conventional methods.
The controlled relaxation obtainable by adjusting the layer ratios,
stretch ratio and direction, and layer composition makes the elastomeric laminate
of the invention well suited to high speed production processes where heat activated
recovery can be controlled easily by hot fluids such as hot air, microwaves, UV
radiation, gamma rays, friction generated heat and infrared radiation. With microwaves,
additives, such as iron whiskers, nickle powder and aluminum flakes, may be needed
to ensure softening of the skin to effect skin controlled recovery.
The counter balancing of the elastic modulus of the elastomeric layer
and the deformation resistance of the skin layer also modifies the stress-strain
characteristics of the laminate. The modulus therefore can be modified to provide
greater wearer comfort when the laminate is used in a garment. For example, a relatively
constant stress-strain curve can be achieved. This relatively constant stress-strain
curve can also be designed to exhibit a sharp increase in modulus at a predetermined
stretch percent, i.e., the point at which the skin was permanently deformed when
activated as shown in Fig. 5, line Y. Prior to activation, the laminate is relatively
rigid, line Z of Fig. 5, i.e., having a high modulus imparted due to the skin layer.
In Fig. 5, line ZZ is the skin alone and line X is the elastomeric layer alone.
The microtexturing, with the resulting ability to form enclosed or
partially enclosed spaces on the skin and the ability to form sheets of widely
varying lengths and widths, makes the microtextured laminate also useful in its
sheet form as a wipe. Further, the polymeric laminate will easily electrostatically
charge when rubbed. This ability coupled with the enclosed spaces makes sheet
laminates useful as dust wipes, or as dust mats (e.g., in a clean room). Further,
the polymer skin will often attract and store oils.
Another significant advantage with the microtextured laminate is
the ability to form laminate films or ribbons with significant aesthetic appeal.
It is highly desirable to provide ribbons or films with muted or opaque colors.
It has been found that by coloring the inner core layer the stretched and recovered
ribbon or film has novel visual appeal. The microtextured skin creates an opaquely
colored film that appears velvet-like. The opacity is believed to be due primarily
to light scattering in the microtextured skin layer. Velvet-like means that there
are color variations depending on the angle one views the laminate with an overall
soft look from the microtexturing. It is believed that this visual effect will
still remain with slight coloring of the skin layers, with the possibility of added
The following Examples are provided to illustrate presently contemplated
preferred embodiments and the best mode for practicing the invention, but are
not intended to be limiting thereof.
A five-layer laminate was prepared from two outer layers of 5.08
cm by 5.08 cm, 2000 molecular weight polystyrene and two layers of 5.08 cm by 5.08
cm of 2 mil (0.0508 mm) thick linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) film (Dow™
61800, Dow Chemical Corp., Midland, MI) and a core layer of 5.08 cm by 5.08 cm
of 125 mil (3.175 mm) thick styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) film (Kraton™1107,
available from Shell Chemical Company, Beaupre, OH) by heating at 160°C under
2000 pounds per square inch (95800 Pascal) of a flat press. The resulting film
laminate was about 5 mil (0.127 mm) thick. The polystyrene layers were a processing
aid to help form a uniform layered film. The thin brittle polystyrene layers of
the laminate were peeled away, and a clear film remained. After stretching the
clear film by hand to 500%, and allowing it to recover, a smooth and pleasing surface
was observed with the naked eye, and surprisingly, examination under a microscope
disclosed a continuous, deeply textured, microstructured surface. Since this sample
was uniaxially stretched, fine ridges were observed, oriented transversely to
the stretch direction, said ridges having a height to width ratio of about 2 to
A continuous coextrusion was carried out to prepare a three-layer
laminate with two outer skin layers of LLDPE and a core layer of SIS using polymers
as described in Example 1. Three laminates of 8.5, 4.7, and 3 mil (215, 120 and
78 µm) thickness were prepared using a Rheotec™(Rheotec Extruder Co., Verona,
NJ) extruder to feed the SIS layer from a tee union into the center of a cross
union and a Berlyn™(Berlyn Corp., Worchester, Mass) extruder was used to
feed the two LLDPE layers into the two opposite sides of the cross union and then
the three laminated layers of film were drawn from the 425°F (218°C) die in widths
of 18 inches (45.7 cm). The laminates had skin/core skin thicknesses in µm of 20/175/20,
16/90/14 and 10/60/8, respectively, determined under a light microscope. After
the film was stretched past the elastic limit of the outer skin layers, it deformed
and demonstrated a microstructured surface upon recovery. When initially uniaxially
stretched about 500%, these laminates necked down, width wise, to about 40% of
their unstretched width. Upon subsequent restretching to about 500% the films
surprisingly necked down very little as shown in Table I.
Sample % Reduction in Width Thickness upon Restretching 78 µm5.2 120 µm3.2 215 µm2.8
The films thus essentially remained constant in width after initial
stretching. Not all stretched films will show this non-necking property. The non-necking
is a property of the unique unfolding of the stretched surface layers of the present
invention, and is a function of the skin thickness and modulus, i.e., strength.
This strength must be high enough to prevent width contraction of the core layer
upon re-stretching. That is, it is a balance of skin and core forces. Very soft
or very thin skinned materials, therefore, need to be thicker for the laminate
to possess this property.
A continuous coextrusion was carried out to prepare three-layer laminates
with two outer layers of polypropylene and a core elastomeric layer of a styrene-isoprene-styrene
block copolymer. A 2 in(5.1 cm) screw diameter Berlyn™ extruder was used
to feed the elastomer layer (Kraton™ 1107, Shell Chemical Company, Beaupre,
Ohio) and a Brabender™ 1.25 inch (3.18 cm) screw diameter extruder (available
from C. W. Brabender Instruments, Inc., NJ) was used to feed the two polypropylene
(Escorene™ 3085, available from Exxon Corporation, Houston, TX) layers into
the Cloeren™ feedblock, and were extruded through a single manifold 18 inch
(46 cm) wide film die. The film was cast onto a 60°F (16°C) cast roll at 14.7 ft/min(509
cm/min) at varying total caliper as described in Table II. Films of varying outer
layer thickness were prepared.
The films were tested for relaxation by initially uniaxially stretching,
each sample by hand to just short of its breaking point, which was generally about
650%, releasing the sample, and observing any recovery. Recovery after initial
draw was then categorized as instantaneous recovery (I), slow recovery with time
(T), heat required for recovery (H) and permanent deformation (P), i.e. no significant
recovery. Results are shown in the following table.
The texture of the laminate is evaluated both visually and by touch
after recovery and classified as fine (F), medium (M), coarse (C) or smooth (no
texture discerned). The texture was also measured objectively in samples B, C
and E by the periodicity (distance between folds) of the samples. Figs. 12, 13
and 14 show scanning electron micrographs (100x) of samples B, C and E, respectively.
It is noted that as the regular folds get coarser they also appear larger and more
widely spaced. Although the large folds are more subject to having more random
peak to peak distances they are still quite regularly spaced.
The samples were also tested for necking characteristics expressed
as % change in width upon restretching of the sample. Although necking was not
significant for any of these samples, generally, as skin thickness fell and the
core-to-skin thickness ratio rose, necking increased.
Periodicity and C.O.F. are also shown for samples B, C and D which
are both inversely related to the core/skin thickness ratio. The original C.O.F.
for the samples was over 3.8, thus the microtexturing produced a significant overall
reduction of C.O.F.
A multilayer laminate was prepared by laminating cast laminates of
polypropylene/Kraton™1107/polypropylene prepared as in the previous example.
The total thickness of each cast laminate was 2.8 mil (0.062 mm). The core/skin
ratio was 12:1. The laminated laminate was formed of 6 cast laminates in a hot
press at 200°C at 95800 Pascal pressure for five minutes. The formed film was
then cooled in a 21°C water bath. The resulting laminate was 6 mil (0.15 mm) thick
and appeared like the cast film but thicker. After stretching approximately 300%
and instantaneous recovery, the film displayed a coarse microtextured skin and
microtextured inner skin layers as shown in Fig. 17.
A continuous coextrusion was carried out to prepare three-layer laminates
with two outer layers of a 70/30 by weight blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride)
(Solef™ 1012, Solvay Co., France) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (VO44, Rohm
and Haas Corp., Bristol, PA) and a core layer of Kraton™1107. A two inch
(5.1 cm) diameter Berlyn™ screw extruder at 10 RPM screw speed, was used
to feed the core layer polymer and a 2 inch (5.1 cm) diameter screw Rheotec™
extruder, at 25 RPM, was used to feed the skin layer polymer blends into a Cloeren™
feedblock and the melt laminate was extruded through a single manifold die, 18
inches (46 cm) wide (Extrusion Dies, Inc., Chippawa Falls ,WI), at 420 to 450°F
(215 to 232°C) onto a 78°F (26°C) cast roll at 17.0 or 15.3 revolutions per minute
(RPM), respectively. The film laminate thicknesses obtained were 5.5 and 6.0 mil
(0.14 and 0.15 mm) with core/skin ratios of 6:1 and 7.5:1, respectively.
Both laminates were stretched 400% and allowed to immediately recover.
In each case, a laminate with a fine glossy microtextured surface was obtained.
A continuous coextrusion was carried out to prepare two distinct
three-layer laminates with two outer layers of a 50/50 blend of two polybutylenes
resins, Shell™ 0200 and Shell™ 0400, and a core elastomeric layer
of Kraton™ 1107. A two inch (95.2 cm) diameter screw Berlyn™ extruder
was used to feed the Kraton™ 1107 at a screw speed of 10 RPM. A 1.25 inch
(3.18 cm) diameter Brabender™ screw extruder was used to feed the two polybutylene
blend layers at screw speeds of 10 and 12 RPM into a Cloeren™ feed block.
The laminates were extruded through a single manifold 18 inch (46 cm) wide film
die at 430°F (221°C) onto a 60°F (16°C) cast roll at either 8.8 or 7.6 ft/min(2.7
or 2.3 m/min), maintaining a total caliper of 0.003 inches (0.076 mm) for both
samples. This produced two films of varying outer skin thicknesses with the same
total laminate thickness. The core/skin ratios were 13:1 and 5:1, respectively.
Also, the same equipment was run at a Brabender™ extruder speed
of 35 RPM and a cast roll speed of 8.6 ft/min(2.6 m/min), all other conditions
the same as above, to give a 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) thick laminate (comparative)
with thick overall skin layers, and a core/skin ratio of 2.6:1.
The texture for each sample was noted after each laminate was stretched
by hand just short of its breaking point, about 4:1, and allowed to recover, the
first two runs instantly and the third (comparative) with heat. The textures were
classified as very fine, fine and none. This data is shown in Table III below.
Brabender™ Speed (RPM) Cast Roll Speed (cm/min.) Total Film Thickness (cm) Texture 102680.0081very fine 122320.0081fine 352620.013none
A continuous coextrusion was carried out to prepare five layer laminates
with two outer layers of linear low density polyethylene, tie layers of Elvax™
260(EVA-ethylene vinyl acetate) (available from Dupont Corporation, Wilmington,
DE) and a core elastomer layer of styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer. A two
inch (5.1 cm) screw diameter, 4D ratio Berlyn™ extruder was used to feed
the elastomer layer (Kraton™ 1107). A Rheotec™ two inch (3.18 cm) screw
diameter extruder was used to feed the two polyethylene layers, and a one inch
(2.54 cm) screw diameter 3M-made extruder was used to feed the two Elvax™
layers into a Cloeren™ feedblock.
The laminates were extruded through a single manifold 18 inch (46
cm) wide film die at 375°F (190°C) onto a 60°F (16°C) cast roll at varying total
caliper or thickness as described in Table IV. Films of varying layer thickness
were thus prepared. This example also demonstrates how casting roll speed affects
The EVA tie layers add bonding strength between the LLDPE outer layers
and the SIS core layer, resulting in a more durable laminate than such a film without
the EVA, yet does not interfere with the way the laminate behaves with respect
to surface texture. This tie layer is, of course, very thin compared to the other
PROCESSING CONDITIONS FOR SAMPLES NO. BERLYN+ RPM RHEOTEC++ RPM CASTING ROLL SPEED (RPM) NIPP ROLL SPEED (RPM) FILM THICKNESS (µm) SURFACE* TEXTURE 1" EXT.' RPM 7A3081515132.0F24 7B3081515132.0F24 7C30877272.0MF20 7D30844508.0C20 7E3081414124.0F20 7F308252571.0VF20 7G308484825.4SF20
+ Berlyn™ extruder temperature same for all samples: Zone
1=149°C, Z2=177, Z3=193, Z4=204, Z5=204, Z6=204++ Rheotec™ extruder temperature same for all samples: Zone
1=110°C, Z2=149, Z3=149, Z4=160' 1" (2.54 cm) extruder temperature same for all runs: Zone 1=143°C,
Z2=191, Z3=191* F=Fine microtexture, MF=medium fine, VF=very fine, SF=super fine,
Since the extruder conditions were close to constant for all of the
above runs, the core thickness to skin thickness ratio will be the same for all
of the above runs, approximately 13:1 as will be the core/tie layer ratio at 30:1.
Thus, it will be noted that the total film thickness column of Table IV correlates
exactly with the surface texture column. The range of values goes from a total
film thickness of 1.0 mil (25 µm) and a texture of super fine, to 20.0 mil (508
µm) and a texture of coarse, all from a stretch of 5:1 and an instantaneous recovery.
Thus, it can be seen that the thicker materials give coarser textures and that
by controlling the physical parameters, the texture can be controlled.
A three-layer LLDPE/SIS/LLDPE film was made as in the previous examples
using a Berlyn™ extruder with a screw speed of 20 RPM to feed the Kraton™
1107, and a Brabender™ extruder with a screw speed of 17 RPM to feed the
Dow Chemical 61800 linear low density polyethylene to a Cloeren™ feedblock.
The laminate was extruded through a single manifold 18 inch (46 cm) wide film die
onto a casting roll at 85°F (29°C), and a speed of 13.7 ft/min(4.18 m/min) to
give a laminate with a core/skin ratio of 15.6:1 and a total thickness of 125 µm.
The film was uniaxially stretched 4:1 and instantaneously recovered, the coefficient
of friction of the film to itself was measured for the stretched and recovered
film, and compared to the unstretched film. The data is shown in Table V. MD denotes
Machine direction and TD denotes transverse direction.
This data is indicative of the large drop in the coefficient of friction
for the stretched film compared to its unstretched precursor and is also indicative
of the unique microtextured surface of laminates of the present invention.
A three-layer laminate of the present invention was made using the
set-up of Example 8. The Berlyn™ extruder, operating at a screw speed of
10 RPM, was used to feed a polyurethane (Pellethane™ 2102-75A from Dow Chemical)
core material. The Brabender™ extruder operating at a screw speed of 7 RPM
was used to feed a blend of Amoco™(Amoco Oil Co., Chicago, IL) 3150B high
density polyethylene (HDPE) and Kraton™ 1107 in a 95:5 ratio, as the skin
material, to the Cloeren™ feedblock. The small amount of Kraton™ 1107
was added to the skin layer to increase the adhesion of the skin layer to the
core layer. The laminate was extruded through a single manifold, 18 inch (46 cm)
wide, film die onto a casting roll at a temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a speed
of 21 ft./min. (6.4 meters/minute) to give a 69 µm laminate with a core/skin ratio
of 13.7:1. The laminate exhibited a microtextured surface after stretching 600%
and instantaneous recovery.
A three-layer laminate of the present invention was made using the
set up of Example 8. The Berlyn™ extruder operating at a screw speed of 60
RPM was used to feed a triblock copolymer elastomer of styrene-butadiene-styrene
(SBS) (Kraton™1101) as a core material, and a Killion™(Killion Extruder
Co., Cedar Grove, NJ) extruder was used to feed a Dow™ 3010 LLDPE material
to a Cloeren™ three-layer die. The extrudate was cast upon a casting roll
at a temperature of 85°F (29°C) and a speed of 41 ft/min(12.5 m/min). The resulting
5 mil (0.127 mm) thick film with a core/skin ratio of 8.9:1 was easily stretched
7.5:1 and upon instantaneous recovery a fine textured laminate was formed.
A three-layer laminate, of the present invention, made using the
set up of Example 4, with the Berlyn™ extruder feeding a Kraton™ G
2703 styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer at a screw speed
of 20 RPM, and the Brabender™ extruder feeding an Exxon™ PP-3014 polypropylene
at a screw speed of 5 RPM, to a Cloeren™ feedblock. This material was then
extruded through a 18 inch (46 cm) film die onto a casting roll at a temperature
of 34°F (1.1°C). The film produced was easily stretched 600% and formed a fine
textured surface after it was allowed to recover instantaneously. The layer thicknesses
determined under a light microscope were 15/162/12 µm skin/core/skin, respectively.
This example demonstrates the use of varying skin and core materials.
In all runs, the line conditions were identical using a Cloeren™ feedblock
at 400°F (204°C). The core extruder was the Brabender™ discussed above with
temperatures in zones 1-4 of 178, 210, 210 and 216°C respectively. The die was
at 400°F (204°C) and the casting wheel at 51°F (11°C).
12A in Table VI demonstrates that elastomers can be used for the
skin when a more elastic core is used and with appropriate stretch for a 115 µm
film. 12B demonstrates the use of a polyester skin in a 120 µm film. The laminate
designated 12B, despite the relatively large core-to-skin ratio, was of a relatively
fine texture and instant shrink recovery. This is due primarily to the low modulus
of the polyester (compare to Example 3). FA-300 is available from Eastman Chem.
Co., Kingsport, TN.
Nylon 66 (Vydyne™21 of the Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO), the
condensation product of adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine, was used as the
skin in accordance with the procedure outlined in Example 8. The core was a SIS
(Kraton™ 1107) block copolymer. The nylon and Kraton™ were extruded
at 525°F (274°C) and 450°F (232°C), respectively into a 500°F (260°C) die. A 4
mil (0.1 mm) thick film was formed with a core to skin ratio of 18:1. A microtextured
surface formed after a 4:1 stretch and instant recovery.
In order to increase the tackiness of the core and lower core layer
modulus and decrease its viscosity, a solid tackifying rosin Wingtack™ (Goodyear)
was blended with Kraton™ 1107 in ratios of 10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 using the
arrangement of the previous example, in 91, 114 and 165 µm films, respectively.
The die temperature was 380°F (193°C) with the Kraton™ blend fed at a rate
of 18.5 pounds/hour (0.14 kgs./min.) and the polyethylene skin (LLDPE; Dowlex™2500,
Dow Chemical) fed at a rate of 6 pounds/hour(2.72 kgs/hr). The core-to-skin ratios
were 6.2:1. For all three Kraton™ blends, a fine microtextured surface was
obtained when a 6:1 stretch was employed and gave instant shrink recovery.
The relationship between skin thickness and percent stretch to surface
texture (measured by periodicity) was explored using a SEBS core (Kraton™
G1657) and a polypropylene skin (Exxon™3085). The Berlyn™ extruder
was used for the core, and the Rheotec™ extruder was used for the skin,
fed into a Cloeren™ feedblock. A single-layer drop die was used at 420°F
(216°C), the casting roll operated at 38.9 ft/min(11.9 m/min) and 50°F (10°C).
The results are shown in Table VII below.
As the stretch percent increased for each sample, the periodicity
decreased indicative of the finer microtexturing obtained. This shows that stretch
percent can be used to vary the surface structure of the laminate.
Further, as skin thickness increased, so did the periodicity. In
all samples, the core thickness was approximately constant at 85 µm. Skin thickness
on a constant core can thus be directly related to the surface texture obtainable.
As can be seen in the above Table IV, for relatively constant stretch % as the
skin thickness increased so did the periodicity. The thick skinned samples thus
produced coarser textures. This can, of course, be used to manipulate the skin
and hence laminate characteristics.
The sample tested was that prepared in Example 8. The stretch ratio
was varied from 2:1 to 13:1.
Stretch ratio Periodicity (µm) % Area Increase 2(random wrinkles)330412510280 687786.5390 96105.5115124530 133
As can be seen from Table VIII, the relationship between stretch
ratio and periodicity demonstrated in Example 15 holds up for this LLDPE/SIS/LLDPE
laminate. As the stretch ratio increases, the periodicity decreases first rapidly,
then slowly in a substantially exponential manner. Further, the increase in area
increases with an increase in stretch ratio.
The relationship between stretch, core/skin ratio and shrink mechanism
was demonstrated using the procedure of Example 4 and Example 15 polypropylene/Kraton™
1657 (SEBS)/polypropylene laminates. The material was stretched at the rate of
5 cm/sec and held for 15 seconds. The film was allowed to shrink for 20 seconds
and then heat shrunk in a water bath for 5 seconds at 160°F (71.1°C).
The length of the film after shrink was then compared to the length
of the film after the 20 second hold period and the length after stretch to determine
the shrink mechanism in operation. The results of this comparison is shown in
Fig. 10, and in Table IX below.
N = None, H = Heat, S = Slow time, T = Time, F = Fast time, I = Instant
Fast is when more than 15% recovery occurred at 5 seconds. Medium
time is where greater than 15% recovery occurred at 20 seconds. Slow time is where
greater than 15% recovery was not noted until 60 seconds after stretch.
Polypropylene (Exxon™3145) was added to a Kraton™ 1107
(SIS) elastomer as a modifier for the core material. The skin used was an Exxon™3014
polypropylene (PP). The cores prepared contained 5 and 10 percent Exxon™3145
polypropylene by weight. The relationship between stretch, the shrink mechanism
and texture was tested. The results are in the following Table.
Core/Skin Ratio = 6.9, 112 µm thick, 10% PP in Core % Stretch320410510590Shrink MechanismNoneNoneHeatHeatTexture--CoarseCoarseCore/Skin Ratio = 8.0, 125 µm thick, 10% PP in Core % Stretch280380480570Shrink MechanismNoneNoneHeatHeatTexture--CoarseCoarseCore/Skin Ratio = 8.8, 84 µm thick, 5% PP in Core % Stretch270320400500590 Shrink MechanismHeatHeatHeatSlow TimeFast Time TextureCoarseCoarseCoarseMedFine
As can be seen, the addition of PP to the core decreases the shrinkability
of the laminate. The polypropylene appears to reduce the elasticity of the core
thereby permitting the restraining forces of the skin to more easily dominate
the elastic strain imposed by the deformed elastic core.
The effect of adding a stiffening aid, polystyrene, to an elastomeric
core material was tested. The skin comprised a linear low density polyethylene
(Dowlex™6806). The core was a blend of SIS (Kraton™1107) and polystyrene
(500PI or 685W, both from Dow Chemical Co.). All samples were of a three-layer
construction (skin/core/skin) with a total thickness of 4.5 mil (0.11 mm) and
a core/skin ratio of 8:1. All samples were then stretched 400% and instantaneously
recovered. Tensile curves were then generated which demonstrated that the laminates
became stiffer with increasing polystyrene content (as shown in Fig. 11 (T-N),
shown also in the following Table XI).
SAMPLE # % P.S. (Type) 5% YOUNGS MODULUS 19A(T)01.13 x 10&sup6; Pascals 19B(S)10 (500 PI)2.03 x 10&sup6; Pascals 19C(R)30 (500 PI)2.88 x 10&sup6; Pascals 19D(P)40 (685 W)6.73 x 10&sup6; Pascals 19E(N)50 (685 W)18.47 x 10&sup6; Pascals
In this example, the effect of the addition of Wingtack™ tackifier
to the core elastomer was investigated. The laminate material of Example 14 was
compared to a three-layer laminate (20) comprising LLDPE/Kraton™ 1107/LLDPE.
Both samples were 4 mil (0.10 mm) in total thickness with core/skin ratios of
approximately 8:1. These materials were of the instant shrink type when stretched
from 4:1 to 13:1.
EXAMPLE 5% YOUNGS MODULUS 20 (Comp)10.69 x 10&sup6; Pascals 144.70 x 10&sup6; Pascals
As can be seen from Table XII, the use of a viscosity reducing aid/tackifier
has the opposite effect as the addition of a polystyrene stiffening aid.
A two-layer laminate of a core and one skin layer was formed of Kraton™
1107 (S.I.S.)/Exxon™ polypropylene 3014. A Berlyn™ extruder operating
at 6 RPM was used with the polypropylene and a Killion™ extruder operating
at 125 RPM was used for the Kraton™. The polymers were fed to an 18 inch
(45.7 cm) 440°F (227°C) Cleoren™ die with one manifold shut down. The resulting
film was cast on a roll at 60°C and rotating at 35.2 RPM. The laminate formed was
2 mil (0.051 mm) thick with a core/skin ratio of 2.5:1 and exhibited a coarse
microtexture when stretched 5:1 and allowed to recover instantly. Necking on subsequent
restretching was only 2.5%.
A laminate was formed having skins of different compositions. The
elastic core was Kraton™ 1107 with one polyethylene (Dow™ LLDPE 61800)
and one polypropylene (Exxon™ 3085) skin. The core was extruded with a Berlyn™
extruder while the skins were extruded with a Rheotec™ and Brabender™
extruders, respectively. The Cloeren™ die was at 350°F (177°C) and the casting
roll at 60°F (16°C). Two films were formed. For the first, the extruders operated
at 20, 8 and 26 RPMs respectively while the cast roll operated at 17.3 RPM to
form laminates with core/skin ratios of 18:1. The sample formed was instant shrink
at a 5:1 stretch, with a fine microtexture. For the second film the extruders
and cast roll operated at 10, 16, 26 and 14.2 RPMs respectively to form a laminate
with a core/skin ratio of 18:1. The second laminate was also instant shrink at
5:1 stretch yet exhibited coarse surface texture. Both laminates were 4.0 mil (0.1
The laminate of Example 16 was stretched in a first direction by
8:1 and sequentially in a cross direction by 4:1. This laminate was of the instant
shrink type. The texture formed is shown in Fig. 15.
The laminate of Example 3A was stretched in a first direction at
4:1 and sequentially in a cross direction by 4:1. This laminate was of the instant
shrink type. The texture formed is shown in Fig. 16.
The laminate of 3A was stretched simultaneously biaxially at 4:1
by 4:1. The laminate recovered instantly. The core/skin thickness of unstretched
laminate was 90/5 µm, respectively.
A three-layer laminate of polypropylene/SEBS(Kraton™1657)/polypropylene
used in Example 17 was tested for writability. The core/skin ratio was 5:1 with
a total laminate thickness of 5 mil (0.13 mm). The film was stretched to 5:1 and
allowed to recover. The writability before and after stretching is shown in Figs.
8 and 9 respectively.
A series of LLDPE/SIS/LLDPE laminates were compared for their non-necking
characteristics, as shown in Table XIII below.
# C/S RATIO STRETCH RATIO THICKNESS (µm) % WIDTH CHANGE A8.755:12152.8 B6.05:11203.2 C6.75:1785.2 D15.37:110010.0 E21.28:113233.3 FPURE SIS5:150.0 G   "7:162.5 H   "8:170.8
The first 3 examples are from Example 2, and SIS was also tested
for comparison purposes. As the C/S ratio and stretch ratios rose the problems
with necking increased.
The use of adhesive cores was demonstrated. First a copolymer of
isooctyl acrylate (IOA) and acrylic acid (AA) in monomer ratios of (90/10) was
used as a core with polypropylene (Exxon™3014) and PET (intrinsic viscosity
0.62) as the skins in the first two examples. The IOA/AA copolymer was prepared
in accordance with U.S. Patent No. 4,181,752. The core/skin ratios and total thicknesses
were 20 and 10, and 22 mil (0.56 mm) and 6 mil (0.15 mm) before lamination for
the PP and PET examples, respectively. The laminates were cured for 5 minutes
using a 15 watt UV light to cure the cores. The PP skin embodiment was an instant
shrink laminate at 500% stretch while the PET skin embodiment was a heat shrink
laminate at 400% stretch.
PET was also used as a skin layer for a Kraton™1107 (56 parts)
Wingtack Plus™ (35 parts) and Wingtack™ 10 (9 parts) core with a core/skin
ratio of 83:1 and a total thickness of 25.6 mil (0.65 mm) before lamination. This
laminate was of the instant shrink type at 400% stretch.
This example demonstrates skin controlled relaxation in the heat
shrink region and control of the heat shrink mechanism by % elongation and core/skin
ratio. A series of 5 mil(.12 mm) laminates were made with a core of Kraton™1107
(89 parts) poly(alpha-methyl)styrene (10 parts) and Irganox™ (Ciba-Geigy
Corp., Hawthorne, NY)) (1 part-antioxidant). The skins were polypropylene (Exxon™3085).
A Berlyn™ extruder was used for the core and Rheotec™ extruders for
the skin using a Cloeren™ 3 layer feedblock and a 18 inch (45.7 cm) film
die. The cast wheel temperature was 80°F(27°C) with the speed determined by the
core/skin (C/S) ratio and the skin extruder speed. The shrink mechanism as a function
of C/S ratio and % stretch is shown in Fig. 20. Fast is when more than 15% recovery
occurred at 5 seconds. Medium time is where greater than 15% recovery occurred
at 20 seconds. Slow time is where greater than 15% recovery was not noted until
60 seconds after stretch.
Skin control of the temperature of activation for the heat shrink
material is demonstrated in Fig. 21. The temperature of activation is defined as
the temperature required to achieve 50% or 90% of the recovery obtainable. Lines
V and W represent samples with core/skin ratios of 4.71 and 4.11, respectively.
As is seen, as the core/skin ratio went down the temperature of activation (both
Ta-90 and Ta-50) went up, indicating a skin controlled relaxation.
In this Figure, the 100% value is defined as the % shrinkage at 160°F(71°C), which
for most practical purposes was the upper limit of available recovery. The points
below 80°F(27°C) are the amounts of preactivation shrinkage for each example.
Three samples were also tested for the increase opacity from the
unstretched clear film as seen in Table XIV below.
CORE*/SKIN RATIO % STRETCH TEXTURE SHRINK MECHANISM OPACITY AS CAST OPACITY ACTIVATED 4.71300CH2.42%30.4% 4.97700FI2.0837.5 5.0300CH3.4035.8
The core had a 1/2% blue pigment.
A foamed core three-layer film was made. The skins were Dow™
LLDPE 6806 and the core was 99.5% Kraton™1107 with 0.5% AZNP 130 blowing
agent (Uniroyal Chemical Co., Naugatuck, Conn). Total film thickness was 20 mil(0.5
mm). The skins were 2.0 mil(0.05 mm) thick each. The foamed core specific gravity
was 0.65 as compared to unfoamed Kraton™ specific gravity of 0.92. A three
layer coextrusion die was used. This was an instant shrink sheet exhibiting a coarse
texture at about 300% stretch.
The film from Example 2 with a core/skin ratio of 6:1 was characterized
for its unstretched and stretched modulus value, the results of which are shown
in Fig. 5; X is the Kraton™ 1107 elastomer alone, ZZ is the polyethylene
skin alone, Z is the laminate as cast and Y is the laminate after stretching to
500% and recovery.
The film laminate of certain examples were examined to determined
the contact mechanism between the skin and core layers. The stretched and activated
samples were cut with a razor blade on a hard surface. The samples were then examined
at the cut edges with a scanning electron microscope. The core/skin contact was
then determined visually with the results summarized in Table XV below.
New sample A corresponds to Example 29. Sample A had approximately
the caliper of the Example 29 samples with a core/skin ratio of 5.1 and was a heat
shrink laminate. Example 12C corresponds to the scanning electron micrograph designated
Fig. 24. Example 32A is shown in Fig. 22. Example 6 corresponds to Fig. 23. Examples
7, 12A and 12C are comparative examples.
A sample having the layer composition of Example 29 (with 1% blue
pigment in the core) was formed with an overall caliper of 3.0 mils (0.076 mm)
and a core/skin ratio of 5.14. The film was cast onto a chrome casting wheel with
a rubber nip. The 60° gloss was measured using ASTM D2457-70 using a Gardner Instruments
(Bethesda, MD) 60° gloss tester. The results are summarized in Table XVI below
for the as cast and three microtextured films (with different stretch rates).
A three-layer film of Dow™ LLDPE 2517 (Polyethylene)/Pebax™(
Autochem, France) 3533/LLDPE 2417 was made. PEBAX™ 3533 is a polyamidepolyether
block copolymer. The film was formed by pressing three precursor films together
at 400°F (204°C) and about 2000 pounds of pressure (95800 Pascal) for 5 minutes.
The film formed was 5 mil (0.13 mm) thick with a core/skin ratio of 12.7. The
laminate was stretched 400% (from 1 to 5 cm). The stretched laminate then contracted
to 3.2 cm (36% of stretched length) at room temperature. The relaxed laminate
was then heat shrunk by 180°F (82°C) air and it contracted to 1.5 cm (53% of relaxed
length). An edge of the sample was then cut and observed for microtexturing.
No folds were observed at 1000x magnification. Microscopic bumps,
probably formed by recompression of the cover layer, and skin delamination was
observed, see Fig. 19. The C.O.F. and opacity for the cast laminate was 0.901
and 2.77% while that for the relaxed activated laminate was 0.831 and 12.4%, respectively.
Elastomerer Schichtstoff, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Schichtstoff mindestens
eine mikrotexturierte elastomere Schicht und mindestens eine mikrotexturierte Außenhaut
in durchgehendem Kontakt mit der mikrotexturierten elastomeren Schicht über im
wesentlichen den gesamten Schichtstoff aufweist, wobei die Mikrotextur gebildet
wird durch Verstrecken des nichttexturierten Schichtstoffes über die Elastizitätsgrenze
der Außenhaut hinaus und Rückbildenlassen des so verstreckten Schichtstoffes.
Elastomerer Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das wärmeaktivierte
Rückbilden bei einer Aktivierungstemperatur von mindestens 26,7 °C erfolgt und
der Schichtstoff sich mindestens um 50 Prozent des 20 Sekunden nach dem Verstrecken
erreichbaren gesamten Rückbildungsvermögens rückbildet.
Elastomerer Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der verstreckte
Schichtstoff sich nach mindestens 20 Sekunden um 15 Prozent rückbildet.
Farbiges Elastomerband, gebildet aus dem elastomeren Schichtstoff nach Anspruch
1, ferner dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß mindestens eine Außenhaut eine mikrotexturierte
Außenschicht ist und mindestens eine andere Schicht als die Außenhaut farbig ist.
Farbiges Elastomerband nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die farbige
Schicht eine elastomere Kernschicht ist.
Flächiger Schichtstoff, gebildet aus dem elastomeren Schichtstoff nach Anspruch
1, umfassend ein Flächengebilde mit umschlossenen oder teilweise umschlossenen
Hohlräumen zum Einschließen von Staub oder Öl.
Flächiger Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 6, umfassend ein Wischtuch.
Flächiger Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 6, umfassend eine Staubmatte.
Elastomerer Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 4 oder 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß
der Schichtstoff multiaxial verstreckt ist.
Elastomerer Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Schichtstoffbreite
um weniger als 20 Prozent abnimmt, wenn bis zum Maß der bleibenden Verformung
von mindestens einer zuvor verformten Außenhaut erneut verstreckt wird.
Elastomerer Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß Oberfläche
der mikrotexturierten Außenhaut um mindestens 50 Prozent größer ist als eine nichttexturierte
Elastomerer Schichtstoff nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der elastomere
Kern ein A-B-A-Blockcopolymer umfaßt.
An elastomeric laminate characterized in that the laminate comprises at least
one microtextured elastomeric layer and at least one microtextured skin layer
in continuous contact with the microtextured elastomeric layer over substantially
the entire laminate wherein the microtexture is formed by stretching the untextured
laminate past the skin's elastic limit and allowing the so-stretched laminate
The elastomeric laminate of claim 1 characterized in that the heat activated
recovery is at an activation temperature of at least 26.7°C and where the laminate
will recover by at least 50% of the total recovery available 20 seconds after stretching.
The elastomeric laminate of claim 1 characterized in that the stretched laminate
recovers by 15% after at least 20 seconds.
A colored elastomeric ribbon formed from the elastomeric laminate of claim
1 further characterized in that said at least one skin layer is a microtextured
outer layer, and at least one layer other than said skin layer is colored.
The colored elastomeric ribbon of claim 4 characterized in that the colored
layer is an elastomeric core layer.
A sheet laminate formed from the laminate of claim 1 characterized in that
the laminate comprises a sheet with enclosed or partially enclosed spaces for
entrapping dust or oil.
The sheet laminate of claim 6 characterized in that the laminate comprises
a wipe cloth.
The sheet laminate of claim 6 characterized in that the laminate comprises
a dust mat.
The elastomeric laminate of claims 4 or 6 characterized in that the laminate
is multiaxially stretched.
The elastomeric laminate of claim 1 characterized in that the laminate width
decreases by less than 20% when restretched to the extent of permanent deformation
of at least one previously deformed skin layer.
The elastomeric laminate of claim 1 characterized in that the surface area
of the microtextured skin layer is at least 50% greater than an untextured surface.
The elastomeric laminate of claim 1 characterized in that the elastomeric core
comprises an A-B-A block copolymer.
Stratifié élastomère, caractérisé en ce que le stratifié comprend au moins
une couche élastomère microtexturée et au moins une couche pelliculaire microtexturée
en contact continu avec la couche élastomère microtexturée sur pratiquement le
stratifié entier, dans lequel la microtexture est formée en étirant le stratifié
non texturé au-delà de la limite élastique de la pellicule et en laissant le stratifié
ainsi étiré récupérer.
Stratifié élastomère suivant la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la récupération
activée à la chaleur est à une température d'activation d'au moins 26,7°C et en
ce que le stratifié récupérera au moins 50 % de la récupération totale disponible
20 secondes après l'étirage.
Stratifié élastomère suivant la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le stratifié
étiré récupère 15 % après au moins 20 secondes.
Ruban élastomère coloré formé du stratifié élastomère de la revendication 1,
caractérisé de plus en ce qu'au moins la couche pelliculaire précitée est une
couche extérieure microtexturée et au moins une couche différente de la couche
pelliculaire est colorée.
Ruban élastomère coloré suivant la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce que la
couche colorée est une couche formant noyau élastomère.
Stratifié en feuille formé à partir du stratifié de la revendication 1, caractérisé
en ce que le stratifié comprend une feuille avec des espaces fermés ou partiellement
fermés pour retenir de la poussière ou de l'huile.
Stratifié en feuille suivant la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce que le stratifié
comprend un tissu d'essuyage.
Stratifié en feuille suivant la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce que le stratifié
comprend une natte à poussière.
Stratifié élastomère suivant l'une ou l'autre des revendications 4 et 6, caractérisé
en ce que le stratifié est étiré multiaxialement.
Stratifié élastomère suivant la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la largeur
du stratifié diminue de moins de 20 % lorsque réétirée dans la mesure d'une déformation
permanente d'au moins une couche pelliculaire déformée préalablement.
Stratifié élastomère suivant la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'aire
superficielle de la couche pelliculaire microtexturée est d'au moins 50 % supérieure
à celle d'une surface non texturée.
Stratifié élastomère suivant la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le noyau
élastomère comprend un copolymère bloc A-B-A.