PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0366491 05.10.1995
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0366491
Titel Flüssige Entwickler für Elektrophotographie.
Anmelder Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., Minami-ashigara, Kanagawa, JP
Erfinder Kato, Eiichi Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., Haibara-gun Shizuoka, JP;
Ishii, Kazuo Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., Haibara-gun Shizuoka, JP
Vertreter Barz, P., Dipl.-Chem. Dr.rer.nat., Pat.-Anw., 80803 München
DE-Aktenzeichen 68924039
Vertragsstaaten DE, GB
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 27.10.1989
EP-Aktenzeichen 893111286
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 02.05.1990
EP date of grant 30.08.1995
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 05.10.1995
IPC-Hauptklasse G03G 9/13

Beschreibung[en]
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This present invention relates to liquid developers for electrophotography wherein a resin at least is dispersed in a liquid carrier whose electrical resistance is 10&sup9; Ω cm or above and whose dielectric constant is not more than 3.5 and, more precisely, it relates to liquid developers which have excellent redispersion properties, storage properties, stability, image reproduction properties and fixing properties.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In general, liquid developers for electrophotographic purposes are obtained by dispersing organic or inorganic pigments or dyes, such as carbon black, nigrosine or phthalocyanine blue, for example, and natural or synthetic resins, such as an alkyd resins, acrylic resins, rosin or synthetic rubbers for example, in a liquid which has good electrically insulating properties and a low dielectric constant, such as a petroleum based aliphatic hydrocarbon, and adding polarity controlling agents such as metal soaps, lecithin, linseed oil, higher fatty acids or polymers which contain vinylpyrrolidone for examples.

In developers of this type, the resin is dispersed in the form of insoluble latex particles with a particle diameter from a few nm to a few hundred nm. However, in a conventional liquid developer the bonding between the soluble resin, which is used for dispersion stabilization purposes or the polarity controlling agents and the insoluble latex particles is imperfect. As a result the soluble resins for dispersion stabilization purposes or the polarity controlling agents readily diffuses into the solvent. Consequently, the soluble resins for dispersion stabilization purposes become separated from the insoluble latex particles. On long term storage or repeated use, the particles may sediment, coagulate or lump together. Thus, and the polarity becomes indistinct. Furthermore, it is difficult to redisperse particles once they have been sedimented or formed into lumps and so they tend to become attached to certain parts of the developing apparatus and they may cause contaminate the image parts or cause a breakdown of the developing machine by blocking pumps for example.

It has been suggested that the insoluble latex particles should be chemically bound to the soluble resin for dispersion stabilization purposes in an attempt to eliminate these disadvantages, and disclosures to this effect have been made, for example, in U.S. Patent 3,990,980. However, although such liquid developers are somewhat better in terms of their dispersion stability with respect to the natural sedimentation of the particles, this effect is not sufficient. The redispersion stability still is unsatisfactory. Moreover, when these developers are used in actual developing apparatus there is a problem in that the toner which becomes attached to various parts of the apparatus solidifies in a film like form from which redispersion is difficult. This can be lead to a breakdown of the apparatus and contamination of the transferred images for example. Furthermore, the combinations of dispersion stabilizers and insolubilized monomers which can be used to prepare mono-disperse particles with a narrow particle size distribution is very limited in the methods of manufacture of resin particles disclosed in the above mentioned documents. They tend to be poly-disperse particles which have a wide particle size distribution including large numbers of large, coarse particles or in which two or more average particle sizes are present. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain particles of the prescribed average particle size in a mono-dispersion which has a narrow particle size distribution, and large particles of at least 1 µm, or very fine particles of less than 0.1 µm, are formed. Moreover, there is a further problem in that the dispersion stabilizers which are used must be prepared using a complicated and time consuming process.

Additionally, methods of overcoming the above mentioned problems in which the degree of dispersion of the particles, the redispersion properties and the storage properties are improved by using insoluble dispersed resin particles consisting of copolymers of insolubilized monomers and monomers which contain long chain alkyl groups or monomers which contain two or more polar components are disclosed, for example, in JP-A-60-179751 and JP-A-62-151868. (The term "JP-A" as used herein signifies an "unexamined published Japanese patent application").

On the other hand, techniques in which more than 5000 copies are printed using offset printing master plates obtained using electrophotographic techniques have been introduced in recent years. In particular, progress has been made in improving the master plates so that it is now possible to print in excess of 10,000 copies even with large plate sizes. Furthermore, progress has been made in shortening the operating time of the electrophotographic plate making system where improvements have been actuated in speeding up of the development/fixing processes. US-A-4665002 discloses a liquid electrophotographic developer comprising a resin disposed in a liquid carrier which has an electric resistance of about 10&sup9; Ω.cm or more and a dielectric constant of about 3.5 or less, wherein the resin is prepared by polymerizing a monomer (A) which is soluble in the liquid carrier but becomes insoluble on polymerization and at least one monomer (B) in the presence of at least one dispersion stabilizing resin soluble in the liquid carrier.

The dispersed resin particles manufactured using the procedures disclosed in the aforementioned JP-A-60-179751 and JP-A-62-151868 do not always provide satisfactory performance in terms of particle dispersion properties and redispersion properties when development speeds are increased and in terms of printing resistance when the fixing time is shortened or when the master plate is large (for example A3 size or greater).

The problems encountered with conventional liquid developers of the type described above are resolved by this invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

As a result of studies relating to the above mentioned problems, the present inventors have achieved a liquid developer appropriate for use in a variety of electrophotographic applications and copying applications, and moreover, which be used in systems in which liquid developers are used for ink jet recording, cathode ray tube recording and for recordings made, for example, when changes in pressure occur, or, when electrostatic variations occur.

In accordance with the present invention there is provided an electrophographic liquid developer comprising a carrier liquid being a non-aqueous solvent having an electrical resistance of at least 10&sup9; Ω cm and a dielectric constant of not more than 3.5, dispersed resin particles being obtained by co-polymerization in a non aqueous solvent, of a monofunctional monomer (A) which is soluble in the non-aqueous solvent but which is rendered insoluble by polymerization and a monomer (B) in the presence of a dispersion stabilization resin which is soluble in the non-aqueous solvent, characterised in that monomer (B) is a monofunctional macromonomer having a number average molecular weight in the range of to 10³ to 10&sup4; and is obtained by bonding a polymerizable double bond group represented by the general formula (III) below;

   wherein, T&min; represents -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O-, -SO&sub2;-,

R&sub2; represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms;

   d¹ and d², which may be the same or different, each represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a cyano group, a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, a -COO-R&sub3; group or a -COO-R&sub3; group which is linked via a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and R&sub3; represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms;

   to only one end of the main chain of a polymer comprising repeating units represented by the general formula (II) below;

   wherein, T has the same meaning as T&min; in general formula (III);

   R&sub1; represents a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 22 carbon atoms: b¹ and b², which may be the same or different, each has the same meaning as d¹ and d² in general formula (III);

   and in that the resin for dispersion stabilization purposes is a resin obtained by bonding an acid group selected from the group

   consisting of -PO&sub3;H&sub2;, -SO&sub3;H, -COOH, -OH, -SH and

to just one end of at least the polymer main chain of a polymer which has a repeated unit represented by the general formula (I) below;

   wherein, X¹ represents -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O- or -SO&sub2;-;

   Y¹ represents an aliphatic group which has from 6 to 32 carbon atoms; and

   a¹ and a² may be the same or different, each representing a hydrogen atom, halogen atom, cyano group, hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, -COO-Z¹ or a -COO-Z¹ group which is linked via a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms (where Z¹ represents a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 22 carbon atoms); and of which a part of the polymer chain is crosslinked and

Detailed Description of the Invention

The liquid developers of this present invention are described in detail below.

The use of linear chain or branched aliphatic hydrocarbons, alicyclic hydrocarbons or aromatic hydrocarbons, and halogen substituted derivatives thereof, is preferred for the carrier liquid of which the electrical resistance is at least 10&sup9; Ω cm and of which the dielectric constant is not more than 3.5 which is used in the invention. For example, octane, iso-octane, decane, iso-decane, decalin, nonane, dodecane, iso-dodecane, cyclohexane, cyclo-octane, cyclodecane, benzene, toluene, xylene, mesitylene, "Isopar E", "Isopar G", "Isopar H", "Isopar L", ("Isopar" is a trade name of the Exxon Co.), "Shellsol 70", "Shellsol 71", ("Shellsol" is a trade name of the Shell Oil Co.), "Amsco OMS", and "Amsco 460" solvent ("Amsco" is a trade name of the spirits Co.) can be used individually or in the form of mixtures for this purpose.

The non-aqueous dispersions of resin particles (referred to hereinafter as "latex particles") which are a most important component in the present invention are prepared in a non-aqueous solvent by the copolymerization (a so-called polymerization particle forming method) of the afore-mentioned monofunctional monomer (A) and monofunctional macromonomer (B) in the presence of the afore-mentioned resin for dispersion stabilization purposes which has an acid group selected

from -PO&sub3;H&sub2;, -SO&sub3;H, -COOH, -OH, -SH and

where R° represents a hydrocarbyl group, bound to just one end of at least the main chain of a polymer which has repeating unit which can be represented by the aforementioned general formula [I] and of which a part of the polymer chain is crosslinked.

Here, any non-aqueous solvent can be used provided that it is basically miscible with the carrier liquid of the aforementioned liquid developer for electrophotographic purposes.

That is to say, the solvents which can be used when preparing the dispersed resin particles should be miscible with the aforementioned carrier liquids, and the use of linear chain or branched aliphatic hydrocarbons, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and halogen substituted derivatives thereof is preferred. For example, solvents such as hexane, octane, iso-octane, decane, iso-decane, decalin, nonane, dodecane, iso-dodecane, "Isopar E", "Isopar G", "Isopar H", "Isopar L", "Shellsol 70", "Shellsol 71", "Amsco OMS" and "Amsco 460" can be used individually or in the form of mixtures for this purpose.

Solvents which can be used as mixtures with these organic solvents include alcohols (for example, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, fluorinated alcohol), ketones (for example, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone), carboxylic acid esters (for example, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate), ethers (for example, diethyl ether, dipropyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane), and halogenated hydrocarbons (for example, methylene dichloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dichloroethane and methylchloroform).

These non-aqueous solvents which are used in admixture are preferably distilled off by heating or by reducing the pressure after the particles have been formed by polymerization, but they may be included in the latex particle dispersion for the liquid developer without causing problems provided that the requirement of a developer liquid resistance of at least 10&sup9; Ω cm is satisfied.

The use during the preparation of the resin dispersion of the same solvent as that used for the carrier liquid is normally preferred and, as mentioned earlier, it is possible to use linear or branched chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons, for example, for this purpose.

The resin for dispersion stabilization purposes in this invention which is used to form the solvent insoluble copolymer obtained by copolymerizing monomer (A) and macromonomer (B) into a stable resin dispersion is a polymer which is soluble in the non-aqueous solvent in which an acid group selected from -PO&sub3;H&sub2;, -SO&sub3;H, -COOH, -OH, -SH and

where R° represents a hydrocarbyl group is bonded to just one end of at least the main chain of a polymer comprising repeating units represented by the afore-mentioned general formula (I) and in which part of the polymer chain is crosslinked.

The repeating unit represented by general formula (I) is described in more detail below.

The aliphatic groups and hydrocarbyl groups in the repeating units represented by general formula (I) may be substituted.

In general formula (I), X¹ represents -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO- or -O- and, most preferably, X¹ represents -COO-, -CH&sub2;COO- or -O-.

Y¹ preferably represents an aralkyl group, alkenyl group or alkyl group which has from 8 to 22 carbon atoms and which may be substituted. Examples of substituent groups include halogen atoms (for example, fluorine, chlorine, bromine), -O-Z², -COO-Z², and -OCO-Z² (where z² represents an alkyl group which has from 6 to 22 carbon atoms, for example, hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl). Most preferably Y¹ represents an alkenyl group or an alkyl group which has from 8 to 22 carbon atoms, for example, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, docosanyl, octenyl, decenyl, dodecenyl, tetradecenyl hexadecenyl or octadecenyl.

Moreover, a¹ and a² may be the same or different, and they preferably represent hydrogen atoms, halogen atoms (for example, fluorine, chlorine, bromine), cyano groups, alkyl groups which have from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, -COO-Z¹ groups or -CH&sub2;COO-Z¹ groups (where Z¹ preferably represents an aliphatic group which has from 1 to 22 carbon atoms, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, docosenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, heptenyl, octenyl, decenyl, dodecenyl, tetradecenyl, hexadecenyl, octadecenyl, and these aliphatic groups may have the same substituent groups as the aforementioned Y¹ group). More preferably, a¹ and a² each represent a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group which has from 1 to 3 carbon atoms (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl), a -COO-Z³ group or a -CH&sub2;COO-Z³ group (where Z³ more preferably represents an alkenyl group or an alkyl group which has from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, heptenyl, octenyl or decenyl, and these alkyl and alkenyl groups may have the same substituent groups as the afore-mentioned Y¹ group).

The resin for dispersion stabilization purposes of this invention which is used to form the solvent insoluble copolymer formed by copolymerizing monomer (A) and macromonomer (B) into a stable dispersion is a resin which does not contain graft groups which is polymerized with monomer (A) and macromonomer (B), being a polymer which has at least one repeating unit represented by the general formula (I) and in which parts are crosslinked, and in which at least one acid group selected from a carboxyl group, a sulfo group, a phosphono group, a hydroxyl group, a mercapto group and a

group [where R° is preferably a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms {more preferably an aliphatic group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, which may have a substituent (such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl, 2-chloroethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, butenyl, pentenyl, hexenyl, benzyl, phenethyl, bromobenzyl, methoxybenzyl, chlorobenzyl, methylbenzyl, cyclopentyl, cylcohexyl), or an aryl group having 6 to 10 carbon atoms, which may have a substituent (such as phenyl, tolyl, xylyl, chlorophenyl, bromophenyl, methoxyphenyl, ethylphenyl, methoxycarbonylphenyl)}] is bonded to just one end of at least the polymer main chain. Here, the acid group may have a chemical structure such that it is bound directly or via an optional linking group to one end of the polymer main chain.

These linking groups can have a structure comprising any combination of atomic groups including carbon - carbon bonds (single or double bonds), carbon - hetero atom bonds (where the hetero atom is oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen or silicon, for example), and hetero atom - hetero atom bonds. For example, the linking group may be a single linking group selected from a

group [where Z&sup4; and Z&sup5; represent hydrogen atoms, halogen atoms (for example, fluorine, chlorine, bromine), cyano groups, hydroxyl groups, alkyl groups (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl)], &lparstr;CH=CH&rparstr;,

-O-, -S-,

-COO-, -SO&sub2;-,

-NHCOO-, -NHCONH- or

[where Z&sup6; and Z&sup7; each represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group which has the same meaning as Z¹ in the afore-mentioned general formula (I), or any combination of these groups.

The polymer components of the resins for dispersion stabilization purposes of this present invention are polymers which contain a homopolymer component or a copolymer component of repeating units selected from those represented by the general formula (I), or a copolymer component obtained by polymerizing monomers corresponding to repeating units represented by general formula (I) and other polymerizable monomers, and in which parts are crosslinked. Conventional well known methods can be used for introducing the crosslinked structure into the polymer. Thus, methods in which the polymerization of the monomer is carried out in presence of a polyfunctional monomer and methods in which functional groups, with which a crosslinking reaction can be achieved, are included in the polymer and crosslinking is carried out in the polymerization reaction are used therefor.

From the point of view of simplicity of the manufacturing procedure e.g., preventing from taking long reaction time, incorporation of impurities, e.g., due to use of reaction accelerators, non-quantitative procedures, etc, crosslinking reactions by polymerization or using the functional groups -CONHCH&sub2;OZ&sup8; (where Z&sup8; represents a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group) which give rise to self-crosslinking reactions are effective for the dispersion stabilization resin of the invention.

Methods in which crosslinks are formed between the polymer chains by polymerizing monomers which have two or more polymerizable functional groups together with monomers corresponding to the repeating units represented by the aforementioned formula (I) are preferred. Specific examples of polymerizable functional groups include CH&sub2;=CH-, CH&sub2;=CH-CH&sub2;-,

CH&sub2;=CH-CONH-,

CH&sub2;=CH-NHCO-, CH&sub2;=CH-CH&sub2;-NHCO-, CH&sub2;=CH-SO&sub2;-, CH&sub2;=CH-CO-, CH&sub2;=CH-O- and CH&sub2;=CH-S-. The monomers which have two or more of the above mentioned polymerizable functional groups may be monomers which have two or more of the same polymerizable functional group or monomers which have two or more different polymerizable functional groups.

Specific examples of monomers which have two or more polymerizable functional groups include, as monomers in which the functional groups are the same, styrene derivatives such as divinylbenzene and trivinylbenzene, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid or crotonic acid esters, vinyl esters, or allyl esters, of polyhydric alcohols (for example, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol #200, #400, #600, 1,3-butylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, dipropylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, trimethylolethane, pentaerythritol) or polyhydroxyphenols (for example, hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, and derivatives thereof), vinyl esters or allyl esters, or vinylamides or allyl amides, of dibasic acids (for example, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, maleic acid, phthalic acid, itaconic acid), and condensates of polyamines (for example, ethylenediamine, 1,3-propylenediamine, 1,4-butylenediamine) and carboxylic acids which contain vinyl groups (for example, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, crotonic acid, allylacetic acid).

Furthermore, examples of monomers which have different polymerizable functional groups include vinyl-group-containing ester and amide derivatives derived from carboxylic acids which contain vinyl groups [for example, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, methacryloylacetic acid, acryloylacetic acid, methacryloylpropionic acid, acryloylpropionic acid, itaconyloylacetic acid, itaconylpropionic acid and the reaction products of alcohols or amines with carboxylic acid anhydrides (for example, allyloxycarbonylpropionic acid, allyloxycarbonylacetic acid, 2-allyloxycarbonylbenzoic acid, allylaminocarbonylpropionic acid)], (for example, vinyl methacrylate, vinyl acrylate, vinyl itaconate, allyl methacrylate, allyl acrylate, allyl itaconate, vinyl methacryloylacetate, vinyl methacryloylpropionate, allylmethacryloylpropionate, vinyloxycarbonylmethyl methacrylate, vinyloxycarbonylmethyloxycarbonylethylene acrylate, N-allylacrylamide, N-allylmethacrylamide, N-allylitaconic acid amide, methacryloylpropionic acid allyl amide), and vinyl-group-containing ester derivatives or amide derivatives which are derived from condensates of carboxylic acids which contain vinyl groups with aminoalcohols (for example, aminoethanol, 1-aminopropanol, 1-aminobutanol, 1-aminohexanol, 2-aminobutanol).

Monomers which have two or more polymerizable functional groups which are used in the invention are used at a rate of not more than 15 wt%, and preferably at a rate of not more than 10 wt%, with respect to the total weight of monomer to form the resins for dispersion stabilization purposes which are soluble in non-aqueous solvents of this present invention.

Furthermore, the resins for dispersion stabilization purposes of the present invention which have a specified acidic group bonded to just one end of at least one polymer main chain can be prepared easily using methods of synthesis such as those in which various reagents are reacted with the ends of living polymers obtained using conventional anionic or cationic polymerization (ionic polymerization methods), those in which radical polymerization is carried out using polymerization initiators and/or chain transfer reagents which contain the specified acid groups within the molecule (radical polymerization methods) and those in which polymers which contain reactive terminal groups obtained by ionic polymerization or radical polymerization methods as described above are converted to polymers which contain the specified acid groups by means of a polymer reaction.

Specific examples of preparation methods include those disclosed in P. Dreyfuss and R.P. Quirk, Encycl. Polym. Sci. Eng., 7, 551 (1987), Nakajo and Yamashita, Senryo to Yakuhin, 30, 232 (1985), and Ueda and Nagai, Kagaku to Kogyo, 60, 57 (1986) and in the literature cited therein.

The weight average molecular weight of the resins for dispersion stabilization purposes of this present invention is preferably from 1 × 10&sup4; to 6 × 10&sup5;, and most preferably from 2 × 10&sup4; to 3 × 10&sup5;. With a weight average molecular weight of less than 1 × 10&sup4;, the average particle size of the resin grains obtained on forming particles by polymerization increases (for example, exceeding 0.5 µm), and the grain size distribution is widened. Furthermore, when the weight average molecular weight exceeds 6 × 10&sup5; the average particle size of the resin particles obtained by polymerization increases and it is difficult to provide an average particle size within the preferred range of from 0.15 to 0.4 µm.

The resin polymers for dispersion stabilization purposes which are used in this present invention can be prepared using various methods. For example, they can be prepared using (1) methods in which mixtures comprised of monomers which correspond to the repeating unit represented by the general formula (I), the above mentioned polyfunctional monomers and chain transfer agents which contain the acid groups are polymerized with a polymerization initiator (for example an azobis compound or a peroxide), (2) methods in which polymerization is carried out without the use of the above mentioned chain transfer agents using polymerization initiators which contain the acidic groups, (3) methods in which compounds which contain the acidic groups are used both as chain transfer agents and polymerization initiators, and (4) methods in which, in the three methods aforementioned, a compound which contains an amino group, a halogen atom, an epoxy group or an acid halide group, for example, as a substituent of a chain transfer agent or a polymerization initiator is used and, after polymerization, the acid groups are introduced by reaction using the functional groups in a polymer reaction.

Chain transfer agents which can be used include mercapto compounds which have acid groups or substituent groups from which the acid groups can be derived (for example, thioglycolic acid, thiomalic acid, thiosalicylic acid, 2-mercaptopropionic acid, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, 3-mercaptobutyric acid, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine, 2-mercaptonicotinic acid, 3-[N-(2-mercaptoethyl)carbamoyl]propionic acid, 3-[N-(2-mercaptoethyl)amino]propionic acid, N-(3-mercaptoproprionyl)alanine, 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, 3-mercaptopropanesulfonic acid, 4-mercaptobutanesulfonic acid, 2-mercaptoethanol, 3-mercapto-1, 2-propanediol, 1-mercapto-2-propanol, 3-mercapto-2-butanol, mercaptophenol, 2-mercaptoethylamine, 2-mercaptoimidazole, 2-mercapto-3-pyridinol), or alkyl iodide compounds which contain the above mentioned acid groups or substituents (for example, iodoacetic acid, iodopropionic acid, 2-iodoethanol, 2-iodoethanesulfonic acid, 3-iodopropanesulfonic acid). Use of the mercapto compounds is preferred.

These chain transfer agents or polymerization initiators are used at a rate of from 0.1 to 15 wt%, and preferably at a rate of from 0.5 to 10 wt%, with respect to the total amount of monomer in each case.

While not desiring to be bound, the resins for dispersion stabilization purposes of this present invention which have been prepared in the manner described above are thought to have markedly improved interaction with the insoluble resin particles due to acid groups which are bound to just one end of the polymer main chains and markedly improved compatibility with non-aqueous solvents because of the fact that the components which are soluble in non-aqueous solvents are crosslinked, and as a result it is thought that they will inhibit coagulation and sedimentation of the insoluble particles and markedly improve the redispersion properties of the insoluble particles.

The monomers used when preparing the non-aqueous based dispersed resins can be monofunctional monomers (A) which are soluble in the non-aqueous solvents but which are rendered insoluble by polymerization, and monofunctional macromonomers (B) which form copolymers with the mono-functional monomers (A).

Monofunctional monomer (A) of this invention may be any monofunctional monomer which is soluble in the non-aqueous solvents and rendered insoluble by polymerization. Specific examples of such monomers include those represented by the general formula (IV).

In general formula [IV], U represents -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O-,

Here, R&sup5; represents a hydrogen atom or an aliphatic group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms and which may be substituted (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, 2-chloroethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, benzyl, chlorobenzyl, methylbenzyl, methoxybenzyl, phenethyl, 3-phenylpropyl, dimethylbenzyl, fluorobenzyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 3-methoxypropyl).

R&sup4; represents a hydrogen atom or an aliphatic group which has from 1 to 6 carbon atoms which may have a substituent (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, 2-chloroethyl, 2,2-dichloroethyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 2-glycidylethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-hydroxypropyl, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl, 2-hydroxy-3-chloropropyl, 2-cyanoethyl, 3-cyanopropyl, 2-nitroethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 2-methanesulfonylethyl, 2-ethoxyethyl, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl, N,N-diethylaminoethyl, trimethoxysilylpropyl, 3-bromopropyl, 4-hydroxybutyl, 2-furfurylethyl, 2-thienylethyl, 2-pyridylethyl, 2-morpholinoethyl, 2-carboxyethyl, 3-carboxypropyl, 4-carboxybutyl, 2-phosphoethyl, 3-sulfopropyl, 4-sulfobutyl, 2-carboxyamidoethyl, 3-sulfoamidopropyl, 2-N-methylcarboxyamidoethyl, cylcopentyl, chlorocyclohexyl, dichlorohexyl).

Moreover, e¹ and e² may be the same or different and each has the same meaning as b¹ or b² in the aforementioned general formula (II).

Specific examples of the monofunctional monomer (A) include the vinyl esters or allyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids which have from 1 to 6 carbon atoms (for example, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, monochloroacetic acid, trifluoropropionic acid); alkyl esters, wherein the alkyl groups have from 1 to 4 carbon atoms and may be substituted (examples of such alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, 2-chloroethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 2-fluoroethyl, trifuloroethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, 2-nitroethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 2-methanesulfonylethyl, 2-benzenesulfonylethyl, 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl, 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl, 2-carboxyethyl, 2-phosphoethyl, 4-carboxybutyl, 3-sulfopropyl, 4-sulfobutyl, 3-chloropropyl, 2-hydroxy-3-chloropropyl, 2-furfurylethyl, 3-pyridinylethyl, 2-thienylethyl, trimethoxysilylpropyl and 2-carboxyamidoethyl), or amides, of unsaturated carboxylic acids such as, for example, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, crotonic acid, itaconic acid and maleic acid; styrene derivatives (for example, styrene, vinyltoluene, α-methylstyrene, vinylnaphthalene, chlorostyrene, dichlorostyrene, bromostyrene, vinylbenzenecarboxylic acid, vinylbenzenesulfonic acid, chloromethylstyrene, hydroxymethylstyrene, methoxymethylstyrene, N,N-dimethylaminoethylstyrene, vinylbenzenecarboxamide, vinylbenzenesulfoamide); unsaturated carboxylic acids, such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid or itaconic acid, for example, or cyclic anhydrides of maleic acid or itaconic acid, acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, and heterocyclic compounds which contain a polymerizable double bond (specific examples include the compounds disclosed in Polymer Data Handbook, Fundamentals Edition, Macromolecular Society, pages 175 - 184 published by Baifukan (1986), for example N-vinylpyridine, N-vinylimidazole, N-vinylpyrrolidone, vinylthiophene, vinyltetrahydrofuran, vinyloxazoline, vinylthiazole and N-vinylmorpholine).

Two or more of monofunctional monomers (A) can be used in combination.

Monofunctional macromonomer (B) is a macromonomer having a number average molecular weight in the range of 10³ to 10&sup4; which has a polymerizable double bond group represented by the general formula (III) which is capable of polymerization with monomer (A) bound only to one end of a polymer main chain comprising repeating units represented by the general formula (II).

Suitable hydrocarbyl groups for b¹, b², T, R¹, d¹, d² and T&min; in general formulae (II) and (III) have the carbon atoms (for the unsubstituted hydrocarbyl groups) indicated in each case, and these hydrocarbyl groups may be substituted hydrocarbyl groups.

In general formula (II), the R² substituent groups in the substituent groups represented by T may be a hydrogen atom, but they are preferably alkyl groups which have from 1 to 18 carbon atoms (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, heptyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, 2-chloroethyl, 2-bromoethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, 2-methoxycarbonylethyl, 2-methoxyethyl, 3-bromopropyl), alkenyl groups which have from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, (for example, 2-ethyl-1-propenyl, 2-butenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3-methyl-2-pentenyl, 1-pentenyl, 1-hexenyl, 2-hexenyl, 4-methyl-2-hexenyl), aralkyl groups which have from 7 to 12 carbon atoms (for example, benzyl, phenethyl, 3-phenylpropyl, naphthylmethyl, 2-naphthyl-ethyl, chlorobenzyl, boromobenzyl, methylbenzyl, ethylbenzyl, methoxybenzyl, dimethylbenzyl, dimethoxybenzyl), alicyclic groups which have from 5 to 8 carbon atoms (for example, cyclohexyl, 2-cyclohexylethyl, 2-cyclopentyl-ethyl), or aromatic groups which may be substituted and which have from 6 to 12 carbon atoms (for example, phenyl, naphtyl, tolyl, xylyl, propylphenyl, butylhenyl, octylphenyl, dodecylphenyl, methoxyphenyl, ethoxytphenyl, butoxyphenyl, decyloxyphenyl, chlorophenyl, dichlorophenyl, bromophenyl, cyanophenyl, acetylphenyl, methoxycarbonylphenyl, ethoxycarbonylphenyl, butoxy-carbonylphenyl, acetamidophenyl, propioamidophenyl, dodecyloyl-amidophenyl).

Where T represents

the benzene ring may have substituent groups. These substituent groups include halogen atoms (for example, chlorine, bromine) and alkyl groups (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, chloromethyl, methoxymethyl.

R¹ preferably represents a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms, and more specifically R¹ represents the same hydrocarbyl groups as described above for R².

Moreover, b¹ and b² may be the same or different and each preferably represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom (for example chlorine, bromine), a cyano group, an alkyl group which has from 1 to 3 carbon atoms (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl), a -COO-R³ group or a -CH&sub2;COOR³ group (where R³ represents a hydrogen atom or an aryl group, an alicyclic group, an aralkyl group, an alkenyl group, or an alkyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms and which may be substituted groups, and specific examples include those described above for R²).

In general formula (III), T&min; has the same meaning as T in formula (II), and d¹ and d² may be the same or different and have the same meaning as b¹ and b² in the above mentioned formula (II). Preferred examples for T&min;, d¹ and d² are the same as those described above for T, b¹ and b² respectively.

It is preferred that either one of b¹ and b² in formula (II) or d¹ and d² in formula (III) is a hydrogen atom.

As described above, the macromonomer used in this invention has a chemical structure such that a polymerizable double bond group represented by the general formula (III) is bonded directly, or via an optional linking group, to just one end of a polymer main chain comprised of repeating units represented by general formula (II). The groups which link the unit of formula (II) and the unit of formula (III) are constructed form any combination of groups of atoms which have carbon - carbon bonds (single bonds or double bonds), carbon - hetero atom bonds (where the hetero atom is oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen or silicon, for example), and hetero atom - hetero atom bonds.

Preferred macromonomers (B) of this invention are represented by the formula (V).

In formula (V), b¹, b², d¹, d², T, R¹ and T&min; each have the same meaning as described in connection with formulae (II) and (III).

Q represents a single bond or a linking group comprising a single linking group or an optional combination of linking groups selected from groups of atoms such as

[where R&sup6; and R&sup7; each represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom (for example, fluorine, chlorine, bromine), a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, an alkyl group (for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl)],

-(CH=CH)-,

-O-, -S-,

-COO-, SO&sub2;-,

-NHCOO-, -NHCONH- or

[where Z&sup8; and R&sup9; each represent a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group which has the same meaning as the aforementioned R² group].

An appropriate number average molecular weight for macromonomer (B) range from 1 x 10³ to 1 x 10&sup4;. Printing durability falls if the upper limit for the number average molecular weight of macromonomer (B) exceeds 1 × 10&sup4;. On the other hand, there is a tendency for contamination to arise if the molecular weight is too low and so a molecular weight of at least 1 × 10³ is preferred.

Especially preferred examples of T, R¹, T&min;, b¹, b², d¹ and d² in the aforementioned general formulae (II), (III), and (V) are described below.

More specifically, T is preferably -COO-, -OCO-, -O-, -CH&sub2;COO- or -CH&sub2;OCO-, R¹ is preferably an alkenyl group or an alkyl group which has up to 18 carbon atoms, T&min; is preferably any of the groups aforementioned (but in which R² is a hydrogen atom), and b¹, b², d¹, and d² are preferably hydrogen atoms or methyl groups.

Macromonomers (B) of this present invention can be prepared using conventional methods of synthesis. For example, they can be prepared using methods in which various reagents are reacted with the end of a living polymer which is obtained using anionic polymerization or cationic polymerization to form a macromer using an ionic polymerization method, methods in which various reagents are reacted with living polymers which have reactive terminal groups obtained by radical polymerization using polymerization initiators and/or chain transfer agents which contain reactive groups such as carboxyl groups, hydroxyl groups or amino groups, for example, within the molecule and forming the macromer using of radical polymerization, and methods in which the polymerizable double bond groups are introduced into poly-addition or poly-condensation polymers in the same manner in the above mentioned radical polymerization methods, being introduced into oligomers which have been obtained by poly-addition or poly-condensation reactions.

More specifically, macromonomers (B) can be prepared using the methods disclosed in P. Dreyfuss & R.P. Quirk, Encycl. polym,. Sci. Eng., 7, 551, (1987), P.F. Rempp & E. Franta, Adv. Polym. Sci., 58, 1 (1984), V. Percec, Appl. Polym. Sci., 285, 95 (1984), R. Asami, M. Takari, Makramol. Chem. Suppl., 12, 163, (1985), Kawakami, Kagaku Kogyo, 38, 56 (1987), Yamashita, Kobunshi, 31 988 (1982), Kobayashi, Kobunshi, 30, 625 (1981), Higashimura, Nippon Setchaku Kyokaishi, 18, 536 (1982), Ityo, Kobunshi kako, 35, 262 (1968), and Azuma & Tsuda, Kino Zairyo, 1987, No. 10, 5, and in the literature and patents cited therein.

Specific examples of macromonomers (B) of this present invention include the compounds indicated below. However, the scope of this invention is not limited by these examples.

The dispersed resins of this present invention comprise at least one monomer (A) and at least one macromonomer (B), and here an important point is that the prescribed dispersed resins are obtained provided that the resin comprising these monomers is insoluble in the non-aqueous solvents. More specifically, the amount of the macromonomer (B) used is preferably from 0.1 to 10 wt%, and more preferably from 0.2 to 5 wt%, with respect to the insolubilized monomer (A). Most preferably, the amount used is within the range from 0.3 to 3 wt%. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the dispersed resin of this present invention is from 10³ to 10&sup6;, and most desirably from 10&sup4; to 5 × 10&sup5;.

As described above, the dispersed resins used in this invention can be prepared, in general, by the polymerization with heat of a resin for dispersion stabilization purposes as described earlier, a monomer (A) and a macromonomer (B) in a non-aqueous solvent in the presence of a polymerization initiator such as benzoyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile or butyl lithium, for example.

More specifically, the dispersed resin can be prepared using methods in which a polymerization initiator is added to a solution containing a mixture of resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, monomer (A) and macromonomer (B), methods in which monomer (A) and macromonomer (B) are drip fed along with a polymerization initiator into a solution which contains the resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, methods in which part of a mixture of the monomer (A) and the macromonomer (B) is dissolved with all of the resin for dispersion stabilization purposes to form a solution to which the remainder of the monomer mixture is added arbitrarily, together with the polymerization initiator, and methods in which a mixture of the resin for dispersion stabilization purposes and monomer are added arbitrarily together with the polymerization initiator to a non-aqueous solvent.

The total amount of monomer (A) and macromonomer (B) is within the range from about 5 to 80 parts by weight, and preferably from 10 to 50 parts by weight, per 100 parts by weight of non-aqueous solvent.

The soluble resin which is the dispersion stabilizing agent is used at a rate of from 1 to 100 parts by weight, and preferably at a rate of from 5 to 50 parts by weight, per 100 parts of all the above mentioned monomer which is used.

The amount of polymerization initiator is suitably from 0.1% to 5% (by weight) with respect to the total amount of monomer.

The polymerization temperature is from 50°C to 180°C, and preferably from 60°C to 120°C. The reaction time is preferably from 1 to 15 hours.

Where polar solvents, such as the aforementioned alcohols, ketones, ethers or esters for example, are used conjointly with the non-aqueous solvents used in the reaction, and which unreacted monomer (A) which is being polymerized to form particles remains after reaction, the solvent or monomer is preferably distilled off by increasing the temperature above the boiling point of the solvent or monomer, or by distillation under reduced pressure.

The non-aqueous latex particles prepared in accordance with this present invention in the manner described above exist as fine particles which have a uniform particle size distribution, and, at the same time, they exhibit very stable dispersion properties, dispersion being especially good with long term repetitive use in a developing apparatus. Moreover, the particles are easily redispersed, even with increased developing speeds, and no attachment to various parts of the apparatus and contamination is observed at all.

Furthermore, when fixed by heating, for example, they form a strong film and they exhibit excellent fixing properties.

Moreover, the liquid developers of this present invention have excellent dispersion stability, redispersion properties and fixing properties even when they are used in rapid development/fixing processes and for large size master plates.

Coloring agents may be used, as desired, in the liquid developers of this invention.

No particular limitation is imposed upon the coloring agent, and a variety of conventional pigments and dyes can be used for this purpose.

Where the dispersed resin is to be colored itself, the coloration can be achieved, for example, by physical dispersion within the dispersed resin using pigments or dyes, and there are many known pigments and dyes which can be used for this purpose. Examples include magnetic iron oxide powder, powdered lead iodide, carbon black, nigrosine, alkali blue, hanza yellow, quinacridone red and phthalocynaine blue.

The method in which the dispersed resins are dyed with the preferred dyes, as disclosed, for example, in JP-A-57-48738, is another method for coloration. Alternatively, dyes can be chemically bonded with the dispersed resin, as disclosed in JP-A-53-54029, or monomer which contains a pre-colorant can be used when preparing the polymerized particles to provide a colorant containing copolymer as disclosed, for example, in JP-B-44-22955. (The term "JP-B" as used herein signifies an "examined Japanese patent publication".)

Various additives can be present, as required, in the liquid developers of this invention to reinforce charging characteristics or to improve image characteristics, for example, and specific examples of such additives are disclosed in Harazaki, Electrophotography, Vol. 16, No. 2, page 44.

For example, metal salts of di-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinic acid, metal naphthenates, metal salts of higher fatty acids, lecithin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and copolymers which contain a hemi-maleic acid amide components can be used.

The amounts of each of the principal components in a liquid developer of this invention are indicated below.

Toner particles of which a resin, with a colorant as required, forms the principal component are preferably present at a rate of from 0.5 to 50 parts by weight per 1,000 parts by weight of carrier liquid. If the amount is less than 0.5 parts by weight the image density obtained is unsatisfactory, and if more than 50 parts by weight is present then fogging tends to occur in the non-image areas. Moreover, the aforementioned carrier liquid soluble resin for dispersion stabilization purposes can also be used, as required, and it can be employed at a rate ranging from 0.5 to 100 parts by weight per 1,000 parts by weight of carrier liquid. The charge control agents of the type referred to above are preferably present at a rate of from 0.001 to 1.0 part by weight per 1,000 parts by weight of carrier liquid. Moreover, various additives may be employed, as required, and the total amount of these additives is limited only by the upper level by the electrical resistance of the developer. That is to say, it is difficult to obtain good quality continuous tone images if the electrical resistance of the liquid developer without the toner particles present is use than 10&sup9; Ω cm and so the amount of the various additives present must be controlled within these limits.

Illustrative examples of the invention are described below, but the invention is not to be construed as being limited by these examples. Unless otherwise indicated all parts, percents, ratios and the base weight.

Synthesis Example 1 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resin P-1 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A liquid mixture of 97 grams of octadecyl methacrylate, 3 grams of thioglycolic acid, 0.5 grams of divinylbenzene and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 85°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 0.8 gram of 1,1&min;-azobis(cyclohexane-1-carbonitrile) (referred to hereinafter as "A.C.H.N.") was added. The mixture was reacted for a period of 4 hours, after which 0.4 gram of A.C.H.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 2 hours, after which a further 0.2 gram of A.C.H.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 2 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol. A white powder was recovered by filtration and dried to provide 88 grams of powder. The weight average molecular weight of the polymer obtained was 30,000.

Synthesis Examples 2 - 9 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-2 - P-9 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

These resins for dispersion stabilization purposes were prepared using the same procedure as described in Synthesis Example 1 except that the monomers indicated in Table 1 below were used instead of octadecyl methacrylate.

Synthesis Examples 10 - 22 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-10 - P-22 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

These resins for dispersion stabilization purposes were prepared using the same procedure as described in Synthesis Examples 1 except that the polyfunctional monomers or oligomers shown in Table 2 below were used instead of the 5 grams of divinyl-benzene, the polyfunctional monomer for crosslinking purposes, in Synthesis Example 1.

Synthesis Example 23 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-23 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A liquid mixture of 97 grams of octadecyl methacrylate, 3 grams of thiomalic acid, 4.5 grams of divinyl benzene, 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of ethanol was heated to 60°C under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 0.5 gram of 2,2&min;-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (referred to hereinafter as "A.I.B.N.") was added. The mixture was reacted for period of 5 hours, after which 0.3 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 3 hours, after which a further 0.2 gram of A.I.B.N. wad added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 3 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol. A white powder was recovered by filtration and dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 35,000 was obtained with a recovery of 85 grams.

Synthesis Examples 24 - 29 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-24 - P-29 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

These resins for dispersion stabilization purposes were prepared using the same procedure as described in Synthesis Example 23 except that the mercapto compounds indicated in Table 3 below were used instead of the 3 grams of thiomalic acid used in Synthesis Example 23.

Synthesis Example 30 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-30 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A mixture of 94 grams of hexadecyl methacrylate, 1.0 gram of diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of isopropyl alcohol was heated to 90°C under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 6 grams of 2,2&min;-azobis(4-cyano-valerianic acid) referred to hereinafter as "A.C.V." was added and the mixture reacted for period of 8 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol. A white powder was recovered by filtration and dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 65,000 was obtained with a recovery of 83 grams.

Synthesis Example 31 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-31 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A liquid mixture of 92 grams of docosanyl methacrylate, 1.5 grams of ISP-22GA (made by the Okamura Seiyu Co.), 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of ethanol was heated to 80°C under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 8 grams of 4,4&min;-azobis(4-cyanopentanol) was added and the mixture was reacted for period of 8 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol. A white powder was recovered by filtration and dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 41,000 was obtained with a recovery of 78 grams.

Synthesis Example 32 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-32 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A liquid mixture of 95 grams of octadecyl methacrylate, 5 grams of divinylbenzene and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 85°C under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 0.7 gram A.C.H.N. was added and the mixture reacted for period of 8 hours.

Next, 8 grams of glutaconic acid anhydride and 1 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid were added and the mixture was reacted at 100°C for a period of 6 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol. A white powder was recovered by filtration and dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 31,000 was obtained with a recovery of 83 grams.

Synthesis Example 33 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-33 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A liquid mixture of 95 grams of octadecyl methacrylate, 3 grams of thioglycolic acid, 6 grams of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of ethanol was heated to 80°C under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 2 grams A.C.V. was added and the mixture was reacted for period of 4 hours, after which a further 0.5 gram of A.C.V. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 4 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol. A white powder was recovered by filtration and dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 35,000 was obtained with a recovery of 80 grams.

Synthesis Example 34 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-34 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A liquid mixture of 94 grams of tridecyl methacrylate, 6 grams of 2-mercaptoethanol, 9 grams of divinyl benzene, 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of ethanol was heated to 80°C under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 4 grams A.C.H.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for period of 4 hours, after which a further 2 grams of A.C.H.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 4 hours.

After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol, the methanol was removed by decantation and the remaining sticky material was dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 29,000 was obtained with a recovery of 75 grams.

Synthesis Example 35 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of the Resins P-35 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A mixture of 50 grams of the above mentioned Resin P-34 for dispersion stabilization purposes, 100 grams of toluene, 10 grams of succinic acid anhydride and 0.5 gram of pyridine was heated to 90°C and reacted for a period of 10 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 0.8 liter of methanol, the methanol was removed by decantation and the remaining sticky material was dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 30,000 was obtained with a recovery of 43 grams.

Synthesis Examples 36 - 39 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-36 - P-39 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

These resins for dispersion stabilization purposes were prepared using the same procedure as described in Synthesis Example 35 except that the dicarboxylic acid anhydrides indicated in Table 4 below wee used instead of the succinic acid anhydride used in Synthesis Example 35 for the preparation of Resin P-35 for dispersion stabilization purposes.

Synthesis Example 40 PREPARATION OF RESIN FOR DISPERSION STABILIZATION PURPOSES: Preparation of Resins P-40 for Dispersion Stabilization Purposes

A mixture of 86 grams of octadecyl methacrylate, 10 grams of N-methoxymethylacrylamide, 4 grams of thioglycolic acid, 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of iso-propanol was heated to 80°C under a blanket of nitrogen.

Next, 0.8 gram of A.C.H.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for period of 8 hours, after which the mixture was heated to 110°C and agitated for 6 hours in a Dean and Stark apparatus. The iso-propanol solvent used and the methanol which formed as a by-product of the reaction were removed.

After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 1.5 liters of methanol and a white powder was recovered by filtration and dried. A polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 45,000 was obtained with a recovery of 82 grams.

Synthesis Example 41 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-1

A liquid mixture of 92 grams of methyl methacrylate, 5 grams of thioglycolic acid and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 75°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen, after which 31 grams of 2,2&min;-azobis(cyanovalerinanic acid) (referred to hereinafter as "A.C.V.") was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours. Next, 8 grams of glycidyl methacrylate, 1.0 gram of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine and 0.5 gram of tertbutylhydroquinone were added to the reaction mixture which was subsequently agitated for a period of 12 hours at a temperature of 100°C. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and 82 grams of a white powder was obtained. The number average molecular weight of the polymer was 6,500.

Synthesis Example 42 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-2

A liquid mixture of 95 grams of methyl methacrylate, 5 grams of thioglycollic acid and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 70°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen, 1.5 grams of 2,2&min;-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (referred to hereinafter as "A.I.B.N.") was added and the mixture was reacted for 8 hours. Next, 7.5 grams of glycidyl methacrylate, 1.0 gram of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine and 0.8 gram of tert-butylhydroquinone were added to the reaction mixture which was subsequently agitated for 12 hours at 100°C. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and 85 grams of a colorless, transparent, sticky material was obtained. The number average molecular weight of the polymer was 2,400.

Synthesis Example 43 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-3

A liquid mixture of 94 grams of methyl methacrylate, 6 grams of 2-mercaptoethanol and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 70°C under a blanket of nitrogen, 1.2 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours.

Next, the reaction mixture was cooled to 20°C in a water bath, 10.2 grams of triethylamine was added and then 14.5 grams of methacrylic acid chloride was added dropwise in such a way that the temperature did not exceed 25°C. The mixture was agitated under the same conditions for a further period of 1 hours after the dropwise addition had been completed, after which 0.5 gram of t-butylhydroquinone was added, the temperature was raised to 60°C and the reaction mixture was agitated for a period of 4 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and 79 grams of a colorless, transparent sticky material was obtained. The number average molecular weight was 4,500.

Synthesis Example 44 REPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-4

A liquid mixture of 95 grams of hexyl methacrylate and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 70°C under a blanket of nitrogen, 5 grams of 2,2&min;-azobis(cyanoheptanol) was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours.

After cooling, the reaction mixture was adjusted to a temperature of 20°C in a water bath, 1.0 gram of triethylamine and 21 grams of methacrylic acid anhydride were added and, after agitating for 1 hour, the mixture was agitated at 60°C for a period of 6 hours.

The reaction mixture obtained was cooled and then reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol whereupon 75 grams of a colorless, transparent, sticky material was obtained. The number average molecular weight was 6,200.

Synthesis Example 45 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-5

A mixture of 93 grams of dodecyl methacrylate, 7 grams of 3-mercaptopropionic acid, 170 grams of toluene and 30 grams of iso-propanol was heated to 70°C under a blanket of nitrogen and a uniform solution was obtained. Next, 2.0 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and the solvent was removed by heating to 50°C under reduced pressure. The sticky material so obtained was dissolved in 200 grams of toluene, 16 grams of glycidyl methacrylate, 1.0 gram of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine and 1.0 gram of t-butylhydroquinone were added to the solution so obtained and the mixture was agitated at 110°C for a period of 10 hours. The reaction mixture was then again reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol. The number average molecular weight of the light yellow colored sticky material so obtained was 3,400.

Synthesis Example 46 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-6

A mixture of 95 grams of octadecyl methacrylate, 5 grams of thioglycolic acid and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 75°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen, 1.5 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours. Next, 13 grams of glycidyl methacrylate, 1.0 gram of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine and 1.0 gram of tert-butylhydroquinone were added and the mixture was agitated at 110°C for a period of 10 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and 86 grams of a white powder was obtained. The number average molecular weight was 2,300.

Synthesis Example 47 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-7

A mixture of 40 grams of methyl methacrylate, 54 grams of ethyl methacrylate, 6 grams of 2-mercaptoethylamine, 150 grams of toluene and 50 grams of tetrahydrofuran was heated to 75°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen, 2.0 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 20°C in a water bath, 23 grams of methacrylic acid anhydride was added dropwise in such a way that the temperature did not exceed 25°C and the mixture was subsequently agitated for a period of 1 hour under the same conditions. Next, 0.5 gram of 2,2&min;-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-p-cresol) was added and the mixture was agitated at 40°C for a period of 3 hours. After cooling, the liquid was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and 83 grams of a sticky material was obtained. The number average molecular weight was 2,200.

Synthesis Example 48 PREPARATION OF MACROMONOMER: Preparation of Macromonomer M-8

A liquid mixture of 95 grams of methyl methacrylate and 200 grams of toluene was heated to 75°C under a blanket of nitrogen, 5 grams of A.C.V. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 8 hours. Next, 15 grams of glycidyl acrylate, 1.0 gram of N,N-dimethyldodecylamine and 1.0 gram of 2,2&min;-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-p-cresol) were added and the mixture was agitated at 100°C for a period of 15 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was reprecipitated in 2 liters of methanol and 83 grams of a transparent, sticky material was obtained. The number average molecular weight was 3,600.

Synthesis Example 49 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: Preparation of D-1 Latex Particles

A liquid mixture of 12 grams of Resin P-1 obtained in Synthesis Example of the preparation of resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, 100 grams of vinyl acetate, 1.0 gram of the Macromonomer M-1 obtained in Synthesis Example 41 of the preparation of macromonomer and 380 grams of "Isopar H" was heated to 75°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen, after which 1.7 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 6 hours. A white turbidity appeared 20 minutes after the addition of the initiator and the temperature rose to 88°C. The temperature was then increased to 100°C and the mixture was agitated for a period of 2 hours and the unreacted vinyl acetate was removed by distillation. After cooling, the reaction mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth and the white colored dispersion so obtained formed a latex of average particle size 0.20 µm at a polymerization factor of 90%.

Synthesis Examples 50 - 59 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: Preparation of D-2 - D-11 Latex Particles

These were prepared using the same procedure as in Synthesis Example 49 of the preparation of latex particles except that the compounds indicated in Table 5 below were used instead of Resin P-1 for dispersion stabilization purposes and Macromonomer M-1 used in Synthesis Example 41 of the preparation of latex particles. White dispersions with polymerization factors of 85% - 90% were obtained.

Synthesis Example 60 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: Preparation of D-12 Latex Particles

A liquid mixture of 13 grams of Resin P-2 obtained in Synthesis Example 2 of preparation of a resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, 100 grams of vinyl acetate, 5 grams of crotonic acid, 1.0 gram of Macromonomer M-1 obtained in Synthesis Example 41 of the preparation of a macromonomer and 468 grams of "Isopar E" was heated to 70°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 1.3 grams of 2,2&min;-azobis(isovaleronitrile) (referred to hereinafter as A.I.V.N.)was added and, after reacting for a period of 6 hours, the temperature was increased to 100°C and the mixture was agitated at this temperature for a period of 1 hour. The residual vinyl acetate was removed by distillation. After cooling, the mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth and the white dispersion so obtained was a latex with a polymerization factor of 85% and an average particle size of 0.21 µm.

Synthesis Example 61 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: Preparation of D-13 Latex Particles

A liquid mixture of 14 grams of Resin P-1 obtained in Synthesis Example 1 of preparation of a resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, 100 grams of vinyl acetate, 6.0 grams of 4-pentenic acid, 1.5 grams of the Macromonomer M-7 obtained in Synthesis Example 47 of the preparation of macromonomer and 380 grams "Isopar G" was heated to 75°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 0.7 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 4 hours, after which 0.5 gram of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a further period of 2 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth and the white dispersion so obtained formed a latex of average particle size 0.24 µm.

Synthesis Example 62 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: Preparation of D-14 Latex Particles

A liquid mixture of 14 grams of Resin P-2 obtained in Synthesis Example 2 of the preparation of resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, 85 grams of vinyl acetate, 15 grams of N-vinylpyrrolidone, 1.2 grams of Macromonomer M-1 obtained in Synthesis Example 41 of the preparation of macromonomer and 380 grams of n-decane was heated to 75°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 1.7 grams of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 4 hours, after which 0.5 gram of A.I.B.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a further period of 2 hours. After cooling, the reaction mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth and the white dispersion so obtained formed a latex of average particle size 0.25 µm.

Synthesis Example 63 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: Preparation of D-15 Latex Particles

A liquid mixture of 18 grams of Resin P-1 obtained in Synthesis Example 1 of the preparation of resin for dispersion stabilization purposes, 100 grams of methyl methacrylate, 1.5 grams of Macromonomer M-2 obtained in Synthesis Example 42 of the preparation of macromonomer and 470 grams of n-octane was heated to 70°C with agitation under a blanket of nitrogen. Next, 1.0 grams of A.I.V.N. was added and the mixture was reacted for a period of 2 hours. A bluish-white turbidity started to appear a few minutes after the introduction of the initiator and the temperature rose to 90°C. After cooling, the reaction mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth and the white dispersion so obtained formed a latex of average particle size 0.35 µm.

Synthesis Example 64 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: (Comparative Example A)

The procedure described in Synthesis Example 49 for the preparation of latex particles was followed except that Macromonomer M-1 was omitted. The white dispersion so obtained was a latex of average particle size 0.20 µm with a polymerization factor of 85%.

Synthesis Example 65 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: (Comparative Example B)

The procedure described in Synthesis Example 49 for the preparation of latex particles was followed except that 1.0 grams of octadecyl methacrylate was used instead of Macromonomer M-1. The white dispersion so obtained was a latex of average particle size 0.22 µm with a polymerization factor of 85%.

Synthesis Example 66 PREPARATION OF LATEX PARTICLES: (Comparative Example C)

The procedure described in Synthesis Example 49 for the preparation of latex particles was followed except that 1 gram of the monomer of which the structure is indicated below was used instead of Macromonomer M-1. The white dispersion so obtained was a latex of average particle size 0.22 µm with a polymerization factor of 86%.

EXAMPLE 1

Ten grams of dodecyl methacrylate/acrylic acid copolymer (copolymer ratio 95/5, by weight), 10 grams of nigrosine and 30 grams of "Shellsol 71" were introduced together with glass beads into a paint shaker (Tokyo Seiki Co.) and a fine dispersion of nigrosine was obtained by dispersing the mixture for a period of 4 hours.

A liquid developer for electrophotographic purposes was then prepared by diluting 30 grams of the Resin Dispersion D-1 from Synthesis Example 49 of the preparation of latex particles, 2.5 grams of the above mentioned nigrosine dispersion, 15 grams of the higher alcohol FOC-1400 (manufactured by the Nissan Kagaku Co.) and 0.08 gram of an octadecyl vinyl ether/hemi-maleic acid octadecylamide copolymer with 1 liter of "Shellsol 71".

Comparative Developers (A - C)

Three types of liquid developer for comparative purposes, namely Liquid Developers A, B and C, were prepared by substituting the Resin Dispersions indicated below for the resin dispersion D-1 in the example of the preparation of a liquid developer described above.

Comparative Liquid Developer A:

The resin dispersion of Synthesis Example 64 of the preparation of latex particles.

Comparative Liquid Developer B:

The resin dispersion of Synthesis Example 65 of the preparation of latex particles.

Comparative Liquid Developer C:

The resin dispersion of Synthesis Example 66 of the preparation of latex particles.

These liquid developers were used as developers in a fully automatic plate making machine model ELP404V (made by the Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.) in which ELP Master Type II electrophotographic photosensitive material (made by the Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.) was exposed and developed. The plate making process was carried out at a speed of 6 plates per minute. Moreover, whether or not toner attachment and contamination of the developing apparatus had occurred was determined after processing 2,000 ELP Master type II plates. An evaluation of blackening (image area) of the copy image was carried out using an original documents having 40% image area. The results obtained were as shown in Table 6.

When printing plates were made using each developer under the aforementioned plate making conditions, only the developer of this invention did not result in contamination of the developing apparatus and, was due to produce clear images after making 2,000 plates.

On the other hand, printing was carried out in the usual way using the master plates for offset printing purposes (ELP masters) obtained by making plates with each developer, and on comparing the numbers of copies printed in each case before any dropout of text or unevenness of blocked parts, for example, occurred in the image on the printed copies, it was found that these phenomena did not occur on printing more than 10,000 copies with the master plates obtained using the developer of this invention or the developers of Comparative Examples A and C, but they did arise on printing 8,000 copies with the master plate obtained using the developer of Comparative Example B.

It is clear from the results described above that only when the developer of this invention was used was it possible to obtain master plates which provided a marked increase in the number of copies which could be obtained with no contamination of the development apparatus at all.

That is to say, in the case of Comparative Example A no problem with the number of copies printed occurred but there was marked contamination of the developing apparatus, thus it could not be used continuously.

Furthermore, in the case of Comparative Examples B and C the development apparatus (and especially the back of the electrode plate) became contaminated when the developers were used at a high plate making speed of 6 plates per minute (the conventional plate making speed is 2 to 3 plates per minute) and there was an effect on the image quality of the image transferred on the plate (a decrease in Dmax and breaks in fine lines) after the production of about 2,000 copies. The number of prints with the master plate was not a problem in Comparative Example C but there was a reduction in the number in Comparative Example B.

These results show that the resin particles of this present invention are clearly superior.

EXAMPLE 2

A mixture of 100 grams of the white Latex Dispersion D-1 obtained in Synthesis Example 49 of the preparation of latex particles and 1.5 grams of "Sumicron Black" was heated to 100°C and agitated with heating for a period of 4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth and, on removing the residual dye, a black resin dispersion of average particle size 0.2 µm was obtained.

Thirty two grams of the above mentioned black resin dispersion and 0.05 grams of zirconium naphthenate were diluted with 1 liter of "Shellsol 71" to prepare a liquid developer.

When development was carried out with this liquid developer using the same apparatus as used in Example 1, no toner attachment and contamination of the apparatus at all occurred even after developing 2,000 plates.

Furthermore, the image quality of the master plates for offset printing purposes obtained was clear and the image quality of the printed material was also very clear after printing 10,000 copies.

EXAMPLE 3

A mixture of 100 grams of the white dispersion D-12 obtained in Synthesis Example 60 of the preparation of latex particles and 3 grams of "Victoria Blue B" was heated to 70°C to 80°C and agitated for a period of 6 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was passed through a 200 mesh nylon cloth, the residual dye was removed, and a blue colored resin dispersion of average particle size 0.21 µm was obtained.

Thirty two grams of the above mentioned blue colored resin dispersion and 0.05 gram of zirconium naphthenate were diluted with 1 liter of "Isopar H" to prepare a liquid developer.

When development was carried out with this liquid developer using the same apparatus as used in Example 1, no toner attachment and contamination of the apparatus at all occurred even after developing 2,000 plates. Furthermore, the image quality of the master plates for offset printing purposes obtained was clear and the image quality of the printed material was also very clear after printing 10,000 copies.

EXAMPLE 4

Thirty two grams of the white Latex Dispersion D-2 obtained in Synthesis Example 50 of the preparation of latex particles, 2.5 grams of the nigrosine dispersion obtained in Example 1, 0.02 gram of a hemi-docosanyl-amido compound of a di-isobutylene/maleic anhydride copolymer and 15 grams of the higher alcohol FOC-1400 (made by Nissan Kagaku Co.) were diluted with 1 liter of "Isopar G" to prepare a liquid developer.

When development was carried out with this liquid developer using the same apparatus as used in Example 1, no toner attachment and contamination of the apparatus occurred at all even after developing 2,000 plates. Furthermore, the image quality of the master plates for offset printing purposes obtained and the image quality of the printed material after printing 10,000 copies were clear.

Moreover, processing was carried out in the same way after letting the developer stand for a period of 3 months and there was no change with the passage of time.

EXAMPLE 5

Ten grams of poly(decyl methacrylate), 30 grams of "Isopar H" and 8 grams of "Alkali Blue" were introduced together with glass beads into a paint shaker and dispersed for a period of 2 hours to provide a fine dispersion of "Alkali Blue".

Thirty grams of the white Latex Dispersion D-11 obtained in Synthesis Example 59 of the preparation of latex particles, 4.2 grams of the above mentioned "Alkali Blue" dispersion and 0.06 gram of a hemi-docosanylamido compound of a diisobutylene/maleic anhydride copolymer were diluted with 1 liter of "Isopar G" to prepare a liquid developer.

When development was carried out with this liquid developer using the same apparatus as used in Example 1, no toner attachment and contamination of the apparatus occurred at all even after developing 2,000 plates. Furthermore, the image quality of the master plates for offset printing purposes obtained and the image quality of the printed material after printing 10,000 copies were very clear.

EXAMPLE 6 - 15

Each of the Latex Dispersions D-19 - D-28 were prepared in the same manner as described in Synthesis Example 49 of the preparation of latex particles but using the compounds indicated in Table 7 below instead of the Resin P-1 for dispersion stabilization proposes and the Macromonomer M-1 in Synthesis Example 49 of the preparation of latex particles.

Liquid developers of this invention were prepared in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the above mentioned Latex Dispersions D-19 to D-28 were used in place of the Latex Dispersion D-1 used in Example 1.

No toner attachment or contamination of the apparatus was observed even after developing 2,000 plates when development was carried out using the same apparatus as used in Example 1. Furthermore, the image quality of the mater plates for offset printing purposes obtained and the image quality of the printed material after making 10,000 copies were very clear.

Developers which have excellent dispersion stability, redispersion properties and fixing properties are obtained with this invention. In particular, even when the developers are used under very high speed plate making conditions there is no contamination of the developing apparatus and the image quality of the master plates for offset printing purposes obtained and the image quality of the printed material obtained after printing 10,000 copies are very clear.

While the invention has been described in detail and with reference to specific examples thereof, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the scope of the appended claims.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Flüssiger elektrophotographischer Entwickler, der umfaßt eine Trägerflüssigkeit, bei der es sich um ein nichtwäßriges Lösungsmittel mit einem elektrischen Widerstand von mindestens 10&sup9; Ohm . cm und einer Dielektrizitätskonstanten von nicht mehr als 3,5 handelt, und dispergierte Harzteilchen, die erhalten wurden durch Copolymerisieren in einem nicht-wäßrigen Lösungsmittel eines monofunktionellen Monomers (A), das in dem nicht-wäßrigen Lösungsmittel löslich ist, das jedoch durch die Polymerisation unlöslich gemacht wird, und eines Monomers (B) in Gegenwart eines Dispersionsstabilisierungsharzes, das in dem nichtwäßrigen Lösungsmittel löslich ist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Monomer (B) ein monofunktionelles Makromonomer mit einem zahlendurchschnittlichen Molekulargewicht in dem Bereich von 10³ bis 10&sup4; ist und erhalten wurde durch Binden einer polymerisierbaren Doppelbindungsgruppe, dargestellt durch die folgende allgemeine Formel (III)
    worin bedeuten:
    T&min;
    -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O-, -SO&sub2;-,
    worin R&sub2; ein Wasserstoffatom oder eine Hydrocarbyl-Gruppe mit 1 bis 18 Kohlenstoffatomen darstellt;
    d¹ und d²,
    die gleich oder verschieden sein können, jeweils ein Wasserstoffatom, ein Halogenatom, eine Cyanogruppe, eine Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 8 Kohlenstoffatomen, eine -COO-R&sub3;-Gruppe oder eine -COO-R&sub3;-Gruppe, die über eine Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 8 Kohlenstoffatomen gebunden ist und worin R&sub3; für ein Wasserstoffatom oder eine Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 18 Kohlenstoffatomen steht;
    an nur ein Ende der Hauptkette eines Polymers mit wiederkehrende Einheiten der folgenden allgemeinen Formel (II):
    worin
    T
    die gleiche Bedeutung wie T&min; in der allgemeinen Formel (III) hat;
    für eine Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 22 Kohlenstoffatomen steht und
    b¹ und b²,
    die gleich oder verschieden sein können, jeweils die gleiche Bedeutung wie d¹ und d² in der allgemeinen Formel (III) haben;
    und daß das Harz für Dispersionsstabilisierungszwecke ein Harz ist, das erhalten wurde durch Binden einer Säuregruppe, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe, die besteht aus

    -PO&sub3;H&sub2;, -SO&sub3;H, -COOH, -OH, -SH und
    an nur ein Ende mindestens der Polymerhauptkette eines Polymers, das eine wiederkehrende Einheit der folgenden allgemeinen Formel (I) aufweist:
    worin bedeuten:
    -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O- oder -SO&sub2;-;
    eine aliphatische Gruppe mit 6 bis 32 Kohlenstoffatomen; und
    a¹ und a²,
    die gleich oder verschieden sein können, jeweils ein Wasserstoffatom, ein Halogenatom, eine Cyanogruppe, ein Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 8 Kohlenstoffatomen, eine -COO-Z¹- oder eine -COO-Z¹-Gruppe, die über eine Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 8 Kohlenstoffatomen gebunden ist (worin Z¹ für eine Hydrocarbylgruppe mit 1 bis 22 Kohlenstoffatomen steht;
    und wobei ein Teil der Polymerkette vernetzt ist.
  2. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin das als Trägerflüssigkeit verwendete nicht-wäßrige Lösungsmittel ein linearkettiger oder verzweigtkettiger aliphatischer Kohlenwasserstoff, ein alicyclischer Kohlenwasserstoff, ein aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoff, ein Halogenderivat oder eine Mischung davon ist.
  3. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin
    steht für -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO- oder -O-und
    steht für eine aliphatische Gruppe mit 8 bis 22 Kohlenstoffatomen.
  4. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin
    a¹ und a²,
    die gleich oder verschieden sein können, jeweils stehen für ein Wasserstoffatom, ein Halogenatom, eine Cyanogruppe, eine Alkylgruppe mit 1 bis 3 Kohlenstoffatomen, eine -COO-Z³-Gruppe oder eine CH&sub2;COO-Z&sub3;-Gruppe, worin Z³ eine Alkenylgruppe oder eine Alkylgruppe darstellt.
  5. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin die Menge des Makromonomers (B) 0,1 bis 10 Gew.-%, bezogen auf das Monomer (A), beträgt.
  6. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin das gewichtsdurchschnittliche Molekulargewicht des Harzes für Dispersionsstabilisierungszwecke 1 . 10&sup4; bis 6 . 10&sup5; beträgt.
  7. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin die dispergierten Harzteilchen gefärbte dispergierte Harzteilchen sind.
  8. Flüssiger Entwickler nach Anspruch 1, worin die als Tonerteilchen verwendeten dispergierten Harzteilchen in einer Menge von 0,5 bis 50 Gew.-Teilen auf 1000 Gew.-Teilen der Trägerflüssigkeit vorliegen.
Anspruch[en]
  1. An electrophotographic liquid developer comprising a carrier liquid being a non-aqueous solvent having an electrical resistance of at least 10&sup9; Ω cm and a dielectric constant of not more than 3.5, dispersed resin particles being obtained by co-polymerization in a non aqueous solvent, of a monofunctional monomer (A) which is soluble in the non-aqueous solvent but which is rendered insoluble by polymerization and a monomer (B) in the presence of a dispersion stabilization resin which is soluble in the non-aqueous solvent, characterised in that monomer (B) is a monofunctional macromonomer having a number average molecular weight in the range of 10³ to 10&sup4; and is obtained by bonding a polymerizable double bond group represented by the general formula (III) below;
       wherein, T&min; represents -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O-, -SO&sub2;-,
    R&sub2; represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms;

       d¹ and d², which may be the same or different, each represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a cyano group, a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, a -COO-R&sub3; group or a -COO-R&sub3; group which is linked via a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and R&sub3; represents a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 18 carbon atoms;

       to only one end of the main chain of a polymer comprising repeating units represented by the general formula (II) below;
       wherein, T has the same meaning as T&min; in general formula (III);

       R&sub1; represents a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 22 carbon atoms; b¹ and b², which may be the same or different, each has the same meaning as d¹ and d² in general formula (III);

       and in that the resin for dispersion stabilization purposes is a resin obtained by bonding an acid group selected from

       consisting of -PO&sub3;H&sub2;, -SO&sub3;H, -COOH, -OH, -SH and
    to just one end of at least the polymer main chain of a polymer which has a repeated unit represented by the general formula (I) below;
       wherein, X¹ represents -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O- or -SO&sub2;-;

       Y¹ represents an aliphatic group which has from 6 to 32 carbon atoms; and

       a¹ and a² may be the same or different, each representing a hydrogen atom, halogen atom, cyano group, hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms, -COO-Z¹ or a -COO-Z¹ group which is linked via a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 8 carbon atoms (where Z¹ represents a hydrocarbyl group which has from 1 to 22 carbon atoms); and of which a part of the polymer chain is crosslinked.
  2. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein the non-aqueous solvent as a carried liquid is a linear chain or branched chain aliphatic hydrocarbon, an alicyclic hydrocarbon, an aromatic hydrocarbon, a halogen derivative or a mixture thereof.
  3. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein X¹ is -COO-, -OCO-, -CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO- or -O-, Y¹ is an aliphatic group having form 8 to 22 carbon atoms.
  4. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein a¹ and a², which may be the same or different, each represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a cyano group, an alkyl group having from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, a -COO-Z&sub3; group or a -CH&sub2;COO-Z&sub3; group where Z&sub3; represents an alkenyl group or an alkyl group.
  5. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein the amount of the macromonomer (B) is 0.1 to 10 wt.% with respect to the monomer (A).
  6. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein the weight average molecular weight of the resin for dispersion stabilization purposes is from 1 x 10&sup4; to 6 x 10&sup5;.
  7. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein the dispersed resin particles are colored dispersed resin particles.
  8. The liquid developer according to Claim 1, wherein the dispersed resin particles as toner particles are present in an amount from 0.5 to 50 parts per 1000 parts by weight of the carrier liquid.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Révélateur électrophotographique liquide comportant un liquide porteur sous forme de solvant non-aqueux ayant une résistance électrique d'un minimum de 10&sup9;Ω cm et une constante diélectrique maximum de 3,5 des particules dispersées de résine étant obtenue par la co-polymérisation en solvant non-aqueux, d'un monomère mono-fonctionnel (A) soluble en solvant non-aqueux mais rendu insoluble par la polymérisation et un monomère mono-fonctionnel (B) en présence d'une résine de stabilisation de dispersion soluble en solvant non-aqueux, caractérisé en ce que le monomère (B) est un macro-monomère mono-fonctionnel comportant un poids moléculaire numérique moyen dans la gamme de 10³ à 10&sup4; et obtenu par la liaison d'un groupe polymérisable à double liaison représenté par la formule générale (III) ci-après:
       dont T&min; représente -COO-, -OCO-, CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-,

       -O-, -SO&sub2;-,
    R&sub2; représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 18 atomes de carbone;

       d¹ et d², susceptibles d'être identiques ou différents, représentent chacun un atome d'hydrogène, un atome halogène, un groupe cyano, un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 18 atomes de carbone, un groupe -COO-R&sub3; ou un groupe -COO-R&sub3; relié par l'intermédiaire d'un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 18 atomes de carbone, et R³ représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 18 atomes de carbone;

       à une seule extrémité de chaîne principale d'un polymère ayant des unités répétées représentées par la formule générale (II) ci-après dont T a le même sens que T&min; en formule générale (III);
       R&sub1; représente un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 22 atomes de carbone; b¹ et b¹ susceptibles d'être identiques ou différents, chacun a le même sens que d¹ et d² dans la formule générale (III);

       et en ce que la résine prévue pour la stabilisation de la dispersion est une résine obtenue par la liaison d'un groupe acide sélectionné consistant de

       -POH, -SOH, -COOH, -OH, -SH et
    à une extrémité seulement de la chaîne principale de polymère au minimum d'un polymère comportant une unité répétée représentée par la formula générale (I) ci-dessous;
       dont X¹ représente -COO-, -OCO-, CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, -O-, ou -SO&sub2;-;

       Y¹ représente un groupe aliphatique ayant de 6 à 32 atomes de carbone; et

       a¹ et a² sont susceptibles d'être identiques ou différents, représentant chacun un atome d'hydrogène, un atome halogène, un groupe cyano, un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 8 atomes de carbone -COO-Z&sub1; ou un groupe -COO-Z&sub1; relié au moyen d'un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 8 atomes de carbone (dont Z¹ représente un groupe hydrocarbyle ayant 1 à 22 atomes de carbone; et dont une partie de la chaîne de polymère est réticulé.
  2. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont le solvant non-aqueux sous forme de liquide porté est une chaîne linéaire ou ramifiée d'hydrocarbure aliphatique, un hydrocarbure alicyclique, un hydrocarbure aromatique, un dérivé halogène ou un mélange.
  3. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont X¹ représente -COO-, -OCO-, CH&sub2;OCO-, -CH&sub2;COO-, ou -O-, Y¹ est un groupe aliphatique ayant de 8 à 22 atomes de carbone.
  4. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont a¹ et a² qui sont susceptibles d'être identiques ou différents, représentent chacun un atome d'hydrogène, un atome halogène, un groupe cyano, un groupe alcoyle ayant 1 à 3 atomes de carbone, un groupe -COO-Z&sub3; dont Z&sub3; représente un groupe alkényle ou un groupe alcoyle.
  5. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont le montant de macromonomère (B) est 0,1 à 10% par poids, par rapport au monomère (A).
  6. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont la moyenne moléculaire de poids de résine à l'effet de la stabilisation de la dispersion est de 1 x 10&sup4; à 6 x 10&sup5;.
  7. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont les particules de résine en dispersion sont des particules de résine colorées en dispersion.
  8. Le révélateur liquide selon la revendication 1, dont les particules de résine en dispersion sont des particules de toner présent sous forme de 0,5 à 50 parties par 1000 parties par poids de liquide porteur.






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