PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0705874 15.05.1996
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0705874
Titel Hydroxyarylphosphit-stabilisierte Zusammensetzungen
Anmelder Ciba-Geigy AG, Basel, CH
Erfinder Shum, Sai Ping, Highstown, NJ 08520, US;
Pastor, Stephen Daniel, Danbury, CT 06810, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB, IT
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 28.09.1995
EP-Aktenzeichen 958106031
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 10.04.1996
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 15.05.1996
IPC-Hauptklasse C08K 5/527
IPC-Nebenklasse C08L 23/10   

Beschreibung[en]

This invention pertains to compositions of organic material subject to oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation which are stabilized by selected hydroxyaryl phosphites.

The use of organic trivalent phosphorus compounds, e.g. organic phosphites and phosphonites, for the stabilization of degradable polymeric substrates is well known. U.S. Patent Nos. 4,143,028; 4,318,845; 4,374,219; 4,524,166; 4,912,155 and 4,999,393 and references cited therein describe the use of seven- and eight-membered dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepins and dibenzo[d,g][1,3,2]dioxaphosphocins for the stabilization of degradable polymers.

Spivack et al. in Polymer Stabilization and Degradation, P.P. Klemchuck editor; American Chemical Society: Washington D.C., 1985, 247-257 described the use of hydrolytically stable seven- and eight-membered dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepins and dibenzo[d,g]-[1,3,2]dioxaphosphocins, respectively, as processing stabilizers. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data and structural conformation of seven- and eight-membered dibenzo[d,f,][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepins and dibenzo[d,g][1,3,2]dioxaphosphocins are described by Pastor et al. in Phosphorus Sulfur, 1983, 15, 9; Phosphorus Sulfur, 1983, 15, 253; J. Heterocyclic, 1983, 20, 1311; Phosphorus Sulfur, 1984, 19, 1; and Phosphorus Sulfur, 1984, 19, 285; Helv. Chim. Acta., 76, 900 (1993); U.S. Patent No. 5,292,785.

U.S. Patent Nos. 4,599,206; 4,717,775; 4,748,261; 4,769,498 and 5,059,710 describe compounds of formula I as intermediates for ligands useful for transition-metal-catalyzed hydroformylation reactions. In addition, the compounds of this invention are intermediates for a class of processing stabilizers as described in U.S. Patent No. 5,292,785. However, the use of compounds of formula I for stabilization of degradable organic materials is neither described nor suggested. The compounds of this invention show unexpected melt flow stabilization which are as good as or better than their predecessors described in U.S. Patent No. 5,292,785. The only prior art which describes such application is found in CA 112 (4): 21806p. However, the claimed compounds, prepared from sulfur bridged bisphenol, are structurally distinct and environmentally unsound from the compounds of this invention.

The object of the invention is to provide stabilized compositions containing degradable organic polymeric materials, and an effective stabilizing amount of a hydroxyaryl phosphite of formula I alone or in combination with a hindered phenolic antioxidant and/or a hindered amine thermal stabilizer and/or a hydroxylamine and/or a benzofuran-2-one.

The instant invention pertains to a stabilized composition which comprises

  • (A) an organic material subject to oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation, and
  • (B) an effective stabilizing amount of a hydroxyaryl phosphite of formula I
    wherein
    • n has a value of zero or one;
    • when n is zero, Q is a direct bond, or
    • when n is one, Q is -CR&sub1;R&sub2;-,
    • R&sub1; and R&sub2; independently represent hydrogen, straight chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms, branched chain alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, phenyl, tolyl or anisyl;
    • Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3;, Y&sub4;, Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; independently represent hydrogen, a straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms, bicycloalkyl of 7 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl, benzyl, 1-phenylethyl, cyclohexyl, 1-methylcyclohexyl, cyano, halogen, nitro, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, amino, alkanoyl of 2 to 18 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 18 carbon atoms or E&sub1;E&sub2;E&sub3;Si- where E&sub1;, E&sub2; and E&sub3; are independently hydrogen, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or phenyl.

When any of R&sub1; or R&sub2;, Y&sub1; to Y&sub4;, Z&sub1; to Z&sub4; and E&sub1; to E&sub3; are alkyl, such alkyl groups are, for example, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, tert-amyl, 2-ethylhexyl, n-octyl, tert-octyl, lauryl, n-octadecyl, eicosyl and triacontyl; when said radicals are cycloalkyl, they are, for example, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cyclooctyl and cyclododecyl; when said radicals are alkenyl, they are, for example, allyl, butenyl and oleyl; when said radicals are phenylalkyl, they are, for example, benzyl, phenethyl, α-methylbenzyl and α,α-dimethylbenzyl; when said radicals are aryl, they are, for example, phenyl, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl, and naphthyl; when said radicals are bicycloalkyl or tricycloalkyl, they are, for example, isobornyl and adamantyl; when said radicals are halogen, they are, for example, fluorine, chlorine or bromo.

Preference is given to the compounds of the formula I in which n is zero or one; and when n is zero, Q is a direct bond; or when n is one, Q is -CR&sub1;R&sub2;- wherein R&sub1; and R&sub2; independently represent hydrogen, straight chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms, branched chain alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, or phenyl. Particularly preferred are the compounds of formula I in which R&sub1; is hydrogen, and R&sub2; is hydrogen, methyl or phenyl.

Preference is also given to the compounds of the formula I in which Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3; and Y&sub4; are alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms or 1-phenylethyl. Particularly preferred are the compounds of formula I in which Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3; and Y&sub4; are each tert-butyl.

Likewise preferred are the compounds of the formula I in which Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; are independently straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms or 1-phenylethyl. Particularly preferred are the compounds of formula I in which Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; are independently alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms.

Of specific interest are the compounds of the formula I in which

  • n has a value of zero or one;
  • when n is zero, Q is a direct bond, or
  • when n is one, Q is -CR&sub1;R&sub2;-,
  • R&sub1; is hydrogen,
  • R&sub2; is hydrogen, methyl or phenyl,
  • Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3; and Y&sub4; are each tert-butyl, and
  • Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms.

Preferably, the organic material of component (A) is a natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic polymer; especially a thermoplastic polymer.

Most preferably, the organic material is a polyolefin, especially polyethylene or polypropylene.

The instant stabilized compositions comprise a polymeric substrate subject to deterioration by oxygen, heat or actinic radiation and an effective stabilizing amount of a compound of formula I. This stabilization is manifested in the superior processing stability of these polymeric compositions in terms of melt flow stabilization and resistance to discoloration. In addition, the compositions of the instant invention exhibit superior resistance to hydrolysis prior to processing.

Substrates in which the compounds of this invention are particularly useful are polyolefins such as polypropylene and polyethylene; polystyrene, including especially impact polystyrene; ABS resin; elastomers such as e.g. butadiene rubber, EPM, EPDM, SBR and nitrile rubber.

In general polymers which can be stabilized include:

  • 1. Polymers of monoolefins and diolefins, for example polypropylene, polyisobutylene, polybut-1-ene, poly-4-methylpent-1-ene, polyisoprene or polybutadiene, as well as polymers of cycloolefins, for instance of cyclopentene or norbornene, polyethylene (which optionally can be crosslinked), for example high density polyethylene (HDPE), high density and high molecular weight polyethylene (HDPE-HMW), high density and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (HDPE-UHMW), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), branched low density polyethylene (BLDPE).

    Polyolefins, i.e. the polymers of monoolefins exemplified in the preceding paragraph, preferably polyethylene and polypropylene, can be prepared by different, and especially by the following, methods:

    • a) radical polymerisation (normally under high pressure and at elevated temperature).
    • b) catalytic polymerisation using a catalyst that normally contains one or more than one metal of groups IVb, Vb, VIb or VIII of the Periodic Table. These metals usually have one or more than one ligand, typically oxides, halides, alcoholates, esters, ethers, amines, alkyls, alkenyls and/or aryls that may be either π- or σ-coordinated. These metal complexes may be in the free form or fixed on substrates, typically on activated magnesium chloride, titanium(III) chloride, alumina or silicon oxide. These catalysts may be soluble or insoluble in the polymerisation medium. The catalysts can be used by themselves in the polymerisation or further activators may be used, typically metal alkyls, metal hydrides, metal alkyl halides, metal alkyl oxides or metal alkyloxanes, said metals being elements of groups Ia, Ha and/or IIIa of the Periodic Table. The activators may be modified conveniently with further ester, ether, amine or silyl ether groups. These catalyst systems are usually termed Phillips, Standard Oil Indiana, Ziegler (-Natta), TNZ (DuPont), metallocene or single site catalysts (SSC).

  • 2. Mixtures of the polymers mentioned under 1), for example mixtures of polypropylene with polyisobutylene, polypropylene with polyethylene (for example PP/HDPE, PP/LDPE) and mixtures of different types of polyethylene (for example LDPE/HDPE).
  • 3. Copolymers of monoolefins and diolefins with each other or with other vinyl monomers, for example ethylene/propylene copolymers, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and mixtures thereof with low density polyethylene (LDPE), propylene/but-1-ene copolymers, propylene/isobutylene copolymers, ethylene/but-1-ene copolymers, ethylene/hexene copolymers, ethylene/methylpentene copolymers, ethylene/heptene copolymers, ethylene/octene copolymers, propylene/butadiene copolymers, isobutylene/isoprene copolymers, ethylene/alkyl acrylate copolymers, ethylene/alkyl methacrylate copolymers, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymers and their copolymers with carbon monoxide or ethylene/acrylic acid copolymers and their salts (ionomers) as well as terpolymers of ethylene with propylene and a diene such as hexadiene, dicyclopentadiene or ethylidene-norbornene; and mixtures of such copolymers with one another and with polymers mentioned in 1) above, for example polypropylene/ethylene-propylene copolymers, LDPE/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA), LDPE/ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers (EAA), LLDPE/EVA, LLDPE/EAA and alternating or random polyalkylene/carbon monoxide copolymers and mixtures thereof with other polymers, for example polyamides.
  • 4. Hydrocarbon resins (for example C&sub5;-C&sub9;) including hydrogenated modifications thereof (e.g. tackifiers) and mixtures of polyalkylenes and starch.
  • 5. Polystyrene, poly(p-methylstyrene), poly(α-methylstyrene).
  • 6. Copolymers of styrene or α-methylstyrene with dienes or acrylic derivatives, for example styrene/butadiene, styrene/acrylonitrile, styrene/alkyl methacrylate, styrene/butadiene/alkyl acrylate, styrene/butadiene/alkyl methacrylate, styrene/maleic anhydride, styrene/acrylonitrile/methyl acrylate; mixtures of high impact strength of styrene copolymers and another polymer, for example a polyacrylate, a diene polymer or an ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer; and block copolymers of styrene such as styrene/butadiene/styrene, styrene/isoprene/styrene, styrene/ethylene/butylene/styrene or styrene/ethylene/propylene/ styrene.
  • 7. Graft copolymers of styrene or α-methylstyrene, for example styrene on polybutadiene, styrene on polybutadiene-styrene or polybutadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers; styrene and acrylonitrile (or methacrylonitrile) on polybutadiene; styrene, acrylonitrile and methyl methacrylate on polybutadiene; styrene and maleic anhydride on polybutadiene; styrene, acrylonitrile and maleic anhydride or maleimide on polybutadiene; styrene and maleimide on polybutadiene; styrene and alkyl acrylates or methacrylates on polybutadiene; styrene and acrylonitrile on ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymers; styrene and acrylonitrile on polyalkyl acrylates or polyalkyl methacrylates, styrene and acrylonitrile on acrylate/butadiene copolymers, as well as mixtures thereof with the copolymers listed under 6), for example the copolymer mixtures known as ABS, MBS, ASA or AES polymers.
  • 8. Halogen-containing polymers such as polychloroprene, chlorinated rubbers, chlorinated and brominated copolymer of isobutylene-isoprene (halobutyl rubber), chlorinated or sulfochlorinated polyethylene, copolymers of ethylene and chlorinated ethylene, epichlorohydrin homo- and copolymers, especially polymers of halogen-containing vinyl compounds, for example polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, as well as copolymers thereof such as vinyl chloride/vinylidene chloride, vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate or vinylidene chloride/vinyl acetate copolymers.
  • 9. Polymers derived from α,β-unsaturated acids and derivatives thereof such as polyacrylates and polymethacrylates; polymethyl methacrylates, polyacrylamides and polyacrylonitriles, impact-modified with butyl acrylate.
  • 10. Copolymers of the monomers mentioned under 9) with each other or with other unsaturated monomers, for example acrylonitrile/ butadiene copolymers, acrylonitrile/alkyl acrylate copolymers, acrylonitrile/alkoxyalkyl acrylate or acrylonitrile/vinyl halide copolymers or acrylonitrile/ alkyl methacrylate/butadiene terpolymers.
  • 11. Polymers derived from unsaturated alcohols and amines or the acyl derivatives or acetals thereof, for example polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl stearate, polyvinyl benzoate, polyvinyl maleate, polyvinyl butyral, polyallyl phthalate or polyallyl melamine; as well as their copolymers with olefins mentioned in 1) above.
  • 12. Homopolymers and copolymers of cyclic ethers such as polyalkylene glycols, polyethylene oxide, polypropylene oxide or copolymers thereof with bisglycidyl ethers.
  • 13. Polyacetals such as polyoxymethylene and those polyoxymethylenes which contain ethylene oxide as a comonomer; polyacetals modified with thermoplastic polyurethanes, acrylates or MBS.
  • 14. Polyphenylene oxides and sulfides, and mixtures of polyphenylene oxides with styrene polymers or polyamides.
  • 15. Polyurethanes derived from hydroxyl-terminated polyethers, polyesters or polybutadienes on the one hand and aliphatic or aromatic polyisocyanates on the other, as well as precursors thereof.
  • 16. Polyamides and copolyamides derived from diamines and dicarboxylic acids and/or from aminocarboxylic acids or the corresponding lactams, for example polyamide 4, polyamide 6, polyamide 6/6, 6/10, 6/9, 6/12, 4/6, 12/12, polyamide 11, polyamide 12, aromatic polyamides starting from m-xylene diamine and adipic acid; polyamides prepared from hexamethylenediamine and isophthalic or/and terephthalic acid and with or without an elastomer as modifier, for example poly-2,4,4,-trimethylhexamethylene terephthalamide or poly-m-phenylene isophthalamide; and also block copolymers of the aforementioned polyamides with polyolefins, olefin copolymers, ionomers or chemically bonded or grafted elastomers; or with polyethers, e.g. with polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol or polytetramethylene glycol; as well as polyamides or copolyamides modified with EPDM or ABS; and polyamides condensed during processing (RIM polyamide systems).
  • 17. Polyureas, polyimides, polyamide-imides, polyetherimids, polyesterimids, polyhydantoins and polybenzimidazoles.
  • 18. Polyesters derived from dicarboxylic acids and diols and/or from hydroxycarboxylic acids or the corresponding lactones, for example polyethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate, poly-1,4-dimethylolcyclohexane terephthalate and polyhydroxybenzoates, as well as block copolyether esters derived from hydroxyl-terminated polyethers; and also polyesters modified with polycarbonates or MBS.
  • 19. Polycarbonates and polyester carbonates.
  • 20. Polysulfones, polyether sulfones and polyether ketones.
  • 21. Crosslinked polymers derived from aldehydes on the one hand and phenols, ureas and melamines on the other hand, such as phenol/formaldehyde resins, urea/formaldehyde resins and melamine/formaldehyde resins.
  • 22. Drying and non-drying alkyd resins.
  • 23. Unsaturated polyester resins derived from copolyesters of saturated and unsaturated dicarboxylic acids with polyhydric alcohols and vinyl compounds as crosslinking agents, and also halogen-containing modifications thereof of low flammability.
  • 24. Crosslinkable acrylic resins derived from substituted acrylates, for example epoxy acrylates, urethane acrylates or polyester acrylates.
  • 25. Alkyd resins, polyester resins and acrylate resins crosslinked with melamine resins, urea resins, isocyanates, isocyanurates, polyisocyanates or epoxy resins.
  • 26. Crosslinked epoxy resins derived from aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, heterocyclic or aromatic glycidyl compounds, e.g. products of diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and bisphenol F, which are crosslinked with customary hardeners such as anhydrides or amines, with or without accelerators.
  • 27. Natural polymers such as cellulose, rubber, gelatin and chemically modified homologous derivatives thereof, for example cellulose acetates, cellulose propionates and cellulose butyrates, or the cellulose ethers such as methyl cellulose; as well as rosins and their derivatives.
  • 28. Blends of the aforementioned polymers (polyblends), for example PP/EPDM, Polyamide/EPDM or ABS, PVC/EVA, PVC/ABS, PVC/MBS, PC/ABS, PBTP/ABS, PC/ASA, PC/PBT, PVC/CPE, PVC/acrylates, POM/thermoplastic PUR, PC/thermoplastic PUR, POM/acrylate, POM/MBS, PPO/HIPS, PPO/PA 6.6 and copolymers, PA/HDPE, PA/PP, PA/PPO, PBT/PC/ABS or PBT/PET/PC.
  • 29. Naturally occurring and synthetic organic materials which are pure monomeric compounds or mixtures of such compounds, for example mineral oils, animal and vegetable fats, oil and waxes, or oils, fats and waxes based on synthetic esters (e.g. phthalates, adipates, phosphates or trimellitates) and also mixtures of synthetic esters with mineral oils in any weight ratios, typically those used as spinning compositions, as well as aqueous emulsions of such materials.
  • 30. Aqueous emulsions of natural or synthetic rubber, e.g. natural latex or latices of carboxylated styrene/butadiene copolymers.
  • 31. Polysiloxanes such as the soft, hydrophilic polysiloxanes described, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 4,259,467; and the hard polyorganosiloxanes described, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 4,355,147.
  • 32. Polyketimines in combination with unsaturated acrylic polyacetoacetate resins or with unsaturated acrylic resins. The unsaturated acrylic resins include the urethane acrylates, polyether acrylates, vinyl or acryl copolymers with pendant unsaturated groups and the acrylated melamines. The polyketimines are prepared from polyamines and ketones in the presence of an acid catalyst.
  • 33. Radiation curable compositions containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers or oligomers and a polyunsaturated aliphatic oligomer.
  • 34. Epoxymelamine resins such as light-stable epoxy resins crosslinked by an epoxy functional coetherified high solids melamine resin such as LSE-4103 (Monsanto).

The instant invention also pertains to stabilized compositions which additionally comprise further additives. Of particular interest are the additives selected from the group consisting of phenolic antioxidants, light stabilizers or processing stabilizers or a combination thereof. Lists of appropriate phenolic antioxidants and of light stabilizers like e.g. sterically hindered amine compounds are given below.

1. Antioxidants

1.1. Alkylated monophenols, for example 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 2-tert-butyl-4,6-dimethylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-ethylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-n-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-isobutylphenol, 2,6-dicyclopentyl-4-methylphenol, 2-(α-methylcyclohexyl)-4,6-dimethylphenol, 2,6-dioctadecyl-4-methylphenol, 2,4,6-tricyclohexylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxymethylphenol, nonylphenols which are linear or branched in the side chains, for example, 2,6-di-nonyl-4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6-(1'-methylundec-1'-yl)phenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6-(1'-methylheptadec-1'-yl)phenol, 2,4-dimethyl-6-(1'methyltridec-1'-yl)phenol and mixtures thereof.

1.2. Alkylthiomethylphenols, for example 2,4-dioctylthiomethyl-6-tert-butylphenol, 2,4-dioctylthiomethyl-6-methylphenol, 2,4-dioctylthiomethyl-6-ethylphenol, 2,6-di-dodecylthiomethyl-4-nonylphenol.

1.3. Hydroquinones and alkylated hydroquinones, for example 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,5-di-tert-amylhydroquinone, 2,6-diphenyl-4-octadecyloxyphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl stearate, bis-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) adipate.

1.4. Tocopherols, for example α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and mixtures thereof (Vitamin E).

1.5. Hydroxylated thiodiphenyl ethers, for example 2,2'-thiobis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), 2,2'-thiobis(4-octylphenol), 4,4'-thiobis(6-tert-butyl-3-methylphenol), 4,4'-thiobis(6-tert-butyl-2-methylphenol), 4,4'-thiobis-(3,6-di-sec-amylphenol), 4,4'-bis-(2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) disulfide.

1.6. Alkylidenebisphenols, for example 2,2'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-ethylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis[4-methyl-6-(a-methylcyclohexyl)phenol], 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-cyclohexylphenol), 2,2'-methylene-bis(6-nonyl-4-methylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 2,2'-ethylidene-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 2,2'-ethylidenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-isobutylphenol), 2,2'-methylenebis[6-(a-methylbenzyl)-4-nonylphenol], 2,2'-methylenebis[6-(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)4-nonylphenol], 4,4'-methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 4,4'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-2-methylphenol), 1,1-bis(5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)butane, 2,6-bis(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methylphenol, 1,1,3-tris(5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)butane, 1,1-bis(5-tert-butyl4-hydroxy-2-methyl-phenyl)-3-n-dodecylmer-captobutane, ethylene glycol bis[3,3-bis(3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)butyrate], bis(3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenyl)dicyclopentadiene, bis[2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylbenzyl)-6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl]terephthalate, 1,1-bis-(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)butane, 2,2-bis-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 2,2-bis-(5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy2-methylphenyl)-4-n-dodecylmercaptobutane, 1,1,5,5-tetra-(5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy2-methylphenyl)pentane.

1.7. O-, N- and S-benzyl compounds, for example 3,5,3',5'-tetra-tert-butyl-4,4'-dihydroxy-dibenzyl ether, octadecyl-4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzylmercaptoacetate, tridecyl-4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzylmercaptoacetate, tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-amine, bis(4-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylbenzyl)dithioterephthalate, bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)sulfide, isooctyl-3,5di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylmercaptoacetate.

1.8. Hydroxybenzylated malonates, for example dioctadecyl-2,2-bis-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-malonate, di-octadecyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-malonate, di-dodecylmercaptoethyl-2,2-bis-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)malonate, bis-[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl]-2,2-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)malonate.

1.9. Aromatic hydroxybenzyl compounds, for example 1,3,5-tris-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene, 1,4-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzene, 2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)phenol.

1.10. Triazine Compounds, for example 2,4-bis(octylmercapto)-6-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanilino)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-octylmercapto-4,6-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-anilino)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-octylmercapto-4,6-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenoxy)1,3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenoxy)-1,2,3-triazine, 1,3,5-tris-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)isocyanurate, 1,3,5-tris(4-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-2,6-di-methylbenzyl)isocyanurate, 2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylethyl)-1,3,5-tri-azine, 1,3,5-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl)-hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine, 1,3,5-tris(3,5-dicyclohexyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)isocyanurate.

1.11. Benzylphosphonates, for example dimethyl-2,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, diethyl-3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, dioctadecyl3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, dioctadecyl-5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy3-methylbenzylphosphonate, the calcium salt of the monoethyl ester of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonic acid.

1.12. Acylaminophenols, for example 4-hydroxylauranilide, 4-hydroxystearanilide, octyl N-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamate.

1.13. Esters of β(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid with mono- or polyhydric alcohols, e.g. with methanol, ethanol, n-octanol, i-octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris(hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate, N,N'-bis(hydroxyethyl)oxamide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylolpropane, 4-hydroxymethyl-1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]-octane.

1.14. Esters of β-(5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)prpionic acid with mono- or polyhydric alcohols, e.g. with methanol, ethanol, n-octanol, i-octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris(hydroxyethyl) isocyanurate, N,N'-bis(hydroxyethyl)oxamide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylolpropane, 4-hydroxymethyl-1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo-[2.2.2]octane.

1.15. Esters of β-(3,5-dicyclohexyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid with mono- or polyhydric alcohols, e.g. with methanol, ethanol, octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate, N,N'-bis(hydroxyethyl)oxamide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylolpropane, 4-hydroxymethyl-1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

1.16. Esters of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid with mono- or polyhydric alcohols, e.g. with methanol, ethanol, octanol, octadecanol, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,9-nonanediol, ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, thiodiethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, tris(hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate, N,N'-bis(hydroxyethyl)oxamide, 3-thiaundecanol, 3-thiapentadecanol, trimethylhexanediol, trimethylolpropane, 4-hydroxymethyl- 1-phospha-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

1.17. Amides of ß-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid e.g. N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl)hexamethylenediamine, N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl)trimethylenediamine, N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl)hydrazine.

1.18. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

1.19. Aminic antioxidants, for example N,N'-di-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-bis(1,4-dimethylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-bis(1-ethyl-3-methylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-bis(1-methylheptyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-dicyclohexyl-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-bis(2-naphthyl)-p-phenylenediamine, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N-(1-methylheptyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, 4-(p-toluenesulfamoyl)diphenylamine, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine, diphenylamine, N-allyldiphenylamine, 4-isopropoxydiphenylamine, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, N-(4-tert-octylphenyl)- 1-naphthylamine, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, octylated diphenylamine, for example p,p'-di-tert-octyldiphenylamine, 4-n-butylaminophenol, 4-butyrylaminophenol, 4-nonanoylamino-phenol, 4-dodecanoylaminophenol, 4-octadecanoylaminophenol, bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amine, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-dimethylaminomethylphenol, 2,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-4,4'-di-aminodiphenylmethane, 1,2-bis[(2-methylphenyl)amino]ethane, 1,2-bis(phenylamino)propane, (o-tolyl)biguanide, Bis[4-(1',3'-dimethylbutyl)phenyl]amine, tert-octylated N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, a mixture of mono- and dialkylated tert-butyl/tert-octyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono- and dialkylated nonyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono- and dialkylated dodecyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono- and dialkylated isopropyl/isohexyldiphenylamines, a mixture of mono- und dialkylated tert-butyldiphenylamines, 2,3-di-hydro-3,3-dimethyl-4H-1,4-benzothiazine, phenothiazine, a mixture of mono- und dialkylated tert-butyl/tert-octylphenothiazines, a mixture of mono- und dialkylated tert-octylphenothiazines, N-allylphenothiazin, N,N,N',N'-tetraphenyl-1,4-diaminobut-2-ene, N,N-bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperid-4-yl-hexamethylenediamine, bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-4-yl)sebacate, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-one, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-ol.

2. UV absorbers and light stabilisers

2.1. 2-(2'-Hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazoles, for example 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl)-benzotriazole, 2-(3',5'-di-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(5'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(3',5'-di-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-chloro-benzotriazole, 2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl)-5-chloro-benzotriazole, 2-(3'-sec-butyl-5'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(2'-hydroxy-4'-octyloxyphenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(3',5'-di-tert-amyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(3',5'-bis-(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole, mixture of 2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-(2-octyloxycarbonylethyl)phenyl)-5-chloro-benzotriazole, 2-(3'-tert-butyl-5'-[2-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-carbonylethyl]-2'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-chloro-benzotriazole, 2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-(2-methoxycarbonylethyl)phenyl)-5-chloro-benzotriazole, 2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-(2-methoxycarbonylethyl)phenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-(2-octyloxycarbonylethyl)phenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(3'-tert-butyl-5'-[2-(2-ethylhexyloxy)carbonylethyl]-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzotriazole, 2-(3'-dodecyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl)benzotriazole, and 2-(3'-tert-butyl-2'-hydroxy-5'-(2-isooctyloxycarbonylethyl)phenylbenzotriazole, 2,2'-methylene-bis[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-6-benzotriazole-2-ylphenol]; the transesterification product of 2-[3'-tert-butyl-5'-(2-methoxycarbonylethyl)-2'-hydroxyphenyl]-2H-benzotriazole with polyethylene glycol 300;

where R = 3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxy-5'-2H-benzotriazol-2-ylphenyl.

2.2. 2-Hydroxybenzophenones, for example the 4-hydroxy, 4-methoxy, 4-octyloxy, 4-decyloxy, 4-dodecyloxy, 4-benzyloxy, 4,2',4'-trihydroxy and 2'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxy derivatives.

2.3. Esters of substituted and unsubstituted benzoic acids, as for example 4-tertbutylphenyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, octylphenyl salicylate, dibenzoyl resorcinol, bis(4-tert-butylbenzoyl) resorcinol, benzoyl resorcinol, 2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hexadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, 2-methyl-4,6-di-tert-butylphenyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoate.

2.4. Acrylates, for example ethyl α-cyano-β,β-diphenylacrylate, isooctyl α-cyano-β,β-di-phenylacrylate, methyl α-carbomethoxycinnamate, methyl α-cyano-β-methyl-p-methoxycinnamate, butyl α-cyano-β-methyl-p-methoxy-cinnamate, methyl α-carbomethoxy-p-methoxycinnamate and N-(β-carbomethoxy-β-cyanovinyl)-2-methylindoline.

2.5. Nickel compounds, for example nickel complexes of 2,2'-thio-bis-[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol], such as the 1:1 or 1:2 complex, with or without additional ligands such as n-butylamine, triethanolamine or N-cyclohexyldiethanolamine, nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate, nickel salts of the monoalkyl esters, e.g. the methyl or ethyl ester, of 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzylphosphonic acid, nickel complexes of ketoximes, e.g. of 2-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl undecylketoxime, nickel complexes of 1-phenyl-4-lauroyl-5-hydroxypyrazole, with or without additional ligands.

2.6. Sterically hindered amines, for example bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)sebacate, bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)succinate, bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl)sebacate, bis(1-octyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)sebacate, bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl) n-butyl-3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylmalonate, the condensate of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine and succinic acid, the condensate of N,N'-bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)hexamethylenediamine and 4-tert-octylamino-2,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine, tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)nitrilotriacetate, tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)- 1,2,3,4-butane-tetracarboxylate, 1,1'-(1,2-ethanediyl)bis(3,3,5,5-tetramethylpiperazinone), 4-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, 4-stearyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidyl)-2-n-butyl-2-(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)malonate, 3-n-octyl-7,7,9,9-tetramethyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-2,4-dion, bis(1-octyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl)sebacate, bis(1-octyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl)succinate, the condensate of N,N'-bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)hexamethylenediamine and 4-morpholino-2,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine, the condensate of 2-chloro-4,6-bis(4-n-butylamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl )-1,3,5-triazine and 1,2-bis(3-aminopropylamino)ethane, the condensate of 2-chloro-4,6-di-(4-n-butylamino-1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidyl)- 1,3,5-triazine and 1,2-bis-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane, 8-acetyl-3-dodecyl-7,7,9,9-tetramethyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decane-2,4-dione, 3-dodecyl-1-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)pyrrolidin-2,5-dione, 3-dodecyl-1-(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione, a mixture of 4-hexadecyloxy-and 4-stearyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, a condensation product of N,N'-bis-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)hexamethylenediamine and 4-cyclohexylamino-2,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine, a condensation product of 1,2-bis(3-aminopropylamino)ethane and 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine as well as 4-butylamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (CAS Reg. No. [136504-96-6]); N-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl)-n-dodecylsuccinimid, N-(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl)-n-dodecylsuccinimid, 2-undecyl-7,7,9,9-tetramethyl-1-oxa-3,8-diaza-4-oxo-spiro[4,5]decane, a reaction product of 7,7,9,9-tetramethyl-2-cycloundecyl-1-oxa-3,8-diaza-4-oxospiro [4,5]decane und epichlorohydrin.

2.7. Oxamides, for example 4,4'-dioctyloxyoxanilide, 2,2'-diethoxyoxanilide, 2,2'-dioctyloxy-5,5'-di-tert-butoxanilide, 2,2'-didodecyloxy-5,5'-di-tert-butoxanilide, 2-ethoxy-2'-ethyloxanilide, N,N'-bis(3-dimethylaminopropyl)oxamide, 2-ethoxy-5-tert-butyl-2'-ethoxanilide and its mixture with 2-ethoxy-2'-ethyl-5,4'-di-tert-butoxanilide and mixtures of ortho- and para-methoxy-disubstituted oxanilides and mixtures of o- and p-ethoxy-disubstituted oxanilides.

2.8. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazines, for example 2,4,6-tris(2-hydroxy-4-octyloxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-octyloxyphenyl)-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4-bis(2-hydroxy-4-propyloxyphenyl)-6-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-octyloxyphenyl)-4,6-bis(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-dodecyloxyphenyl)-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-tridecyloxyphenyl)-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxy-3-butyloxy-propoxy)phenyl]-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxy-3-octyloxy-propyloxy)phenyl]-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-[4-(dodecyloxy/tridecyloxy-2-hydroxypropoxy)-2-hydroxy-phenyl]-4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine, 2-[2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxy-3-dodecyloxy-propoxy)phenyl] 4,6-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-hexyloxy)phenyl-4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4,6-tris[2-hydroxy-4-(3-butoxy-2-hydroxy-propoxy)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine.

3. Metal deactivators, for example N,N'-diphenyloxamide, N-salicylal-N'-salicyloyl hydrazine, N,N'-bis(salicyloyl) hydrazine, N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenylpropionyl) hydrazine, 3-salicyloylamino-1,2,4-triazole, bis(benzylidene)oxalyl dihydrazide, oxanilide, isophthaloyl dihydrazide, sebacoyl bisphenylhydrazide, N,N'-di-acetyladipoyl dihydrazide, N,N'-bis(salicyloyl)oxalyl dihydrazide, N,N'-bis(salicyloyl)thiopropionyl dihydrazide.

4. Phosphites and phosphonites, for example triphenyl phosphite, diphenyl alkyl phosphites, phenyl dialkyl phosphites, tris(nonylphenyl) phosphite, trilauryl phosphite, trioctadecyl phosphite, distearyl pentaerythritol diphosphite, tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, diisodecyl pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis(2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenyl)-pentaerythritol diphosphite, diisodecyloxypentaerythritol diphosphite, bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylphenyl)pentaerythritol diphosphite, bis(2,4,6-tris(tert-butylphenyl)pentaerythritol diphosphite, tristearyl sorbitol triphosphite, tetrakis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) 4,4'-biphenylene diphosphonite, 6-isooctyloxy-2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-12H-dibenz[d,g]-1,3,2-dioxaphosphocin, 6-fluoro-2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-12-methyl-dibenz[d,g]-1,3,2-dioxaphosphocin, bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylphenyl)methylphosphite, bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-methylphenyl)ethylphosphite.

5. Hydroxylamines, for example, N,N-dibenzylhydroxylamine, N,N-diethylhydroxylamine, N,N-dioctylhydroxylamine, N,N-dilaurylhydroxylamine, N,N-ditetradecylhydroxylamine, N,N-dihexadecylhydroxylamine, N,N-dioctadecylhydroxylamine, N-hexadecyl-N-octadecylhydroxylamine, N-heptadecyl-N-octadecylhydroxylamine, N,N-dialkylhydroxylamine derived from hydrogenated tallow amine.

6. Nitrones, for example, N-benzyl-alpha-phenyl-nitrone, N-ethyl-alpha-methyl-nitrone, N-octyl-alpha-heptyl-nitrone, N-lauryl-alpha-undecyl-nitrone, N-tetradecyl-alpha-tridecyl-nitrone, N-hexadecyl-alpha-pentadecyl-nitrone, N-octadecyl-alpha-heptadecyl-nitrone, N-hexadecyl-alpha-heptadecyl-nitrone, N-ocatadecyl-alpha-pentadecyl-nitrone, N-heptadecyl-alpha-heptadecyl-nitrone, N-octadecyl-alpha-hexadecyl-nitrone, nitrone derived from N,N-dialkylhydroxylamine derived from hydrogenated tallow amine.

7. Thiosynergists, for example, dilauryl thiodipropionate or distearyl thiodipropionate.

8. Peroxide scavengers, for example esters of β-thiodipropionic acid, for example the lauryl, stearyl, myristyl or tridecyl esters, mercaptobenzimidazole or the zinc salt of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate, dioctadecyl disulfide, pentaerythritol tetrakis(β-dodecylmercapto)propionate.

9. Polyamide stabilisers, for example, copper salts in combination with iodides and/or phosphorus compounds and salts of divalent manganese.

10. Basic co-stabilisers, for example, melamine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, dicyandiamide, triallyl cyanurate, urea derivatives, hydrazine derivatives, amines, polyamides, polyurethanes, alkali metal salts and alkaline earth metal salts of higher fatty acids for example calcium stearate, zinc stearate, magnesium behenate, magnesium stearate, sodium ricinoleate and potassium palmitate, antimony pyrocatecholate or tin pyrocatecholate.

11. Nucleating agents, for example, inorganic substances such as talcum, metal oxides such as titanium dioxide or magnesium oxide, phosphates, carbonates or sulfates of, preferably, alkaline earth metals; organic compounds such as mono- or polycarboxylic acids and the salts thereof, e.g. 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid, adipic acid, diphenylacetic acid, sodium succinate or sodium benzoate; polymeric compounds such as ionic copolymers ("ionomers").

12. Fillers and reinforcing agents, for example, calcium carbonate, silicates, glass fibres, glass bulbs, asbestos, talc, kaolin, mica, barium sulfate, metal oxides and hydroxides, carbon black, graphite, wood flour and flours or fibers of other natural products, synthetic fibers.

13. Other additives, for example, plasticisers, lubricants, emulsifiers, pigments, rheology additives, catalysts, flow-control agents, optical brighteners, flameproofing agents, antistatic agents and blowing agents.

14. Benzofuranones and indolinones, for example those disclosed in US-A-4 325 863, US-A-4 338 244, US-A-5 175 312, US-A-5 216 052, US-A-5 252 643, DE-A-4 316 611, DE-A-4 316 622, DE-A-4 316 876, EP-A-0 589 839 or EP-A-0 591 102 or 3-[4-(2-acetoxyethoxy)phenyl]-5,7-di-tert-butyl-benzofuran-2-one, 5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-[4-(2-stearoyloxyethoxy)phenyl]benzofuran-2-one, 3,3'-bis[5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-(4-[2-hydroxyethoxy]phenyl)benzofuran-2-one], 5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)benzofuran-2-one, 3-(4-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-benzofuran-2-one, 3-(3,5-dimethyl-4-pivaloyloxyphenyl)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-benzofuran-2-one.

In general, the compounds of the present invention are employed in from about 0.01 to about 5% by weight of the stabilized composition, although this will vary with the particular substrate and application. An advantageous range is from about 0.5 to about 2%, and especially 0.1 to about 1%.

Other additives (stabilizers) which are likewise particularly preferred are benzofuran-2-ones, as described, for example, in US-A-4 325 863, US-A-4 338 244, US-A-5 175 312, US-A-5 216 052, US-A-5 252 643, DE-A-4 316 611, DE-A-4 316 622, DE-A-4 316 876, EP-A-0 589 839 and EP-A-0 591 102.

The amount of benzofuran-2-ones additionally employed can vary within broad limits. For example, they can be present in the novel compositions in amounts of from 0.0001 to 5 % by weight, preferably from 0.001 to 2 % by weight, in particular from 0.01 to 2 % by weight.

The stabilizers of the instant invention may readily be incorporated into the organic polymers by conventional techniques, at any convenient stage prior to the manufacture of shaped articles therefrom. For example, the stabilizer may be mixed with the polymer in dry powder form, or a suspension or emulsion of the stabilizer may be mixed with a solution, suspension, or emulsion of the polymer. The resulting stabilized polymer compositions of the invention may optionally also contain from about 0.01 to about 5%, preferably from about 0.025 to about 2%, and especially from about 0.1 to about 1% by weight of various conventional additives, such as the materials listed below, or mixtures thereof.

The phenolic antioxidant of particular interest is selected from the group consisting of n-octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, neopentanetetrayl tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinammate), di-n-octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, 1,3,5-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)isocyanurate, thiodiethylene bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate), 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzene, 3,6-dioxaoctamethylene bis(3-methyl-5-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, 2,2'-ethylidene-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 1,3,5-tris(2,6-dimethyl-4-tert-butyl-3-hydroxybenzyl)isocynurate, 1,1,3,-tris(2-methyl-4-hydroxy-5-tert-butylphenyl)butane, 1,3,5-tris[2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamoyloxy)ethyl]isocyanurate, 3,5-di-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)mesitol, hexamethylene bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate), 1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanilino)-3,5-di(octylthio)-s-triazine, N,N'-hexamethylene-bis(3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamamide), calcium bis(ethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate), ethylene bis[3,3-di(3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)butyrate], octyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylmercaptoacetate, bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamoyl)hydrazide, and N,N'-bis[2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamoyloxy)ethyl]-oxamide.

A most preferred phenolic antioxidant is neopentanetetrayl tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate), n-octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzene, 1,3,5-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)isocyanurate, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol or 2,2'-ethylidene-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol).

The hindered amine compound of particular interest is selected from the group consisting of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) sebacate, bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl) sebacate, di(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl) (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)butylmalonate, 4-benzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, 4-stearyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine, 3-n-octyl-7,7,9,9-tetramethyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5]decane-2,4-dione, tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) nitrilotriacetate, 1,2-bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3-oxopiperazin-4-yl)ethane, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-7-oxa-3,20-diaza-21-oxodispiro[5.1.11.2]heneicosane, polycondensation product of 2,4-dichloro-6-tert-octylamino-s-triazine and 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), polycondensation product of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine and succinic acid, polycondensation product of 4,4'-hexamethylenebis-(amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) and 1,2-dibromoethane, tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylate, tetrakis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl) 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylate, polycondensation product of 2,4-dichloro-6-morpholino-s-triazine and 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), N,N',N",N"'-tetrakis[(4,6-bis(butyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)-amino-s-triazin-2-yl]- 1,10-diamino-4,7-diazadecane, mixed [2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl/β,β,β',β'-tetramethyl-3,9-(2,4,8,10-tewaoxaspiro[5.5]undecane) diethyl] 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylate, mixed [1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidin-4-yl/β,β,β'β'-tetramethyl-3,9-(2,4 ,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5 .5] undecane)diethyl] 1,2,3,4-butanetewacarboxylate, octamethylene bis(2,2,6,6-tewamethylpiperidin-4-carboxylate), 4,4'-ethylenebis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperazin-3-one) and bis(1-octyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) sebacate.

A most preferred hindered amine compound is bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) sebacate, the polycondensation product of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine and succinic acid, the polycondensation product of 2,4-dichloro-6-tert-octylamino-s-triazine and 4,4'-hexamethylenebis(amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine), N,N' ,N",N"'-tetrakis[(4,6-bis(butyl-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidin-4-yl)amino)-s-triazine-2-yl]-1,10-diamino-4,7-diazadecane or bis(1-octyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl) sebacate.

The compounds of the formula I and any further additives are incorporated into the polymeric, organic material by known methods, for example before or during shaping or alternatively by application of the dissolved or dispersed compounds to the polymeric, organic material, if necessary with subsequent evaporation of the solvent. The compounds of the formula I can also be added to the materials to be stabilized in the form of a masterbatch, which contains these in, for example, a concentration from 2.5 to 25 % by weight.

The compounds of the formula I can also be added before or during polymerization or before crosslinking.

The compounds of the formula I can be incorporated into the material to be stabilized in pure form or encapsulated in waxes, oils or polymers.

The compounds of the formula I can also be sprayed onto the polymer to be stabilized. They are capable of diluting other additives (for example the conventional additives mentioned above) or their melts, so that they can also be sprayed onto the polymer to be stabilized together with these additives. A particularly advantageous method is the addition by spraying during deactivation of the polymerization catalysts, where, for example, the steam used for deactivation can be used for the spraying.

In the case of polyolefins polymerized in bead form, it may, for example, be advantageous to apply the compounds of the formula I, if desired together with other additives, by spraying.

The materials stabilized in this way can be used in a very wide variety of forms, for example as films, fibres, tapes, moulding compositions, profiles or as binders for paints, adhesives or adhesive cements.

As mentioned above, the organic materials to be protected are preferably organic polymers, particularly synthetic polymers. Thermoplastic materials, in particular polyolefins, are particularly advantageously protected. In particular, the excellent effectiveness of the compounds of the formula I as processing stabilizers (heat stabilizers) should be emphasized. For this purpose, they are advantageously added to the polymer before or during processing thereof. However, other polymers (for example elastomers) or lubricants or hydraulic fluids can also be stabilized against degradation, for example light-induced or thermo-oxidative degradation. Elastomers are given in the above list of possible organic materials.

Suitable lubricants, lubricating fats, waxes based on synthetic esters and hydraulic fluids are based, for example, on mineral or synthetic oils or mixtures thereof. The lubricants are known to the person skilled in the art and are described in the relevant specialist literature, for example in Dieter Klamann, "Schmierstoffe und verwandte Produkte" [Lubricants and Related Products] (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1982), in Schewe-Kobek, "Das Schmiermittel-Taschenbuch" [The Lubricant Handbook] (Dr. Alfred Hüthig-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1974) and in "Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie" [Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry], Vol. 13, pages 85-94 (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 1977).

A preferred embodiment of the present invention is therefore the use of compounds of the formula I as stabilizers for protecting organic materials against oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation.

The compounds of the formula I are distinguished by pronounced excellent hydrolysis stability and advantageous colouring behaviour, ie low discoloration of the organic materials during processing.

Organic materials which have been stabilized by means of the compounds of the present invention are particularly well protected against light-induced degradation.

The present invention therefore also relates to a process for the stabilization of an organic material against the adverse effects of oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation, which comprises incorporating therein an effective stabilizing amount of a compound of formula I.

The following examples are for illustrative purposes only and are not meant to be construed to limit the scope or nature of the instant invention in any manner whatsoever.

Example 1: Preparation of 1-O-(2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphe-pin-6-yl)-2,2' -bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol)

Into a solution of 50 g (122 mmol) of 2,2'-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and 25.5 mL (183 mmol) of triethylamine in 300 ml of tetrahydrofuran is added dropwise a solution of 5.32 ml (61 mmol) of phosphorus trichloride at ambient temperature. After stirring for three hours at ambient temperature, the reaction mixture is heated to reflux for an additional two hours. The reaction mixture is filtered to remove triethylamine hydrochloride and the filtrate is concentrated in vacuo to give 75.4 g of crude oil. Trituration of the crude oil with 200 ml of acetonitrile gives 45 g (86.9% yield) of a white solid, melting at 247-250°C.

Example 2: Preparation of 1-O-(2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-12H-dibenzo[d,g][1,3,2]dioxaphosphocin-6-yl)-2,2'-methylenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol)

The procedure of Example 1 is repeated using 84.9 g (200 mmol) of 2,2'-methylenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and 41.8 ml (300 mmol) of triethylamine in 200 ml of toluene and 8.7 ml (100 mmol) of phosphorus trichloride in 100 ml of toluene to give 90 g of an off-white solid. Trituration of the off-white solid with 200 ml of acetonitrile gives 80.4 g (92% yield) of a white solid, melting at 243-246°C. Analysis: Calc. for C&sub5;&sub8;H&sub8;&sub5;O&sub4;P: C, 79.4; H, 9.8 %. Found: C, 79.2; H, 10.0 %.

Example 3: Preparation of 1-O-(2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-12-methyl-12H-dibenzo[d,g][1,3,2]dioxaphosphocin-6-yl)-2,2'-ethylidenebis (4,6-di-tert-butylphenol)

The procedure of Example 1 is repeated using 87.7 g (200 mmol) of 2,2'-ethylidenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and 41.8 ml (300 mmol) of triethylamine in 300 ml of toluene and 8.7 ml (100 mmol) of phosphorus trichloride in 50 ml of toluene to give 95 g of a thick oil. Trituration of the oil with 200 ml of acetonitrile gives 84 g (92.8% yield) of a white solid, melting at 219-220°C.

Example 4: Preparation of 1-O-(2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2] dioxaphosphepin-6-yl)-2,2'-ethylidenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol)

Into a solution of 27.6 g (63 mmol) of 2,2'-ethylidene-bis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and 8.8 ml (63 mmol) of triethylamine in 200 ml of toluene is added dropwise a solution of 30 g (63 mmol) of 6-chloro-2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin in 100 ml of toluene at ambient temperature. After 20 hours of stirring at ambient temperature, the reaction mass is filtered to remove triethylamine hydrochloride and the filtrate is concentrated in vacuo to give 50 g of an oil. Trituration of the crude oil with 200 ml of acetonitrile gives 40.9 g (74% yield) of a white solid, melting at 273-277°C. Analysis: Calc. for C&sub5;&sub9;H&sub8;&sub5;O&sub4;P: C, 79.4; H, 9.8 %. Found: C, 79.1; H, 10.2 %.

Example 5: Praparation of 1-O-(2,4,8,10-tetra-tert-butyl-dibenzo[d,f][1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin-6-yl)-2,2'-methylenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol)

The procedure of Example 4 is repeated using 21.23 g (50 mmol) of 2,2'-methylenebis(4,6-di-tert-butylphenol), 7 ml (50 mmol) of triethylamine in 200 ml of toluene and 23.84 g (50mmol) of 6-chloro-2,4,8,l0-tetra-tert-butyl-dibenzo[d,f] [1,3,2]dioxaphosphepin in 100 ml of toluene to give a brownish oil. Trituration of crude oil with 200 ml of acetonitrile gives 36.65 g (85% yield) of a white solid, melting at 195-205°C. Analysis: Calc. for C&sub5;&sub7;H&sub8;&sub3;B&sub4;P: C, 79.3; H, 9.7 %. Found: C, 78.8; H, 10.2 %.

Example 6: Process Stabilization of Polypropylene at 274°C

This example illustrates the process stabilizing effectiveness of the instant compounds in polypropylene.

The base formulation comprises unstabilized, new technology polypropylene (PROFAX® 6501, Himont) containing 0.075% by weight of calcium stearate. The test additives are incorporated into the polypropylene by dry blending or, when the additive is a liquid, using a minimum amount of methylene chloride solvent. The solvent is then removed by evaporation under reduced pressure. The stabilized resin formulation is extruded at 90 rpm from a 2.54 cm diameter extruder at 274°C with a residence time of 90 seconds. After each of the first and fifth extrusions, the melt flow rate (in grams/10 minutes) is determined by ASTM method D1238 on the pellets obtained from the extruder. The results are given in the table 1 below. A large increase in the melt flow rate means severe chain breakdown, that is to say poor stabilization.

These results show that the instant compounds provide stabilized compositions of greatly improved melt flow properties for polypropylene. The absolute results are very similar to those obtained by using the corresponding bisphosphites. However, this is truly unexpected when one considers that the instant compounds provide these stabilization effects with essentially only half as much phosphite on a molar basis as the prior art bisphosphites.

Example 7: Process Stabilization of Polypropylene at 274°C

This example illustrates the process stabilizing effectiveness of the instant compounds in polypropylene in formulations containing a phenolic antioxidant. The results, using the procedure described in Example 6 on polypropylene formulations containing an instant compound and a phenolic antioxidant, are given in the table 2 below. Additive Additive Concentration (% by weight) Melt Flow Rate After Extrusion 1st 5th - - 12.4 55.7 AO A 0.075 8.3 13.9 AOA plus Compound of Example 1 0.075 6.3 9.3 0.075 AOA plus Compound of Example 2 0.075 6.5 8.9 0.075 AOA plus Compound of Example 3 0.075 7.8 13.5 0.075

AO A is neopentanetetrayl tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate).

The combination of a phenolic antioxidant plus an instant compound provides excellent melt flow stabilization; better stabilization than obtained by the use of a phenolic antioxidant alone.


Anspruch[en]
  1. A stabilized composition which comprises
    • (A) an organic material subject to oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation, and
    • (B) an effective stabilizing amount of a hydroxyaryl phosphite of formula I
      wherein
      • n has a value of zero or one;
      • when n is zero, Q is a direct bond, or
      • when n is one, Q is -CR&sub1;R&sub2;-,
      • R&sub1; and R&sub2; independently represent hydrogen, straight chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms, branched chain alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, phenyl, tolyl or anisyl;
      • Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3;, Y&sub4;, Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; independently represent hydrogen, a straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms, bicycloalkyl of 7 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl, benzyl, 1-phenylethyl, cyclohexyl, 1-methylcyclohexyl, cyano, halogen, nitro, trifluoromethyl, hydroxy, amino, alkanoyl of 2 to 18 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 18 carbon atoms or E&sub1;E&sub2;E&sub3;Si- where E&sub1;, E&sub2; and E&sub3; are independently hydrogen, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or phenyl.
  2. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I, n is zero or one; and when n is zero, Q is a direct bond; or when n is one, Q is -CR&sub1;R&sub2;- wherein R&sub1; and R&sub2; independently represent hydrogen, straight chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms, branched chain alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, or phenyl.
  3. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I, R&sub1; is hydrogen, and R&sub2; is hydrogen, methyl or phenyl.
  4. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I, Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3; and Y&sub4; are alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms or 1-phenylethyl.
  5. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I, Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3; and Y&sub4; are each tert-butyl.
  6. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I, Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; are independently straight or branched chain alkyl of 1 to 18 carbon atoms or 1-phenylethyl.
  7. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I, Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; are independently alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
  8. A composition according to claim 1 where in the compound of formula I
    • n has a value of zero or one;
    • when n is zero, Q is a direct bond, or
    • when n is one, Q is -CR&sub1;R&sub2;-,
    • R&sub1; is hydrogen,
    • R&sub2; is hydrogen, methyl or phenyl,
    • Y&sub1;, Y&sub2;, Y&sub3; and Y&sub4; are each tert-butyl, and
    • Z&sub1;, Z&sub2;, Z&sub3; and Z&sub4; are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms.
  9. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the organic material of component (A) is a natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic polymer.
  10. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the organic matarial of component (A) is a thermoplastic polymer.
  11. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the organic material of component (A) is a polyolefin.
  12. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the organic material of component (A) is polyethylene or polypropylene.
  13. A composition according to claim 1, comprising further additives in addition to components (A) and (B).
  14. A composition according to claim 13, wherein the further additives are selected from the group consisting of phenolic antioxidants, light stabilizers or processing stabilizers.
  15. A composition according to claim 13, comprising at least one compound of the benzofuran-2-one type as further additive.
  16. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the organic material of component (A) is a lubricant, lubricating fat or wax based on a synthetic ester.
  17. A process of stabilizing an organic material against the adverse effects of oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation which comprises incorporating therein an effective stabilizing amount of a compound of formula I according to claim 1.
  18. Use of a compound of formula I as defined in claim 1 as stabilizer for protecting organic materials against oxidative, thermal or actinic induced degradation.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

Anmelder
Datum

Patentrecherche

Patent Zeichnungen (PDF)

Copyright © 2008 Patent-De Alle Rechte vorbehalten. eMail: info@patent-de.com