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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0689733 14.08.1997
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0689733
Titel BESTIMMUNGSVERFAHREN FÜR EINE STATOR-FLUSS-SCHÄTZUNG EINER ASYNCHRONMASCHINE
Anmelder ABB Industry OY, Helsinki, FI
Erfinder HEIKKILÄ, Samuli, FIN-00420 Helsinki, FI
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69404137
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB, IT, SE
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 24.02.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 949083562
WO-Anmeldetag 24.02.1994
PCT-Aktenzeichen FI9400071
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 9422213
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 29.09.1994
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 03.01.1996
EP date of grant 09.07.1997
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 14.08.1997
IPC-Hauptklasse H02P 7/44
IPC-Nebenklasse G01R 31/34   G01R 33/02   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a method for determining an estimate for the stator flux of an asynchronous machine when the stator current, stator voltage, supply frequency, stator inductance, stator resistance or an estimate therefor, and short-circuit inductance of the machine are known. A stator resistance estimate for the machine can also be determined by the method.

In frequency converter-based control of an asynchronous machine, the object is often to make the torque generated by the machine to behave in a desired way when the current and voltage supplied to the machine are known. In that situation, one attempts to influence the electric torque, which in terms of the stator flux and stator current is: Tm= ks × is), where

  • Tm = electric torque,
  • k = constant coefficient,
  • Ψ s = stator flux, and
  • is = stator current.

Controlled torque regulation therefore requires that besides the current is, the stator flux or a commensurate variable (such as the rotor flux or air gap flux) of the machine is known. This will not present any problem with operation at high frequencies, in which situation integration of the voltage supplied to the machine is known to give a good estimate for the stator flux: Ψs= ∫usdt = us / (jωs), where

  • us = stator voltage, and
  • ωs = supply frequency.

Ψs is easy to calculate from equation 2 when the supply voltage and its frequency are known.

It can also be seen from this equation that when ωs diminishes, below a specific nominal frequency the voltage must be reduced in order for the flux not to increase too much and the machine not to become saturated.

Yet equation 2 is not practicable with low frequencies, since in reality the voltage to which the windings of the machine are subjected deviates from the supply voltage to the extent of the voltage loss developed in the winding resistances. Thus the relative proportion of the loss component in the voltage increases when us has to be reduced as ωs diminishes. With low frequencies the loss component should thus be taken into account, i.e., the flux estimate should be calculated from the equation: Ψs = ∫(us-Rsis)dt, where Rs = stator resistance (see GB-A-2 239 320).

The accuracy of the flux estimate calculated by means of this equation is, however, strongly dependent on the accuracy of the Rs estimate employed and on the operating frequency, such that the error in the steady state-of the flux estimate increases in direct proportion to the error in the Rs estimate and in inverse proportion to the frequency. On the other hand, the Rs estimate must always be distinctly smaller than the actual stator resistance to enable stable control by the integrating method according to equation 3. Therefore, with the mere integrating method one can in practice hardly attain frequencies below 10 Hz without a significant steady state error in the flux estimate.

This problem related to the integrating method can be solved with the use of either direct or indirect vector control. In the first case, the stator flux is measured directly with a measuring element incorporated in the machine, whereas in the latter method it is calculated indirectly on the basis of the stator current and speed information obtained from a tachometer disposed on the shaft of the machine. In both cases, the torque of the machine can also be controlled at zero frequency, but bot methods require an extra measuring element which is relatively costly and diminishes reliability.

The above problems can be avoided without any need for extra measuring elements incorporated in the machine by the method of the present invention according to claim 1.

In the following the invention will be set forth in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which

  • Figure 1 shows an example of a stator current vector as a function of time, and the dependence of the difference variable ε on the stator current and reference current,
  • Figure 2 shows an example of function f as a function of the supply frequency,
  • Figures 3a and 3b show examples of angle &thetas; as a function of the supply frequency when the torque is a) positive and b) negative, and
  • Figure 4 shows a method of the invention for calculating the stator flux of an asynchronous machine.

For deduction of the expression for the reference current, let us first look at certain known basic equations for the steady state in an asynchronous machine in stator coordinates: 0=Rrir+jωrΨr Ψs=Lsis+Lmir Ψr=Lrir+Lmis, where

  • Ψr = rotor flux,
  • ir = rotor current,
  • ωr = slip frequency,
  • Rr = rotor resistance,
  • Ls = stator inductance,
  • Lr = rotor inductance, and
  • Lm = main inductance.

Employing equations 5 and 6, the rotor flux and rotor current can be expressed by means of the stator flux and stator current: Ψr= Lr / (Lm) (ΨsLsis) ir= 1 / (Lm) (Ψs-Lsis), where

σ = 1 - L2mLsLr
= dispersion coefficient, and
σLs
= short-circuit inductance.

It follows from equation 4 that Rrir=-jωrΨr In other words, the rotor current in steady state is perpendicular to the rotor flux, and thus the notation is: ir&peseta;Ψ r=0, where "&peseta;" = scalar product.

By inserting equations 7 and 8 in equation 10 we have s-Lsis) &peseta; (ΨsLsis) =0

An incorrect stator flux estimate will not normally satisfy equation 11, and thus the magnitude of the error in the flux estimate may be denoted by difference variable ε, which is determined as follows:

where Ψse is the stator flux estimate.

As a next step, the electric torque Te is determined in such a way that Te = Ψse × is = Ψseisq, where isq is the perpendicular component of the stator current relative to the stator flux estimate.

Now, the scalar product of the flux and current in equation 13 may be written as Ψse&peseta;isseisdse sqrt(i2s-i2sq)= sqrt(Ψ2sei2s-T2e), where isd is the component of the stator current having the direction of the stator flux estimate.

Inserting equation 15 in equation 13 gives the following dependence between the flux and torque estimates and the square of the stator current: Ψ2se - (Ls + σLs) sqrt(Ψ2sei2s-T2e) + LsσLsi2s = ε

The aim is to correct the stator flux estimate such that ε is zeroed in equation 16. In that situation, the absolute value of the stator current approaches the reference value iref which satisfies the equation: Ψ2se - (Ls + σLs) sqrt(Ψ2sei2ref-T2e) + LsσLsi2ref = 0, where iref represents the current the value of which the absolute value of the stator current vector should have in the steady state if the machine had a stator flux of Ψse and a torque of Te.

Thus the square of the reference current obtained from equation 17 as a function of the flux and torque estimates is:

However, calculating the reference current from the statement of equation 18 is rather cumbersome and also unnecessary, as it can be shown that

In other words, the difference variable ε calculated in equation 12 is positive if the amplitude of the stator current is lower than the reference current, and vice versa. This dependence has been illustrated in Figure 1. Thus, using the difference variable it is possible to correct the flux estimate such that the stator current will be equal in amplitude to the reference current.

In the present invention the correction of the flux estimate is performed indirectly in such a way that first a correction term proportional to ε is subtracted from the voltage estimate, wherefrom the flux estimate is subsequently calculated by integration, i.e. (cf. equation 3): Ψse = ∫(us-Rseiswuc)dt, where

εwuc =
correction term for voltage estimate
wu =
amplification coefficient (>0) for correction of voltage estimate, and
c =
direction vector for correction of voltage estimate.

Coefficient wu has bearing on how close to the reference current the measured current is set. The higher the value of wu, the closer the current will be to the reference and the smaller ε will also be, in other words, wu is comparable to the P factor in a conventional controller. It should preferably be selected to be as high as possible in order for the noise in ε not to have too much influence on the flux estimate.

The direction vector c is selected so as to form a predetermined angle &thetas; relative to the flux estimate: c = ej&thetas; Ψse

In order for the control based on the present method to be stable, the direction &thetas; of correction of the voltage estimate should be selected as follows:

where
and fs) = odd function as shown in Figure 2. This receives the value zero when the absolute value of the frequency exceeds a predetermined threshold frequency ωL. It is piecewise monotonic decreasing in the range -ωL...ωL, receiving its minimum and maximum values -&thetas;L and &thetas;L at zero frequency. ωL and &thetas;L are machine-dependent to some extent, so that ωL is 10%...20% from the nominal frequency and &thetas;L is 50...80°.

Thus the direction of correction of the voltage estimate is dependent on the frequency and torque existing in the machine as shown in Figures 3a and 3b. When the torque is positive, which situation is illustrated in Figure 3a, with positive frequencies the machine serves as a motor, and in that case the voltage estimate is only corrected in the direction of the flux estimate (&thetas; = 0). On the generator side above the threshold frequency -ωL said angle is turned as a function of the frequency in the negative direction, so that the angle -&thetas;L is achieved with zero frequency. Respectively with a negative torque, which situation is illustrated in Figure 3b, the machine serves as a motor when the frequency is negative, and in that case &thetas; = 0. With a positive frequency one operates on the generator side, in which case the angle is reduced as a function of the frequency starting from the value &thetas;L, so that above the threshold frequency ωL, &thetas; = 0.

In the calculation of the estimate Rse for the stator resistance employed in equation 20, one makes use of the finding that a lower estimate than the actual stator resistance will cause an error in the flux calculated by the integrating method (equation 3), which will result in too low a stator current in a no-load situation and on the motor side, and too high a stator current on the generator side. Respectively, a higher Rse than actual causes a reverse error in the stator current. By adding to the integrating method a term correcting the stator voltage estimate (equation 20), the effect of Rse on the stator current can be considerably diminished, but also in that case it has a small effect of a similar direction on the current and thereby also on the difference variable ε, so that on the motor side:

and on the generator side:

Therefore, it is possible to adjust Rse by means of the difference variable ε and equations 24 and 25 to equal the actual stator resistance. Thus in the present invention Rse is calculated as follows: Rse = ∫(wrε)dt, where

and wR is a positive constant.

The estimate for the stator resistance is thus obtained by integrating the difference variable ε weighted by coefficient wr (equation 26). In accordance with equation 27, wr is selected in a no-load situation and on the motor side (q ≥ O) to equal the constant wR and on the generator side (q < 0) to equal the constant -wR, in consequence of which Rse increases on the motor side and diminishes on the generator side with a positive ε value. The coefficient wR determines how fast Rse follows variations in the actual stator resistance which are mainly due to variations in the temperature of the stator of the machine dependent on load variations. In practice, wR should preferably be selected to be rather small, since the actual Rs can only change very slowly.

With correction of Rse, one achieves setting of the current vector in steady state at its reference value (ε = 0). The greater wR, the faster the setting is; yet too high wR will cause instability. wR is comparable to the I factor in a conventional controller.

The method of the invention is illustrated as a flow chart in Figure 4. The input variables are the measured stator current is and stator voltage us of the asynchronous machine 1. Furthermore, the stator inductance Ls, short-circuit inductance σLs and supply frequency ws are presumed to be known. The method gives as an output variable an estimate Ψse for the stator flux of the machine, in addition to which an estimate Rse for the stator resistance is also calculated in the method.

Calculation of the stator flux estimate employs equation 20, according to which first in block 3 the product of the estimates of the stator current and stator resistance calculated in block 2 is subtracted from the stator voltage us. Block 4 subtracts the correction term εwuc from the voltage estimate us-Rseis obtained as an output from block 3, and the resultant difference is further integrated in block 5 to obtain a stator flux estimate Ψse.

The stator resistance estimate Rse is calculated on the basis of equation 26 by integrating in block 12 the product of the difference variable ε and a weighting factor wr, which has been calculated in block 11. The weighting factor wr is given by the selector of block 15, whose output receives the value wR if q ≥ 0, or the value -wR if q < 0 (equation 27).

To determine the correction term εwuc for the voltage estimate, angle &thetas; is first formed in block 18, the selector of which gives as an output either zero if q ≥ O, or a function fs) of the supply frequency ωs calculated in block 17 (Figure 2) if q < 0, in accordance with equation 22. From angle &thetas; a unit vector ej&thetas; is formed in block 19; the unit vector is multiplied in block 20 by the stator flux estimate obtained from block 5 as feedback to give a direction vector c for the voltage estimate (equation 21). The resultant direction vector is multiplied in block 21 by the difference variable ε weighted by factor wu obtained from block 16, which gives as the output from block 21 the correction term for said voltage estimate.

The difference variable ε is determined by means of a scalar product in accordance with equation 12. To obtain the first factor of the scalar product, the stator current is is first multiplied by the stator inductance Ls in block 6 and the product thus obtained is subtracted in block 8 from the stator flux estimate Ψse obtained as feedback from block 5. Respectively, the other factor in said scalar product is obtained by multiplying the stator current is by the short circuit inductance σLs in block 7 and subtracting the product thus obtained in block 9 from the stator flux estimate Ψse obtained from block 5. Finally, in block 10 a scalar product is calculated from the outputs of blocks 8 and 9 to give the difference variable ε.

The variable q is determined on the basis of equation 23 by first calculating in block 13 a cross product of the current is and the stator flux estimate Ψ se obtained as feedback from block 5, i.e. a torque estimate Te (equation 14) which is subsequently multiplied in block 14 at supply frequency ωs to give the variable q.

In practice, the calculation method illustrated in Figure 4 can be realized either as an analog system or as a time-discrete system based on sampling. In an analog system the stator flux estimate produced has a direct feedback effect on the inputs of blocks 20, 8, 9 and 13. In a time-discrete system the input of said blocks is in practice constituted by a previous value for the stator flux estimate. However, the selected mode of operation has no effect on the actual method and its practicability, and both modes of operation are encompassed by the scope defined in the appended claims.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verfahren zur Bestimmung einer Schätzung für den Statorfluß einer Asynchronmaschine, wenn Speisefrequenz ωs, Statorinduktivität Ls, Statorwiderstand Rs oder eine Schätzung Rse dafür und Kurzschlußinduktivität σLs bekannt sind, in dem
    • der Statorstrom is und die Statorspannung us gemessen werden,
    • eine Differenzspannung durch Subtrahieren des Produkts aus dem Statorwiderstand oder seiner Schätzung und dem Statorstrom von der Statorspannung berechnet wird und
    • die Differenzspannung über die Zeit integriert wird, was eine Statorflußschätzung ψse ergibt,
       dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß vor der Integration ein auf der zurückgeführten Statorflußschätzung ψse basierender und zum Produkt aus der Differenzvariablen ε und dem dafür gegebenen Richtungsvektor c proportionaler Korrekturterm von der Differenzspannung subtrahiert wird, wobei die Differenzvariable aus der Gleichung se-Lsis)&peseta;(ψseLsis) = ε bestimmt wird und der Richtungsvektor c aus der zurückgeführten Statorflußschätzung ψse gebildet wird, indem diese auf den Winkel &thetas;, der von der Betriebsweise der Maschine abhängt, gedreht wird.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1,

       dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Winkel &thetas; gleich 0 ist, wenn die Maschine als Motor arbeitet und der Winkel &thetas; eine Funktion der Speisefrequenz ωs ist, wenn die Maschine als Generator arbeitet.
  3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, bei dem im Verfahren auch eine Schätzung Rse für den Statorwiderstand zur Berechnung der Differenzspannung bestimmt wird,

       dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Statorwiderstandsschätzung Rse für den durch Integrieren des Produkts aus der Differenzvariablen ε und einem von der Betriebsweise der Maschine abhängigen Faktor wr über die Zeit bestimmt wird.
  4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3,

       dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Faktor wr gleich WR ist, wenn die Maschine als Motor arbeitet, und der Faktor wr gleich -wR ist, wenn die Maschine als Generator arbeitet, wobei wR eine positive Konstante ist.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A method for determining an estimate for the stator flux of an asynchronous machine when the supply frequency ωs, stator inductance Ls, stator resistance Rs or an estimate Rse therefor, and short-circuit inductance σLs are known, in which method
    • the stator current is and stator voltage us are measured,
    • a difference voltage is calculated by subtracting the product of the stator resistance or its estimate and the stator current from the stator voltage and
    • integrating said difference voltage in relation to time to give a stator flux estimate Ψse, characterized in that prior to the integration a correction term based on the feedback stator flux estimate Ψse and being proportional to the product of the difference variable ε and the direction vector c given therefor is subtracted from said difference voltage, said difference variable being determined from the equation se-Lsis)&peseta;(Ψ seLsis)=ε and the direction vector c being formed from the feedback stator flux estimate Ψse by turning it for the angle &thetas; which is dependent on the operational mode of the machine.
  2. A method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that when the machine serves as a motor the angle &thetas; is 0, and when the machine serves as a generator the angle &thetas; is a function of the supply frequency ωs.
  3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2 where an estimate Rse for the stator resistance for calculating said difference voltage is also determined in the method, characterized in that the stator resistance estimate Rse is determined by integrating the product of said difference variable ε and a factor wr dependent on the operational mode of the machine in relation to time.
  4. A method as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that when the machine serves as a motor the factor wr is wR, and when the machine serves as a generator the factor wr is -wR where wR is a positive constant.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Procédé pour déterminer une estimation du flux statorique d'une machine asynchrone lorsqu'on connaît la fréquence d'alimentation ωs, l'inductance Ls du stator, la résistance Rs du stator ou une estimation Rse de celle-ci, et l'inductance de court-circuit σLs, procédé dans lequel :
    • on mesure le courant statorique is et la tension statorique us,
    • on calcule une tension de différence en soustrayant le produit de la résistance statorique, ou l'estimation de celle-ci, et du courant statorique de la tension statorique, et
    • on intègre ladite tension de différence par rapport au temps pour obtenir une estimation du flux statorique Ψse,

      caractérisé en ce que, avant l'intégration, un facteur de correction basé sur l'estimation du flux statorique Ψse en retour et proportionnel au produit de la variable de différence ε et du vecteur de direction c obtenu pour celle-ci est soustrait de ladite tension de différence, ladite variable de différence étant déterminée d'après l'équation se - Lsis)&peseta;(ψse - σLsis) = ε et le vecteur de direction c étant obtenu à partir de l'estimation du flux statorique ψse en retour en le faisant tourner de l'angle &thetas; fonction du mode de fonctionnement de la machine.
  2. Procédé selon la revendication 1,

    caractérisé en ce que, lorsque la machine sert de moteur, l'angle &thetas; = 0, et lorsque la machine sert de générateur, l'angle &thetas; est fonction de la fréquence d'alimentation ωs.
  3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel on détermine aussi une estimation Rse de la résistance statorique pour calculer ladite tension de différence,

    caractérisé en ce que l'estimation de la résistance statorique Rse est déterminée en intégrant le produit de ladite variable de différence ε et d'un facteur wr fonction du mode de fonctionnement de la machine par rapport au temps.
  4. Procédé selon la revendication 3,

    caractérisé en ce que,lorsque la machine sert de moteur, le facteur wr est wR, et lorsque la machine sert de générateur, le facteur wr est -wR, wR étant une constante positive.






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G Physik
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