PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1115188 16.08.2001
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 1115188
Titel Verfahren zum Betreiben einer Betätigungsvorrichtung
Anmelder ABB Patent GmbH, 68309 Mannheim, DE
Erfinder Möller, Herbert, 32549 Bad Oeynhausen, DE;
Unterberg, Günther, 32469 Petershagen, DE;
Stelter, Andreas, 32423 Minden, DE
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 20.12.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 001279017
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 11.07.2001
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 16.08.2001
IPC-Hauptklasse H02H 7/085
IPC-Nebenklasse H02P 7/00   H02H 5/04   

Beschreibung[en]

The invention relates to a method for operating an actuating drive for controlling fittings, having the features of the precharacterizing clause of Patent Claim 1.

Such actuating drives are used for process automation in a process installation, in order to open and to close valves, flaps and the like.

Such an actuating drive essentially comprises an electric motor, which moves a fitting with a predetermined torque via a self-locking gearbox. If the electric motor is overloaded, the motor windings are heated unacceptably, and this can lead to damage or destruction of the motor windings. Such overloads occur regularly if the fitting is jammed and the force disconnection fails at the same time.

Furthermore, the problem that arises in particular with high-power actuating drives is that self-locking gearboxes become severely heated during continuous operation, due to their low efficiency. The thermal coupling between the electric motor and the gearbox results in the electric motor being heated further.

In order to protect motor windings, it is known from the publication from the Auma Co. "Drehantriebe für Steuerbetrieb" [Rotary drives for control operation], Issue 2.96, for the circuit for feeding the electric motor to be interrupted as soon as the winding temperature exceeds a predetermined limit value. However, this procedure is subject to the disadvantage that, throughout the entire period during which an excessive temperature is identified, the fitting is locked in its most recently assumed position, no longer reacts to control commands, and the sequence in the surrounding process installation is thus interfered with.

The invention is thus based on the object of specifying a method for operating an actuating drive for controlling fittings, which allows the actuating drive to be protected against unacceptable, destructive heating, and nevertheless allows operation of the surrounding process installation to be maintained, despite the excessive temperature.

According to the invention, this object is achieved by the means in Patent Claim 1. Advantageous refinements of the invention are specified in the subordinate Claims 2 to 7.

The invention is based on an actuating drive whose electric motor is connected to a frequency converter. Such frequency converters are generally known per se and are described, for example, in DE 42 35 223. During correct use, the frequency and the output voltage of the frequency converter are set in accordance with the control object from the surrounding process installation. In this case, the rotation speed of the electric motor is set by the frequency, and the torque which is required to move the given fitting in accordance with the control task is set by the output voltage at the given frequency.

Depending on the load on the actuating drive, an amount of heat is produced in the actuating drive which is caused essentially by mechanical friction and electrical power losses, and which is greater than the amount of heat which can be dissipated via the surface of the actuating drive to the environment, and this in consequence leads to an increase in the temperature of the actuating drive.

According to the invention, the temperature of the actuating drive is monitored, and the rotation speed of the electric motor is reduced, as a function of the measured temperature, while the torque is kept constant. To this end, the motor voltage emitted from the frequency converter is reduced in accordance with a characteristic which can be predetermined, virtually in proportion to the stator frequency.

If the torque is kept constant, the power supplied to the gearbox falls in proportion to the reduction in the drive rotation speed. The power losses which lead to heating of the gearbox fall in accordance with the efficiency η, which is governed by the gearbox design and, for self-locking gearboxes, is always η ≤ 0.5.

The drive rotation speed is set so that the gearbox temperature caused by the power losses in the gearbox remains below the predetermined limit value. The actuating drive is advantageously protected against excessive temperature increases, while nevertheless remaining ready to operate during periods when the temperature is raised. This avoids disturbances in the operational sequence of the surrounding process installation.

The invention is described in more detail in the following text with reference to exemplary embodiments. In the drawings which are required for this purpose:

Figure 1
shows an illustration of the fundamental design of an actuating drive
Figure 2
shows an outline illustration of the power flow in an actuating drive
Figure 3
shows a characteristic for the power losses from the gearbox as a function of the rotation speed and the torque
Figure 4
shows a characteristic to illustrate the relationship between the motor torque and the voltage and frequency
Figure 5
shows an illustration of permissible voltages and frequencies for the frequency converter, as a function of the temperature of the actuating drive, with continuous adaptation
Figure 6
shows an illustration of permissible voltages and frequencies of the frequency converter, as a function of the temperature of the actuating drive, with fixed adaptation.
Figure 1 illustrates the basic design of an actuating drive 1. The actuating drive 1 essentially comprises an electric motor 11 which moves a fitting 16 with a predetermined torque via a gearbox 12. The electric motor 11 is in the form of a three-phase asynchronous motor. The fitting 16 is a valve which is used to adjust the flow of a flowing medium in a transport tube 20. The gearbox 12 is self-locking, that is to say the efficiency η of the gearbox is always η ≤ 0.5. This avoids the force caused by the flowing medium inadvertently moving the fitting when the electric motor 11 is switched off.

The actuating drive 1 is equipped with an electrical controller 13, which is flange-connected to the gearbox 12. Furthermore, a connection box 17 is provided for connecting cables to the power supply 14 and for feeding in control signals 15, and is mounted on the gearbox 12.

Using the same reference symbols for the same means, Figure 2 illustrates the basic power flow in the actuating drive 1. In this case, the electrical controller 13 is a frequency converter 19, which is connected to the power supply 14. The power supply 14 is formed by the public AC mains system. The three-phase AC voltage, at a fixed frequency and fixed amplitude, is converted by the frequency converter 19, and as a function of control signals 15, into a three-phase AC voltage at a variable frequency f with a variable amplitude U. For a simple actuating drive 1 for respectively completely opening and closing the fitting 16, the control signals 15 are limited to clockwise running and anticlockwise running of the electric motor 11, and the electric motor 11 being at rest.

The output voltage of the frequency converter 19 is connected to the stator windings of the three-phase asynchronous motor 11. The rotation speed n of the rotor of the electric motor 11 is set by the frequency f, where n ∼ f and the torque M at the given frequency f, by means of the amplitude U of the output voltage where M ∼ U2 / f2. The correlation of these values is stored in the electrical controller 13.

The rotor shaft of the electric motor 11 is mechanically coupled to the input drive train of the gearbox 12, and the output drive train of the gearbox 12 is mechanically coupled to the fitting 16.

While the actuating drive 1 is being used correctly, an amount of heat is produced in the actuating drive as a function of the load, which is caused in the self-locking gearbox 12 by the maximum efficiency of 50% due to mechanical friction, and in the electric motor 11 essentially by resistive losses in the windings. In order to protect the actuating drive 1 against unacceptable, destructive heating, the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive 1 is monitored by at least one temperature sensor 18.

A first embodiment provides for the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive 1 to be measured on the gearbox 12. In this case, the heating of the actuating drive 1 resulting from the high power losses in the gearbox 12 when it is loaded dynamically is advantageously detected, this being at least half of the power supplied by the electric motor 11.

A second embodiment provides for the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive 1 to be measured on the electric motor 11. In this case, the heating of the actuating drive 1 resulting from resistive losses in the windings of the electric motor 11 when loaded in the steady state is advantageously detected, and occurs when the fitting 16 is jammed.

A third embodiment provides for the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive 1 to be measured on the electric motor 11 and on the gearbox 12. In this case, both the heating of the actuating drive 1 due to the high power losses in the gearbox 12 when it is loaded dynamically and the heating of the actuating drive 1 resulting from the resistive losses in the windings of the electric motor 11 when it is loaded in the steady state are advantageously detected. The further processing is in this case governed by the respectively higher measured temperature.

The rotation speed n of the electric motor 11 is reduced as a function of the measured temperature ϑ, while the torque M is kept constant. The power supplied to the gearbox 12 is proportional to the product of the torque M and the rotation speed n on the input drive train P ∼ M * n. In consequence, the power supplied to the gearbox 12 falls in proportion to the reduction in the rotation speed n. Thus, for a given efficiency η ≤ 0.5, the power losses converted into heat in the gearbox 12 also fall in proportion to the reduction in the rotation speed n.

To this end, Figure 3 shows the power losses Pv in the gearbox 12 for a given efficiency η as a function of the rotation speed n for various torques M1 to M3 where M1 > M2 > M3. The reference symbol PG in this case denotes precisely the power loss Pv, whose equivalent amount of heat is emitted via the surface of the gearbox 12 to the environment, while maintaining a constant gearbox temperature. In accordance with the relationship P ∼ M * n, one and only one rotation speed n1 to n3 is associated with each torque M1 to M3 and, for a given temperature, the power loss at this rotation speed is PV = PG.

Accordingly, when the rotation speed n1 is set for a given torque M1, the power loss converted into heat is precisely PV = PG, which equivalent amount of heat is emitted via the surface of the gearbox 12 to the environment while maintaining a constant gearbox temperature. The same applies to the rotation speed/torque pairs n2 / M2 and n3 / M3 for further given torques. Based on the relationship P ∼ M * n and verified by the illustration in Figure 3, it can be seen that greater rotation speeds n1 < n2 < n3 are permissible in order to limit the power loss PV to the power loss PV = PG which is permissible in order to maintain a constant gearbox temperature at relatively low torques M1 > M2 > M3, and vice versa.

The rotation speed n on the input drive train of the gearbox 12 is equal to the rotation speed n of the rotor shaft of the electric motor 11. The rotation speed n of the rotor shaft of the electric motor 11 is set via the frequency f of the output voltage of the frequency converter 19. The torque M at a given frequency f ∼ n is set by the amplitude U of the output voltage, where M ∼ U2 / f2, depending on the control task from the surrounding process installation.

Figure 4 shows a characteristic of the relationship between the torque of the motor and the amplitude U and frequency f of the output voltage of the frequency converter 19 for various torques M1 to M3 where M1 > M2 > M3. The association between the rotation speed n1 to n3 and each torque M1 to M3 result, via the relationship f ∼ n in frequencies f1 to f3, where one frequency f1 to f3, and only one such frequency, is associated with each torque M1 to M3. The associated amplitude U1, U2 and U3 of the output voltage is determined using the relationship between the torque M ∼ U2 / f2 and the frequency f ∼ n and amplitude U of the output voltage for each rotation speed/torque pair n1 / M1, n2 / M2 and n3 / M3.

For a given actuating drive 1 having a thermal transfer response to the environment which is determined by the design and is thus predetermined, the power loss PV = PG which is acceptable to maintain a constant gearbox temperature is defined for each ambient temperature. For the given actuating drive 1, the associated frequency f and amplitude U of the output voltage of the frequency converter 19 are described uniquely by a respective triple [M, f, U] for each torque M required by the control task. The totality of all the triples for a given actuating drive 1 are combined in a characteristic which is stored in the controller 13.

The rotation speed n is chosen in a suitable way to limit the power loss in the gearbox 12 to a value which allows the amount of heat produced by the power losses to be dissipated via the surface of the gearbox 12 to the environment while maintaining a predetermined gearbox temperature.

To this end, a preferred embodiment provides that the amplitude of the temperature of the actuating drive 1 is measured continuously and the rotation speed n is reduced continuously, in proportion to the temperature rise, while the torque M is kept constant. In this case, the rotation speed n is set by the frequency f, and the torque M to be maintained at a given frequency f is set by the amplitude U of the output voltage of the frequency converter 19.

Figure 5 shows the range of permissible amplitudes U and frequencies f plotted against the temperature of the actuating drive 1 for this purpose. For a gearbox temperature 0 below the nominal value ϑn, ϑ < ϑn, all the frequencies f ≤ fmax and amplitudes U ≤ Umax are permissible. For gearbox temperatures ϑ above the nominal value ϑn, ϑ > ϑn, each gearbox temperature ϑ has one, and only one, associated frequency f and amplitude U for a predetermined torque M.

In this case, the amount of heat produced for each temperature of the actuating drive 1 via the power losses is advantageously precisely that which is emitted to the environment while maintaining the present temperature. In consequence, at all temperatures, the fitting 16 is set to the respective maximum permissible movement rate, corresponding to the control task from the surrounding process installation.

An alternative embodiment provides that, as soon as the continuously measured temperature ϑ of the actuating drive 1 exceeds a predetermined nominal value ϑn, the rotation speed n is set to a reduced, fixed value which, for a torque M which is being kept constant, is selected such that a predetermined temperature limit value ϑG is reached as a maximum, but is not exceeded, during further operation of the actuating drive 1. In this case, the rotation speed n is set by the frequency f, and the torque M to be maintained at a given frequency f is set by the amplitude U of the output voltage of the frequency converter 19.

Figure 6 shows the range of permissible amplitudes U and frequencies f, plotted against the temperature of the actuating drive 1, for this purpose. If the gearbox temperature ϑ is below the nominal value ϑn, ϑ < ϑn, all the frequencies f ≤ fmax and amplitudes U ≤ Umax are permissible. For gearbox temperatures ϑ above the nominal value ϑn, ϑ > ϑn, the frequency f and the amplitude U of the output voltage of the frequency converter 19 are set such that they are fixed for a given torque M.

List of reference symbols

1
Actuating drive
11
Electric motor
12
Gearbox
13
Controller
14
Power supply
15
Control signals
16
Fitting
17
Connection box
18
Temperature sensor
19
Frequency converter
20
Transport tube


Anspruch[en]
  1. Method for operating an actuating drive for controlling fittings, in which case the actuating drive has an electric motor which is fed from a frequency converter and moves a fitting with a predetermined torque via a self-locking gearbox,

    characterized in that

    the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) is measured during continuous operation, and the rotation speed n of the electric motor (11) is reduced as a function of the measured temperature ϑ while maintaining the torque M, by reducing the amplitude U and the frequency f of the output voltage of the frequency converter (19) in proportion to one another.
  2. Method according to Claim 1,

    characterized in that

    the amplitude of the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) is measured continuously, and the rotation speed n is reduced continuously, in proportion to the temperature rise while the torque M is being kept constant.
  3. Method according to Claim 1,

    characterized in that

    the amplitude of the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) is measured continuously, and, while the torque M is being kept constant, the rotation speed n is set to a reduced, fixed value as soon as the continuously measured temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) exceeds a predetermined nominal value ϑn.
  4. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 3,

    characterized in that

    the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) is measured on the gearbox (12).
  5. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 3,

    characterized in that

    the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) is measured on the electric motor (11).
  6. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 5,

    characterized in that

    the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) is measured on the electric motor (11) and on the gearbox (12).
  7. Method according to one of Claims 1 to 6,

    characterized in that

    any increase in the temperature ϑ of the actuating drive (1) identified on the electric motor (11) and/or on the gearbox (12) is signalled to a remote control station.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

Anmelder
Datum

Patentrecherche

Patent Zeichnungen (PDF)

Copyright © 2008 Patent-De Alle Rechte vorbehalten. eMail: info@patent-de.com