PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1287736 10.04.2003
EP-Verffentlichungsnummer 1287736
Titel Kruzifere Pflanze mit hohem Karotin gehalt
Anmelder Shintaku, Yurie, Tokio/Tokyo, JP
Erfinder Shintaku, Yurie, Suginami-ku, Tokyo, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 20.12.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 020194189
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 05.03.2003
Verffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 10.04.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse A01H 5/10

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a novel plant belonging to the family Cruciferae and having a high carotene content. More particularly, the present invention is concerned with a cruciferous plant which contains a large quantity of carotene even in those parts where a conventional cruciferous plant contains little carotene.

There are a number of useful plants in the family Cruciferae. Among all, especially useful are the following four species: Brassica oleracea L. including cabbage, cauliflower, etc., Brassica napus L. including rape, hakuran (a hybrid between cabbage and Chinese cabbage), etc., Brassica campestris L. including Chinese cabbage, turnip, etc., and Raphanus sativus L. including Japanese radish, etc.

All of those species mentioned above are known to contain carotene in the plant body. However, carotene-containing parts are generally limited to those dark green parts containing a large quantity of chlorophyll, and therefore the color of carotene is seldom observed from outside. In addition, generally the parts with a high carotene content are not edible for the most part.

For example, with respect to cabbage, kohlrabi and Brussels sprouts belonging to Brassica orelacea, the carotene contents of green parts are high, but those of non-green parts (such as head-forming leaves inside the head of cabbage and Brussels sprouts, and the inside of a kohlrabi corm) are almost zero or extremely low [according to Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (4th rev. version), (A. Kayama ed.), Joshi Eiyoh Daigaku Shuppan-bu, Tokyo, 1991, the carotene content of cabbage (head-forming leaves, fresh) is 18 g/100 g, and that of kohlrabi (corm, fresh) is 50 g/100 g.] With respect to hakuran belonging to Brassica napus, the carotene content of its green leaves is high, but that of head-forming leaves inside the head is rather low [according to the above Standard Tables, the carotene content of hakuran (head-forming leaves, fresh) is 80 g/100 g]. Also, seeds of these plants contain little carotene. With respect to Chinese cabbage belonging to Brassica campestris, the carotene content of the outer green part in head-forming leaves is high, but most of the head-forming leaves inside the head are light yellow or white and contain little carotene [according to the above Standard Tables, the carotene content of Chinese cabbage (head-forming leaves, fresh) is 13 g/100 g]. With respect to turnip also belonging to Brassica campestris, leaves have a high carotene content, but its root part contains no carotene [according to the above Standard Tables, the carotene contents of turnip are 1,800 g/100 g (leaves, fresh), and 0 g/100 g (root, fresh)]. With respect to Japanese radish belonging to Raphanus sativus, leaves have a high carotene content, but its root part is white and contains no carotene [according to the above Standard Tables, the carotene contents of Japanese radish are 2,600 g/100 g (leaves, fresh), and 0 g/100 g (root, fresh)].

As a cruciferous plant containing a large quantity of carotene in non-green parts, there is known the orange cauliflower, of species Brassica orelacea. The orange cauliflower is a cauliflower whose curd except for pithy tissue exhibits an orange color. The following is known about this cauliflower [M. H. Dikson et al., Hort. Science 23(4) : 778-779,1988].

  • 1) The color of orange cauliflower is incompletely dominant, being controled by one gene (genetic symbol: Or).
  • 2) The homozygous individual (OrOr) produces an orange flower head whose color is darker than that of the heterozygous individual (Oror), but the plant height is dwarf in the former and its curd is 3-4 cm or less in diameter.
  • 3) The heterozygous individual (Oror) produces a curd 15-20 cm in diameter which is almost the same size as that of conventional white cauliflower.
  • 4) The orange color is due to carotene.

    Accordingly, if it is possible to introduce the Or gene of orange cauliflower into other cruciferous plants and express the gene therein, plants with a high commercial value can be produced.

However, setting aside the crossing of orange cauliflower with a species of Brassica oleracea to which orange cauliflower belongs, it is extremely difficult to interspecifically hybridize Brassica oleracea with Brassica napus, Brassica campestris or Raphanus sativus. In such a case, crossbred seeds are hardly obtainable, and even if obtained, most of the individuals growing therefrom are matroclinal (i.e. having the same morphology as that of the female parent). Even when hybrid seeds are obtained by chance, the individuals growing therefrom are sterile in most cases, and thus the maintaining of subsequent generations by selfing or back-crossing is extremely difficult.

Moreover, the curd of orange cauliflower where orange color is expressed is a mass of tissues composed of closely gathered flower buds at the flower stalk differentiation stage, and this mass of tissues is peculiar to cauliflower. Generally, the expression of a gene relating to a pigment is tissue specific for the most part. If a gene producing a pigment is expressed in a specific tissue, usually the gene is not expressed in other tissues. Therefore, no trials have been made to date to introduce Or gene into a plant belonging to a spieces other than Brassica orelacea or a plant belonging to a genus other than Brassica, or even into a different plant within the species Brassica oleracea.

The object of the present invention is to provide a novel cruciferous plant containing a large quantity of carotene even in those parts where a conventional cruciferous plant contains little carotene, by introducing the Or gene into a cruciferous plant other than cauliflower.

The present inventors have made detailed investigations into the above-mentioned Or gene, and have found, surprisingly that:

  • 1) This gene can be introduced into an extremely wide range of plants.
  • 2) This gene is a unique gene which is expressed in a wide range of tissues in a plant body.
  • 3) Conditioning genes which promote the expression of Or gene are present in some plants belonging to Brassica oleracea. The present invention has been completed based on these findings.

In one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a plant belonging to Brassica oleracea L. and having a gene which makes the color of a curd in cauliflower orange and at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the above-mentioned gene.

In another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a plant belonging to Brassica napus L., Brassica campestris L., or Raphanus sativus L. and having a gene which makes the color of a curd in cauliflower orange.

In a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a cultivar of cabbage (B. oleracea L. var. capitata L.), kale (B. oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), kohlrabi (B. oleracea L. var. gongylodes L.), savoy cabbage (B. oleracea L. var. bullta DC.), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea L. var. gemmifera Zenk.), broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica) or chinese kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bayl.), having a gene which makes the color of a curd in cauliflower orange.

Hereinbelow the present invention will be described in detail.

Examples of the plant of the present invention belonging to Brassica oleracea include cabbage (B. oleracea L. var. capitata L.), kale (B. oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), kohlrabi (B. oleracea L. var. gongylodes L.), savoy cabbage (B. oleracea L. var. bullta DC.), Brussels sprouts (B. oleracea L. var. gemmifera Zenk.), cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis L.), broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica) or Chinese kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bayl.). However, with respect to cauliflower, a variety having Or gene but not having a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene is not included in the scope of the present invention.

The plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica oleracea have a gene which makes the color of a cauliflower curd orange and, preferably, also have a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the above-mentioned gene. The gene which makes the color of a cauliflower curd orange is usually called the Or gene. This gene is contained in, for example, NY163, NY156 and NY165 lines of orange cauliflower. The conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene can be a gene contained in conventional cultivars of cabbage, chinese kale and the like which are artificially grown as commercial products. Examples of those cultivars having such gene include a cabbage cultivar "Meitoku" and a Chinese kale cultivar "Kairan".

The Or gene is freely and publicly available in the form of inbred lines NY156, NY163 and NY165 from the Department of Horticultural Sciences and Food Science, New York State Experimental Station, Cornell University (Geneva, NY 14456, U.S.A.). The present applicant is also in public possession of the gene and undertakes to release upon request in the form of inbred line NY163. The present applicant also publicly possesses and undertakes to release upon request pure bred lines of the cabbage cultivar "Meitoku" and the Chinese kale cultivar "Kairan". The characteristics of plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica oleracea are that they contain a large quantity of carotene in at least one of those parts where a conventional Brassica oleracea contains little carotene, and thereby exhibits orange color, light orange color or the like. Examples of such a part

include, for cabbage, head-forming leaves inside the head, the petiole of head-forming leaves, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; for Chinese kale, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; for kohlrabi, inside of the corm, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; for Brussels sprouts, head-forming leaves inside the head, the petiole of head-forming leaves, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; for kale, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; for savoy cabbage, head-forming leaves inside the head, the petiole of head-forming leaves, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; and for broccoli, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.

Approximate carotene contents of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are values for corresponding parts of a corresponding conventional plant.)

  • Cabbage:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Chinese kale:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Kohlrabi:
    • Inside of the corm:
      • 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Brussels sprouts:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/100 g)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Kale:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Savoy cabbage:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/ 100 g)
  • Broccoli:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/ 100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/ 100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/ 100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/ 100 g)

Details of the color tone of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are the color tone of corresponding parts of a corresponding conventional plant.)

  • Cabbage:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • dark orange - yellow (yellow - white)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • dark orange - yellow (white)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Chinese kale:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Kohlrabi:
    • Inside of the corm:
      • dark orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Brussels sprouts:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • reddish orange - light orange (yellow - white)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • dark orange - yellow (white)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Kale:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark orange (yellow)
  • Savoy cabbage:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • dark orange - yellow (yellow - white)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • dark orange - yellow (white)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Broccoli:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)

The plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica oleracea can be obtained by crossing a variety of cauliflower having the Or gene with a plant belonging to Brassia oleracea having at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene. No special method is required for the crossing, which may be carried out according to conventional methods. Also, with respect to the cultivation of the resultant plant, no special method is required. The plant may be cultured according to conventional methods. The resultant F1 individuals have the following characteristics as well as a high carotene content:

  • The plant body becomes bigger.
  • The leaf color becomes darker.
  • Flower bud differentiation stage comes earlier, and flower stalk development and flowering begin earlier.
It should be noted that the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica oleracea include not only thus obtained F1 individuals, but also those plants of the subsequent generations obtained by selfing, backcrossing, etc. of the F1 individuals.

Examples of the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica napus include rape, rutabaga and hakuran. The plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica napus has a gene which makes the color of a cauliflower curd orange, and preferably, also has a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the above-mentioned gene.

The characteristics of the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica napus are that these contain a large quantity of carotene in at least one of those parts where a conventional Brassica napus contains little carotene, and thereby exhibits orange color, light orange color or the like. Examples of such a part include, for rape, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; and for hakuran, head-forming leaves inside the head, the petiole of head-forming leaves, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.

The approximate carotene contents of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are values for corresponding parts of a corresponding conventional plant.)

  • Rape:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/ 100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 200-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/ 100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/ 100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/ 100 g)
  • Hakuran:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • 150-5,000 g/100 g (0-100 g/ 100 g)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/ 100 g)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/ 100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/ 100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/ 100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/ 100 g)

Details of the color tone of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are the color tone of corresponindg parts of a corresponding conventional plant.)

  • Rape:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green) Pithy tissue in stem:
        • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: range - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow) Hakuran:
      • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
        • light orange - yellow (yellow - white)
      • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
        • dark orange - yellow (white)
      • Vascular bundle in stem:
        • reddish orange - light orange (white)
      • Pithy tissue in stem:
        • reddish orange- light orange (white)
      • Root: orange - light orange (white)
      • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)

Brassica napus is an amphidiploid of an interspecific hybrid between Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris. Accordingly, the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica napus can be obtained by crossing a cultivar of cauliflower having the Or gene with a plant belonging to Brassica campestris, and selecting from the resultant interspecific hybrid such individuals in which chromosome duplication has occurred. Plants belonging to Brassica campestris used for this purpose are not particularly limited. For example, a commercial cultivar of Chinese cabbage or turnip which is artificially grown may be used. Since a cauliflower cultivar having the Or gene and a Brassica campestris plant belong to different species, it is difficult to obtain an interspecific hybrid according to conventional methods. In their crossing, it is preferable to remove embryos from the fertilized ovaries and then to carry out embryo culture. Although chromosome duplication can occur at a certain probability without any artificial treatment, it is possible to increase the number of amphidiploids by selecting them from those redifferentiated individuals which have been obtained by tissue culture of a leaf section; by dripping an 0.01-1% aqueous solution of colchicine to the apical meristem of the hybrid individual; or by dipping the plant body in the colchicine solution. with respect to the method for selecting amphidiploids, their plant bodies are bigger than diploids; they have pollen fertility; and they can be selected by observing the chromosome number in root apex cells. The amphidiploids obtained by the above procedures usually have seed fertility, and thus it is possible to maintain subsequent generations by selfing, backcrossing, open pollination, and so on.

Further, the introduction of a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene can be performed by crossing the amphidiploid obtained by the above procedures with a Brassica oleracea plant having at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene. Alternatively, the introduction can be performed by crossing a Brassica oleracea plant having the Or gene and at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene, with a Brassica campestris plant, and selecting from the resultant interspecific hybrid those individuals in which chromosome duplication has occurred. There is no particular limitation in the kind of Brassica campestris plant used here. For example, a commercial cultivar of Chinese cabbage or turnip which is artificially grown may be used. Further, the introduction can be performed also by crossing a Brassica oleracea plant having Or gene and at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene, with a Brassica campestris plant having the Or gene and at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene, and selecting from the resultant interspecific hybrid those individuals in which chromosome duplication has occurred.

No special method is required for growing the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica napus. The plants may be grown according to conventional methods. It should be noted here that the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica napus includes not only the above-mentioned interspecific hybrid individuals in which chromosome duplication has occurred, but also plants of the subsequent generations which are obtained by the selfing, backcrossing, etc. of those individuals.

Examples of the plant of the present invention belonging to Brassica campestris include Chinese cabbage, turnip and a group of leaf vegetables suitable for pickles, such as leaf mustard and mustard spinach. The plant of the present invention belonging to Brassica campestris has a gene (Or gene) which makes the color of a cauliflower curd orange and, preferably, also has a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene.

The characteristics of the plant of the present invention belonging to Brassica campestris reside in that it contains a large quantity of carotene in at least one of those parts where a conventional Brassica campestris contains little carotene, and thereby exhibits orange color, light orange color or the like. Examples of such a part include, for Chinese cabbage, head-forming leaves inside the head, the petiole of head-forming leaves, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; for turnip, vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.; and for komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. pervidis), vascular bundle in stem, pithy tissue in stem, root, seeds, etc.

The approximate carotene contents of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are values for corresponding parts of a corresponding conventional plant.)

  • Chinese cabbage:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • 50-5,000 g/100 g (0-20 g/100 g)
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Turnip:
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)
  • Komatsuna:
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)

Details of the color tone of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are the color tone of corresponding parts in a corresponding conventional plant.)

  • Chinese cabbage:
    • Head-forming leaves inside the head:
      • dark orange - yellow (yellow - white)
    • Petiole of head-forming leaves:
      • dark orange - yellow (white)
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Turnip:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)
  • Komatsuna:
    • Vascular bundle in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Pithy tissue in stem:
      • reddish orange - light orange (white - light green)
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark orange (yellow)

The plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica campestris can be obtained by crossing a cauliflower cultivar having the Or gene with a plant belonging to Brassica campestris, repeating the backcrossing of the resultant interspecific hybrid, and then selecting those individuals exhibiting orange color. The Brassica campestris plant used for this purpose is not particularly limited. For example, a commercial cultivar of Chinese cabbage or turnip which is artificially grown may be used. Since a cauliflower cultivar having the Or gene and a Brassica campestris plant belong to different species, it is difficult to obtain an interspecific hybrid according to conventional methods. In their crossing, it is preferable to remove embryos from the fertilized ovaries and then to carry out embryo culture. With respect to the method for selecting individuals exhibiting orange color, seedlings which exhibit orange color at the joint part between main stem and petiole, in the vascular bundle at the base of petiole when broken off from main stem, etc. are selected.

The introduction of a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene can be performed by crossing the individual selected according to the above procedures with a Brassica oleracea plant having at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene. Alternatively, the introduction can be performed by crossing a Brassica oleracea plant having the Or gene and at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene, with a Brassica campestris plant.

No special method is required for growing the plants of the present invention belonging to Brassica campestris. The plants may be grown according to conventional methods.

Examples of the plant of the present invention belonging to Raphanus sativus include Japanese radish. The plant of the present invention belonging to Raphanus sativus has a gene (Or gene) which makes the color of a cauliflower curd orange, and, preferably, also has a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene.

The characteristics of the plant of the present invention belonging to Raphanus sativus reside in that it contains a large quantity of carotene in at least one of those parts where a conventional Raphanus sativus contains little carotene, and thereby exhibits orange color, light orange color or the like. Examples of such a part include, for Japanese radish, root and seeds. The approximate carotene contents of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are values for corresponding parts of conventional Japanese radish.)

  • Japanese radish:
    • Root: 20-1,000 g/100 g (0-9 g/100 g)
    • Seeds: 100-5,000 g/100 g (0-50 g/100 g)

Details of the color tone of these parts are as follows. (In parentheses are the color tone of corresponding parts of conventional Japanese radish.)

  • Japanese radish:
    • Root: orange - light orange (white)
    • Seeds: light orange - dark yellow (yellow)

The plants of the present invention belonging to Raphanus sativus can be obtained by crossing a cauliflower cultivar having the Or gene with a plant belonging to Raphanus sativus, repeating the backcrossing of the resultant interspecific hybrid, and then selecting those individuals which exhibit orange color. The Raphanus sativus plant used for this purpose is not particularly limited. For example, a cultivar of Japanese radish which is available as a commercial product may be used.

In the above-mentioned crossing and backcrossing, it is preferable to remove embryos from fertilized ovaries and then to carry out embryo culture. With respect to the method for selecting individuals exhibiting orange color, seedlings which exhibit orange color at the joint part between main stem and petiole, in the vascular bundle at the base of petiole when broken off from main stem, in root, etc. are selected. With respect to the introduction of a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene, it can be performed by crossing the individual selected by the above procedures with a Brassica oleracea plant having at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of the Or gene. Alternatively, this introduction can be performed by crossing a Brassica oleracea plant having Or gene and at least one conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene, with a Raphanus sativus plant.

No special method is required for growing the plants of the present invention belonging to Raphanus sativus. The plants may be grown according to conventional methods.

Reference Example

The present inventors grew the orange cauliflower NY163 inbred line (OrOr) in 1989. The properties of this orange cauliflower are shown in Table 1. Properties of Cauliflower NY163 Inbred Line Properties Control

Cauliflower
NY 163
Days needed for maturing (average) 60-90 105 Dia. of curd (cm) 13-18 3.5 Color of curd White Orange Genotype of Or gene oror OrOr Plant vigor Standard Very weak

The color tone of curds in the tested orange cauliflower was classified into orange, and there were no light orange or dark orange curds observed. The size of curds, which was about 3-4 cm in the average, varied rather greatly. Two individuals which had the largest curds were selected, and maintained separately by selfing as line Nos. OC1 and OC2.

In February 1993, the present inventors sowed seeds of the selfed 3rd generation of the above-mentioned two lines. After permanent planting of the resultant seedlings, the color tone and the like were examined in June for each part of the plant bodies. The results are shown in Table 2. Line No. OC1 OC2 No. of individuals examined 37 39 Color of curd: orange 37 39 white 0 0 Cross section of main stem: Both OC1 and OC2 lines have    light orange vascular bundle, and their cross    sections also exhibit light orange color. No    variation was observed in the color tone.

With respect to both two lines examined, all over the cross section of the main stem was stained with light orange and the vascular bandle was also light orange. There was no variation in color tone, and all of the individuals in the two lines exhibited a uniform color. The curd was about 4 cm in size on the average, and its color was orange. No light orange nor dark orange curds were observed.

The present invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the following Examples, which should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.

EXAMPLE 1

In the spring of 1990, crossing was carried out using a cabbage purebred line "a" as female parent and an orange cauliflower line as male parent. The resultant F1 individuals exhibited half-formed heads.

In January, 1991, the half-formed head was cut and examined. Flower buds had already been formed therein, and these flower buds and head-forming leaves around them exhibited light orange color. From this result, it was newly found that Or gene which orange cauliflower has is dominantly expressed in cabbage also, and that not only flower buds but also head-forming leaves exhibit light orange color.

In the spring of 1991, F1 generation was crossed within itself. Also, F1 generation was backcrossed with cabbage purebred lines "a" and "b" as male parent. In December of the same year, each individual of the selfed generation (i.e., F2) and the backcrossed generation (i.e., BC1F1) was examined for the presence of orange color in the cross section of the main stem and for the strength of the color.

In F2 and BC1F1 generations, there were no such individuals exhibiting light orange color on all over the main stem cross section as seen in the above-mentioned orange cauliflower, but there were some individuals wherein only the vascular bundle exhibited light orange color. Besides, there were found such individuals whose vascular bundle exhibited an orange color darker than light orange, or such individuals wherein all over the cross section of the main stem'was orange. Accordingly, it was considered that a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene is present in the cabbage purebred lines "a" and "b", because:

  • In F2 (the selfed generation of F1 individuals obtained by crossing the cabbage purebred line "a" and an orange cauliflower line) and in BC1F1 (obtained by backcrossing F1 individuals with the cabbage purebred lines "a" and "b"), some individuals appear whose main stem cross section exhibits a darker orange color than that of orange cauliflower itself;
  • The color of BC1F1 individuals segregates into orange, light orange and white; and
  • No gene which expresses orange color has been found in cabbage.

Then, the present inventors have built up the following hypotheses, and carried out χ2 test for each of them:

  • Hypothesis 1. Inheritance of orange color is completely dominant, being controled by one gene. (F2 segregation ratio is 3:1; BC1F1 segregation ratio is 1:1.)
  • Hypothesis 2. Inheritance of orange color is incompletely dominant, being controled by one gene. (F2 segregation ratio is 1:2:1; BC1F1 segregation ratio is 1:1.)
  • Hypothesis 3. Inheritance of orange color is dominant, being controled by two genes. (F2 segregation ratio is 9:3:4 or 10:2:4; BC1F1 segregation ratio is 1:1, 1:1:2 or 3:1:4.)

With respect to the standard for the strength of color, the color of a cross-section of the main stem (including vascular bundle) in orange cauliflower is set as "light orange", and any darker orange color than this is designated "orange". In addition, the judgment of color was carried out without discriminating those cross-sections which are colored all over from those cross-sections which are colored only in the vascular bundle. The results are shown in Tables 3 and 4. χ 2 Test for Segregation Ratio in F2 Generation F2 Line No. Color of the Main Stem Segregation ratio in F21) Orange Lightorange Colorless Total 3:1 1:2:1 9:3:4 10:2:4 1 11 3 34 48 53.8 x 58.8x 53.8x 53.7x 6 6 2 37 45 78.6 x 80.1x 78.6x 78.7x 7 7 11 33 51 42.9 x 43.0x 48.8x 54.9x 9 7 2 36 45 72.6 x 74.7x 72.6x 72.7x 4 25 7 20 52 5.03x 28.7x 5.16 5.54 8 18 3 23 44 17.5 x 34.0x 18.3x 17.5x 2 34 8 8 50 2.16 50.2x 3.05 2.35 3 29 6 13 48 0.11 37.7x 1.23 0.117 5 22 6 11 39 0.214 24.9x 0.396 0.6512)
1) Segregation ratio in F2

   3:1 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by dominant Or gene alone.

   1:2:1 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by incompletely dominant Or gene alone.

   9:3:4 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene and a dominant conditioning gene A, and individuals having Or gene but not the conditioning gene A exhibiting light orange color.

   10:2:4 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene and a dominant conditioning gene A, and only those individuals whose genotype as Ororaa exhibiting light orange color.

2) Since the theoretical frequency for one class was 5 or below, there was a danger that the degree of significance might become too high in the result of the test. Accordingly, significance test with Yates' correction was also carried out for each class [c=( | d | - 0.5) σ , where d is deviation and σ is standard deviation]. As a result, Line No. 5 was congruent with the ratio 10:2:4. Therefore, the results of χ2 test agreed with the results of significance test with Yates' correction.

3) χ20.05 = 3.84 (Degree of freedom = 1)

χ20.05 = 5.99 (Degree of freedom = 2)
χ2 Test for Segregation Ratio in BC1F1 Generation BC1F1 Line No. Color of the Main Stem Segregation ratio in BC1F11) Orange Lightorange Colorless Total 1:1 1:1:2 3:1:4 3 (F1 x a) 6 6 42 54 16.7 x 4 (F1 x a) 13 11 21 45 0.2 0.378 6.13 x 1 (F1 x a) 22 3 17 42 1.52 18.7 x 4.21 5 (F1 x a) 12 10 24 46 0.870 0.261 4.78 2 (F1 x b) 16 4 19 39 0.0256 7.41x 0.2992
1) Segregation ratio in BC1F1

If Or gene alone controls the inheritance of orange color, the genotype of F1 is Oror and that of cabbage is oror. Then, the segregation ratio in BC1F1 genotype is Oror:oror=1:1, i.e., light orange:colorless=1:1, without any variation in the color tone.

If a dominant conditioning gene A is present which makes the color expressed by Or gene darker, there are three possible genotypes for F1 (OrorAA, OrorAa and Ororaa), and also three possible genotypes for cabbage (ororAA, ororAa and ororaa). Through the combination of these genotypes, 9 kinds of BC1F1 individuals are obtained, and the segregation ratio in BC1F1 falls under one of the following three: 1:1, 1:1:2, 3:1:4.

2) Since the theoretical frequency for one class was 5 or below, there was a danger that the degree of significance might become too high in the result of the test. Accordingly, significance test with Yates' correction was also carried out for each class [c=( | d | - 0.5) σ, where d is deviation and σ is standard deviation]. As a result, Line No. 2 was congruent with the ratio 3:1:4. Therefore, the results of χ2 test agreed with the results of significance test with Yates' correction.

3) χ20.05 = 3.84 (Degree of freedom = 1)

χ20.05 = 5.99 (Degree of freedom = 2)

As shown in Table 3, there were lines which are not congruent with Hypothesis 1 (i.e., the inheritance of orange color is completely dominant, being controlled by one gene, and F2 exhibits the segregation ratio of 3:1), and also lines which were congruent with the above hypothesis. Since the frequency of occurrence of orange color was low in the congruent lines, they were considered to have a gene which suppresses the expression of Or gene. Further, it was considered that the gene which suppresses the expression of Or gene must be recessive, since in all of the F1 individuals investigated, flower buds and head-forming leaves around them were light orange. The lines congruent with the hypothesis that F2 segregation ratio is 3:1 were not congruent with hypothesis that F2 exhibits the segregation ratio of orange:light orange:colorless=1:2:1. Therefore, Hypothesis 2 (i.e., the inheritance of orange color is incompletely dominant, being controlled by one gene) was abandoned. In addition, it was noticed that the number of those individuals exhibiting the same light orange color as seen in orange cauliflower whose genotype is OrOr were rather small, and that a large number of individuals exhibited darker orange color than that of cauliflower.

In BC1F1 generation, as shown in Table 4, 4 lines out of 5 were congruent with Hypothesis 1 (i.e., BC1F1 segregation ratio is 1:1). In the remaining 1 line, the occurrence of orange color was extremely low, and it was considered that a gene which suppresses the expression of Or gene was taking part. If Or gene alone controls the inheritance of orange color, then BC1F1 individuals must be segregated into light orange and white, and not into orange. However, in the 4 lines congruent with the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 1:1, colored individuals were further classified into orange and light orange.

Since the hypothesis that the inheritance of orange color is incompletely dominant and is controlled by one gene was abandoned from the results so far mentioned, the inventors have assumed a dominant gene (A) which makes the orange color darker when Or gene is present. Then, F2 segregation ratios based on this hypothesis are 9:3:4 and 10:2:4, with which F2 lines were well congruent. In addition, based on this hypothesis, there are two possible BC1F1 segregation ratios into three colors, i.e., 1:1:2 (OrorAa x ororaa) and 3:1:4 (OrorAa x ororAa). BC1F1 lines were well congruent with this hypothesis.

Accordingly, it has been found that the cabbage purebred line "a" has a gene which suppresses the expression of Or gene and a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene. From 2 F2 lines whose segregation ratio was 3:1 in the color of the main stem, one individual was selected respectively which had a cabbage shape and exhibited orange color in the vascular bundle, and F, seeds were obtained therefrom. In the thus obtained F3 generation, the segregation ratio of orange:light orange:colorless were also examined. The results are shown in Table 5. χ2 Test for Segregation Ratio in F3 Generation Color of the Main Stem Segregation ratio in F31) F3 Line No. Color. of Main Stem in F2 Indi. Orange Lightorange Colorless Total 3:1 1:2:1 9:3:4 10:2:4 19 Orange 52 0 22 74 0.883 98.3x 17.1x 10.6 x 20 Orange 36 0 9 45 0.6 77.4x 13.4x 8.28x
1) Segregation ratio in F3: the same as that in F2 2) χ20.05 = 3.84 (Degree of freedom = 1)

χ20.05 = 5.99 (Degree of freedom = 2)

As shown in the Table, in both lines of F3, there were no individuals exhibiting light orange color in the vascular bundle of the main stem. There were only those which exhibited orange color or those which were colorless. When χ2 test was carried out as to whether these lines were congruent with the hypothesis that the segregation ratio of orange:colorless is 3:1, both lines were congruent with this ratio. Accordingly, it was presumed that the genotype of parent individuals had been heterozygous in Or gene and homozygous in the conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene.

In the spring of 1992, individuals which exhibited orange color in the main stem and had a cabbage shape were selected from BC1F1 generation and crossed within themselves. In the summer of the same year, the resultant BC1F2 seeds were sown, and a similar investigation was carried out with respect to the segregation ratio of orange color in BC1F2. The results are shown in Table 6. χ2 Test for Segregation Ratio in BC1F2 Generation Color of the Main Stem Segregation ratio in BC1F21) BC1F2 Line No. Orange Lightorange Colorless Total 3:1 1:2:1 9:3:4 10:2:4 13 (F1 x a) Selfing 29 5 27 61 12.1 x 14 (F1 x a) Selfing 23 3 27 53 19.0 x 15 (F1 x a) Selfing 42 10 23 75 1.28 49.96x 2.14 151 16 (F1 x a) Selfing 30 7 11 48 0.11 39.12x 0.86 0.25 17 (F1 x a) Selfing 33 11 13 57 0.15 35.53x 0.17 2.41 11 (F1 x b) Selfing 34 5 9 48 1 56.12x 4.34 1.45 12 (F1 x b) Selfing 33 5 11 49 0.17 50.80x 3.11 0.51
1) Segregation ratio in BC1F2

   3:1 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by dominant Or gene alone.

   1:2:1 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by incompletely dominant Or gene alone.

   9:3:4 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene and a dominant conditioning gene A, and individuals having Or gene but not the conditioning gene A exhibiting light orange color.

   10:2:4 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene and a dominant conditioning gene A, and only those individuals whose genotype is Ororaa exhibiting light orange color.

2) χ20.05 = 3.84 (Degree of freedom = 1)

χ20.05 = 5.99 (Degree of freedom = 2)

When the cabbage purebred line "a" was used as backcross parent, 2 lines out of 5 were not congruent with the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 3:1, and the ratio of white to colored was higher than 1:3. Thus, the presence of a gene which suppresses the expression of Or gene was considered. The remaining three lines were congruent with the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 3:1, but the hypothesis of 1:2:1 segregation ratio was abandoned. On the other hand, as these three lines were congruent with the hypotheses that segregation ratios are 9:3:4 and 10:2:4, the presence of Or gene and a conditioning gene which makes darker the color expressed by Or gene were considered.

When the cabbage purebred line "b" was used as backcross parent, both two lines were congruent with the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 3:1, but the hypothesis of 1:2:1 segregation ratio was abandoned. These results supported that the inheritance of orange color is not controlled by one incompletely dominant gene. Further, since both lines were congruent with the hypotheses that segregation ratios are 9:3:4 and 10:2:4, the presence of Or gene and a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene were considered.

From the above-mentioned results, it was found that the cabbage purebred line "a" has a gene which suppresses Or gene and, at the same time, a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene, while the cabbage purebred line "b" has the conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene but not the gene which suppresses Or gene.

In the spring of 1992, those individuals which exhibited orange color in the main stem and had a cabbage shape were selected from BC1F1 generation. These individuals were backcrossed with cabbage purebred lines "a", "b", "c" and "d" to thereby obtain BC2F1 seeds. In the summer of the same year, these seeds were sown and a similar investigation was carried out with respect to the segregation of orange color in BC2F1 generation. The results are shown in Table 7. χ2 Test for Segregation Ratio in BC2F1 Generation Color of the Main Stem Segregation ratio in BC2F11) BC2F1 Line No. Orange Lightorange Colorless Total 1:1 1:1:2 3:1:4 3 (F1 x a) 16 3 25 44 0.82 8.50x 1.56 4 (F1 x a) 10 11 27 48 0.75 0.79 8.10x 5 (F1 x a) 17 10 21 48 0.75 2.79 3.10 6 (F1 x a) 7 13 33 53 3.19 4.55 3.99 7 (F1 x b) 19 8 19 46 1.39 6.65x 1.90 1 (F1 x c) 14 1 24 39 2.08 10.74x 4.152) 2 (F1 x c) 24 0 13 37 3.27 34.41x 13.65x2) 8 (F1 x d) 25 0 23 48 0.083 26.12x 8.76x 9 (F1 x d) 13 5 19 37 0.027 3.49 0.0992) 10 (F1 x d) 20 4 20 44 0.36 11.9 x 1.33
1) Segregation ratio in BC2F1 generation

If Or gene alone controls the inheritance of orange color, the genotype of BC1F1 is Oror and that of cabbage is oror. Then, the segregation ratio in BC2F1 genotype is Oror:oror=1:1, i.e., light orange:colorless=1:1, without any variation in the color tone.

If a dominant conditioning gene A is present which makes the color expressed by Or gene darker, there are three possible genotypes for BC1F1 (OrorAA, OrorAa and Ororaa), and also three possible genotypes for cabbage (ororAA, ororAa and ororaa). Through the combination of these genotypes, 9 kinds of BC2F1 individuals are obtained, and the segregation ratio in BC2F1 falls under one of the following three ratios: 1:1, 1:1:2, 3:1:4.

2) Since the theoretical frequency for one class was 5 or below, there was a danger that the degree of significance might become too high in the result of the test. Accordingly, significance test with Yates' correction was also carried out for each class [c=( | d | - 0.5) σ, where d is deviation and σ is standard deviation]. As a result, Line No. 1 and Line No. 9 were congruent with the ratio 3:1:4, and Line No. 2 was not congruent with the same. Therefore, the results of χ2 test agreed with the results of significance test with Yates' correction.

3) χ20.05 = 3.84 (Degree of freedom = 1)

χ20.05 = 5.99 (Degree of freedom = 2)

All of the 4 lines wherein the cabbage purebred line "a" had been used as backcross parent were congruent with the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 1:1, but they segregated into three colors of orange, light orange and white. These 4 lines were congruent with the segregation ratio of 1:1:2 or 3:1:4 which is based on the hypothesis that both Or gene and a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene are present. The only one line wherein the cabbage purebred line "b" had been used as backcross parent also segregated into three colors of orange, light orange and white. This line was congruent with the segregation ratios of 1:1 and 3:1:4. Both of the 2 lines wherein the cabbage purebred line "c" had been used as backcross parent were congruent with the 1:1 ratio, and in one of them there was no light orange individuals. In both lines, the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 1:1:2 was abandoned. With respect to the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 3:1:4, Line No. 1 was congruent with this, but in Line No. 2, this hypothesis was abandoned. All the 3 lines wherein the cabbage purebred line "d" had been used as backcross parent were congruent with the segregation ratio of 1:1. In one of these three lines, there were no light orange individuals. In another one line, the hypothesis that the segregation ratio is 1:1:2 was abandoned and this line was congruent with the segregation ratio of 3:1:4. The remaining one line was congruent with both the hypothesis of 1:1:2 and that of 3: 1:4. From these results, it was found that all of the cabbage purebred lines "a", "b", "c" and "d" have a conditioning gene which promotes the expression of Or gene.

EXAMPLE 2

Carotene contents were measured on conventional cabbage cultivars (i.e., those having no Or gene) and cabbage cultivars having Or gene and being Oror in genotype.

The measurement of carotene content was carried out as follows.

Carotene component, which is mainly composed of β-carotene, was fractionated from the other pigment components by alumina chromatography using 2% acetone-n-hexane as an eluent. The solution obtained was distilled under reduced pressure, and the residues were dissolved in n-hexane. Absorbance at 453 nm was measured with a spectrophotometer using n-hexane as control. The quantitative value were calculated from the calibration curve of β -carotene standard solution. Since β -carotene was used as the standard substance, the quantitative value was obtained as a total quantity of carotenes converted into β -carotene. The calculated values were rounded off at the first decimal place and expressed in the form of "n g" where n is an integer. Values less than 6 g were represented by &phis; which means "not zero". Unless otherwise specified, analysis samples were taken as follows. A cabbage was vertically cut from the top center of the head by a width of 1 cm so that all of the head-forming leaves are contained in a sample, and the cut piece obtained was chopped finely and mixed to prepare a sample.

The carotene contents per 100 g of 4 conventional cabbage lines are shown in Table 8. Total Carotene Contents

in 4 Cabbage Lines (Average)
Line No. No. of Individuals Total Carotene Content ( g/100 g) a 5 23 b 3 14 c 4 26 d 4 46 Total 16 27 (average)

Using these 4 lines as backcross parents, backcrossing of F1 (orange cauliflower x cabbage "a") was carried out twice. In the resultant generation (BC2F1), 4 lines having Or gene heterozygously were examined for the carotene content per 100 g, and the results are shown in Table 9. Total Carotene Contents of Oror Individuals

in BC2F1 Generation (Average)
Crossing Combina-

tion in BC2F1
No. of

Individuals
Total Carotene Content

( g/100 g)
(F1 x a) x a 3 59 (F1 x b) x b 2 100 (F1 x a) x c 4 72 (F1 x a) x d 5 183
Notes) a,b,c,d: cabbage lines

   F1 : orange cauliflower x a

From Table 9, it was found that, when Or gene has been introduced into a conventional cabbage line, its carotene content increases by 3-7 times, and that the increasing rate of carotene content varies depending on the line used as backcross parent.

Among the BC2F1 lines having Or gene heterozygously, the line (F1 x a) x d had the highest carotene content. Each individual of this line was examined for the presence of orange color in the cross section of the main stem and the vascular bundle, leaf color at the cross section of the head, and carotene content. The results are shown in Table 10. Total Carotene Content per 100 g of Head-Forming Leaves (Fresh)

by Individual in (F1 x a) x d Line
(A) When the sample was prepared from small portions of all the head-forming leaves Indivi. No. Orange color

exhibiting part
Leaf color Total carotene

content (g/100)
1 All over the cross-section Yellowish orange 250 incl. vascular bundle 2 Vascular bundle Yellow 144 3 Vascular bundle Yellow 190 4 None Yellow 129 5 None Light yellow 62 6 None Very light yellow 55 7 None Very light yellow 38 (B) When the sample was prepared from one leaf located at the center of head-forming leaves Indivi. No. Orange color

exhibiting part
Leaf color Total carotene

content (g/100 g)
11 All over the cross-section Yellowish orange 452 incl. vascular bundle 12 All over the cross-section Yellowish orange 433 incl. vascular bundle 13 All over the cross-section Yellowish orange 405 incl. vascular bundle 14 Vascular bundle Yellow 167 15 Vascular bundle Light yellowish orange 161 16 Vascular bundle Yellow 136 17 None Light yellow 170 18 None Light yellow 69 19 None Light yellow 60 20 None Light yellow 58 21 None Very light yellow 45 22 None Very light yellow 30 23 None Very light yellow 25 24 None Very light yellow 22 25 None Very light yellow 15 26 None White 12
1) None: The cross-section of the main stem has the same color as that of conventional cabbage.

Since the line (F1 x a) x d has been obtained by backcrossing, it has two genotypes of Oror (which exhibits orange color) and oror (which exhibits the same color as that of the conventional cabbage). Even when the color of the main stem cross section was the same as that of the conventional cabbage, there appeared some individuals (Nos. 3 and 17) which had higher carotene contents than those of backcross parent lines "a" and "d" ("a": 23 g, "d":46 g). As the leaf color changed in the following order:

  • white--very light yellow--light yellow--yellow-- yellowish orange,
deepening yellow color up to an orange tinge, carotene content increased. In addition, those individuals whose main stem cross-section including vascular bundle was all over orange (leaf color: yellowish orange) had a higher carotene content than those individuals which exhibited orange color only in the vascular bundle at the main stem cross-section (leaf color: yellow or light yellowish orange). As the orange color-exhibiting part increased from none (same as the conventional cabbage) to vascular bundle and then to all over the cross-section including vascular bundle, carotene content increased.

In the line (F1 x a) x d which had the highest carotene content, individuals exhibiting orange color all over the main stem cross-section including vascular bundle were selected, and their carotene contents by part were measured. Similar measurement was carried out on conventional cabbages, and the results were compared. Table 11 shows the results. Comparison of Total Carotene Content (Average) by Part between Conventional Cabbages and Oror Individuals Conventional cabbages (F1 x a) x d individuals No. of indivi.

examined
Carotene

(g/100 g)
No. of indivi.

examined
Carotene

(g/100 g)
Around the core 1 &phis; 1 384 Inner leaf rather close to the core 1 39 2 306 Inner leaf 1 14 3 243 Inner leaf rather close to the outside - - 1 405 Edible, outermost head-forming leaf 1 260 - - Petiole of head-forming leaves 4 &phis; 3 617 All of the head-forming leaves 16 27 3 195

In conventional cabbages, the carotene content is 260 g/100 g at the edible, outermost head-forming leaf but most of the edible headforming leaves had a low carotene content (0-39 g/100 g), and the carotene content was almost zero around the core. In contrast, cabbages having Or gene had very high carotene contents of 243-405 g/100 g at any part of it.

With respect to the petiole of head-forming leaves, the carotene contents of conventional cabbages were from zero to 11 g/100 g, while those of cabbages having Or gene were from 22 g/100 g to 990 g/100 g. The carotene content of this part increased by 2-90 times.

EXAMPLE 3

In July, 1989, seeds from 3 lines of Chinese kale and the orange cauliflower NY163 inbred line were sown. In the spring of 1990, a Chinese kale line (female parent) was crossed with NY163. In July of the same year, the resultant crossbred seeds were sown to thereby grow F1 individuals. The morphology of flower buds (edible part) of Chinese kale resembles that of broccoli. Its flower buds look like as if the small buds of broccoli have slightly grown up, and its flower stalks as a whole have an elongated shape. A F1 individual which is a hybrid between Chinese kale and orange cauliflower forms a light orange mass of tissues resembling a flower head, but soon most of the flower buds in the tissue mass grow into small buds (in ordinary cauliflower, a half of the flower buds become dormant or remain undeveloped, and do not form flower stalks). At the same time, the color of the tissue mass changes from light orange to green. This mass of small green buds presents the intermediate morphology between broccoli and Chinese kale.

In the spring of 1991, F1 individuals were crossed within themselves to thereby obtain F2 seeds. Flower heads of F2 individuals were cut off and the color of main stem cross sections was examined, to thereby carry out χ2 test for the F2 segregation ratio. The results are shown in Table 12. χ2 Test for F2 Segregation Ratio of the Color in the Main Stem Cross-Section Color of the Cross-Section Orange Lightorange Colorless Total 3:1 1:2:1 9:3:4 10:2:4 (Chinese kale x NY163)F2 (1) 27 6 16 49 1.53 32.9x 2.27 1.58 (2) 20 11 16 47 2.05 13.98x 3.65 9.00x (3) 22 9 18 49 3.60 20.27x 3.83 6.48x
1) Segregation ratio in F2

   3:1 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene alone which is dominant.

   1:2:1 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene alone which is incompletely dominant.

   9:3:4 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene and a dominant conditioning gene A, and individuals having Or gene but not the conditioning gene A exhibiting light orange color.

   10:2:4 In the case of the inheritance of orange color being controlled by Or gene and a dominant conditioning gene A, and only those individuals whose genotype is Ororaa exhibiting light orange color.

2) χ20.05 = 3.84 (Degree of freedom = 1)

   χ20.05 = 5.99 (Degree of freedom = 2)

With respect to the segregation of color in the main stem cross section when the flower head was cut off, the color was classified into orange, light orange and non-orange (i.e., the same color as that of the main stem cross section of Chinese kale). All of the 3 lines of F2 generation were congruent with the hypothesis of the 3:1 segregation ratio based on dominant one gene control. The hypothesis of 1:2:1 segregation ratio based on incompletely dominant one gene control was abandoned, and it was supported that the inheritance of orange color is not controlled by one incompletely dominant gene. Since a number of individuals appeared which exhibited an orange color darker than light orange, the presence of a conditioning gene (A) which promotes the expression of Or gene was considered. Then, χ2 test was carried out for the segregation ratio based on this hypothesis of dominant two gene control, tested lines were well congruent with the ratio of 9:3:4 or 10:2:4.

EXAMPLE 4

In the spring of 1991, the inventors planned to produce an interspecific hybrid by fertilizing each 4 individuals of 2 Chinese cabbage lines with pollen of 2 individuals of NY163 selfed 1st generation. For each of the female parents, about 1000 flowers were fertilized with pollen, but all of the fertilized ovaries were fallen off during seed growth period and no crossbred seed could be obtained. Therefore, it was considered impossible to obtain hybrid seeds according to conventional methods. Then, the inventors decided to remove embryos from fertilized ovaries 2-5 weeks after crossing under sterile conditions to thereby carry out embryo culture, while carrying out conventional crossing simultaneously in the following year.

In the spring of 1992, each individual of 3 Chinese cabbage lines and 1 turnip line were fertilized with pollen of individuals of NY163 inbred 2nd generation. The results obtained according to conventional crossing methods are shown in Table 13, and the results obtained by embryo culture in Table 14. Harvested Amount of Interspecific Crossbred Seeds

obtained by Conventional Crossing, and

the Characteristics of the Individuals Germinating therefrom
Crossing

combination
No. of

female

parent
No. of

seeds

harvested
No. of

seeds

sown
No. of

seeds

which

germinated
No. of

individuals

permanently

planted
Characteristics after

permanent

plantation
B x OC1) 1 3 3 3 3 Matrocrinal C x OC 6 95 53 45 45 Matrocrinal D x OC 5 55 55 49 49 Matrocrinal OC x C 4 890 170 150 80 Matrocrinal
1) B, C, D = Chinese cabbage lines

   OC = NY163 inbred line
Production of Interspecific Hybrid by Embryo Culture Crossing

combination
No. of

ovaries

supplied
No. of

embryos

cultured
No. of

seeds which

germinated
No. of

individuals transplanted

from pots
F1

line

No. 2)
B x OC1) 34 12 12 2 8,9 C x OC 4 3 2 2 3,5 D x OC 59 36 24 4 1,4,6,7 T x OC 56 8 8 0 OC x C 153 59 46 8 8 lines
1) B, C, D = Chinese cabbage lines

   T = Turnip line

   OC = NY163 inbred line

2) Nos. 1, 3-8 = matrocrinal individuals (Chinese cabbage)

   No. 9 = interspecific hybrid

As shown in Table 13, though crossbred seeds could be obtained by conventional crossing, all of them were found to be matroclinal plants as judged from the state of growth after germination and permanent plantation. As shown in Table 14, in embryo culture, 59 embryos were obtained from 153 fertilized ovaries, and 46 embryos out of 59 germinated. Tissue culture was carried out in such a manner that axillary buds grow from leaf axils during cultivation, to thereby obtain a plurality of clone individuals. A group of clone individuals obtained from one individual which had germinated were made one line. Individuals were transplanted from pots from the summer to autumn of 1992. Finally, 8 lines (F1 ) could be transplanted from pots. From the morphology of seedlings after this transplantation, 7 lines appeared to be matroclinal plants and the remaining one was considered to be an interspecific hybrid (F1 individual).

In the winter of 1993, 10 clone individuals of the line which seemed to be an interspecific hybrid were investigated into their pollen fertility, morphologic characteristics, and the presence of orange color, and their carotene contents in the leaf part were measured. All of these 10 individuals had the intermediate morphology between their parents, producing a half-formed head. There were 9 individuals which did not have pollen fertility at all. The remaining one had pollen fertility, and was capable of selfing by bud pollination and seed-harvesting by open pollination. In addition, compared to the sterile individuals, the fertile individual was larger in the shapes of leaves and flowers. The chromosome number of this individual was found to be 2n=38. Accordingly, this fertile individual was presumed to be a synthetic Brassica napus whose chromosome had been duplicated during tissue culture, and the remaining 9 individuals an interspecific hybrid between Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris.

The fertile individual presumed to be a synthetic Brassica napus exhibited very light orange color at the joint between main stem and petiole. Further, inner small leaves surrounded by half-head-forming leaves and all over the cross-section of the root were also light orange.

The carotene content in the selfed seeds of this fertile individual was found to be 209 g/100 g, a very high content compared to those of conventional rapes (53 g/100 g in line "a" and 22 g/100 g in line "b").

In the spring of 1993, the above fertile individual was backcrossed with a Chinese cabbage line, and it was also selfed by bud pollination. The results are shown in Table 15. Harvested Amount and Germination Ratio of the Seeds obtained by the Backcrossing and Selfing of Fertile Individuals Crossing

combination
No. of

seeds

harvested
No. of

seeds

sown
No. of

seeds which

germinated
Germination

ratio (%)
No.9-2 x E1) 32 0 - -    Bud pollination

   (selfing)
192 25 25 100
   Open pollination 745 0 - -
1) No.9-2 = Interspecific hybrid fertile individual (2n = 38)

   E = Chinese cabbage line

As shown in Table 15, the fertile individual was capable of selfing by bud pollination, backcrossing with Chinese cabbage, and seed-harvesting by open pollination.

EXAMPLE 5

Carotene contents were measured for the 9 sterile individuals which were presumed to be an interspecific hybrid between Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris in Example 4. In conventional Chinese cabbages, the carotene content was 38 g/100 g in the leaf part inside the head and 0 g/100 g in the petiole. In contrast, the carotene content of the sterile individuals in the leaf part inside the half-formed head was 496 g/100 g, a very high content compared to that of conventional Chinese cabbages. In addition, similar to the fertile individual in Example 4, these sterile individuals also exhibited very light orange color at the joint between main stem and petiole, and further, their inner small leaves surrounded by half-head-forming leaves and all over the cross-section of their root were also light orange.

In the spring of 1993, the inventors planned to produce BC1F1 individuals by backcrossing 6 sterile individuals with pollen of 2 Chinese cabbage lines and 1 turnip line. Two process were employed:

  • one was to leave fertilized ovaries in plant bodies to grow embryos therein, and the other was to remove embryos from fertilized ovaries under sterile conditions 15-30 days after the crossing to thereby carry out embryo culture. The results are shown in Tables 16 and 17.
Harvested Amount of the Interspecific Crossbred Seeds

obtained by Conventional Crossing and the Germination Ratio
Crossing

combination
No. of

seeds

harvested
No. of

seeds

sown
No. of

seeds which

germinated
Germination

ratio (%)
No.9-2 x E1) 32 0 - -    Bud pollination 192 25 25 100    (selfing)    Open pollination 745 0 - - 3 x E 2 2 2 100 5 x E 1 1 1 100 6 x E 2 2 1 50 6 x F 6 6 5 83 8 x E 6 6 3 50 8 x F 9 9 7 78 10 x E 21 21 20 95 10 x U 62 44 40 91
1) No.9-2 = Interspecific hybrid fertile individual (2n = 38)

   Nos.9-3,5,6,8,10 = Interspeciric hybrid sterile individuals (2n = 19)

   E,F = Chinese cabbage lines

   U = Turnip line
Production of BC1F1 Individuals by Embryo Culture Crossing

combination
No. of

ovaries

supplied
No. of

embryos

cultured
No. of

seeds which

germinated
No. of individuals

transplanted from

pots
BC1

F1

line No.
No.9-6 x F1) 8 3 3 2 1,2 No.9-8 x F 12 9 9 3 3,4,5 Total 20 12 12 5 5 lines
1) Nos.9-6 and 9-8 = Interspecific hybrid sterile individuals

   F = Chinese cabbage line

As shown in Table 16, a small quantity of backcrossed seeds could be obtained by conventional crossing. When embryo culture was carried out, 12 embryos were obtained from 20 ovaries, and 4 individuals germinated. Accordingly, BC1F1 individuals can be obtained from sterile individuals according to either of conventional backcrossing methods or embryo culture method.

Example 6

In the spring of 1991, the inventors intended to produce an interspecific hybrid by fertilizing each 2 individuals of 5 Japanese radish lines with pollen of 2 individuals from NY163 selfed 1st generation. For each of the parents, 1000 flowers were fertilized, but seeds were hardly obtained except that from one individual of line A, seven seeds were obtained which seemed to be hybrid seeds. In July of the same year, these seeds were sown, and subsequently 3 of them germinated and grew. Although one of them died during the course of growth, the remaining 2 individuals continued growing and reached flowering. Both individuals greatly resembled Japanese radish in the appearance of upper plant body and the shape and color of flowers. They exhibited light green color, and the presence of orange color derived from their male parents could not be confirmed from the outside. Their root did not grow so thick as Japanese radish's, but they had a rather thin main root. However, both 2 individuals had no pollen fertility at all.

In the spring of 1992, the inventors intended to produce BC1F1 individuals by fertilizing the above-mentioned interspecific hybrid 2 individuals (F1) with pollen from 2 Japanese radish lines. However, all of the fertilized ovaries fallen off 20-30 days after the fertilization, and it seemed very difficult to obtain crossbred seeds. Then, it was planned to carry out embryo culture by removing embryos from fertilized ovaries before they fall off. Embryos were removed from ovaries 6-30 days after the fertilization under sterile conditions, and cultured. The results are shown in Table 18. Production of BC1F1 Individuals by Embryo Culture BC1F1

Crossing

combination
No. of

ovaries supplied
No. of

embryos cultured
No. of seeds

which

germinated
No. of

individuals

transplanted

from pots
BC1F1

line

No.
F1-1 x B-11) 44 38 17 13 1-3, 5-14 F1-1 x B-3 1 1 0 0 F1-2 x B-1 2 2 0 0 F1-2 x C-1 27 29 5 2 4, 15 Total 74 70 22 15
1) F1 = Japanese radish line A x NY163 inbred line

   B, C = Japanese radish lines

As shown in Table 18, 70 embryos were obtained from 74 fertilized ovaries, and 22 embryos out of 70 germinated. Tissue culture was carried out in such a manner that axillary buds grow from leaf axils during cultivation, to thereby obtain a plurality of clone individuals.

A group of clone individuals obtained from one individual which had germinated were made one line. Individuals were transplanted from pots from the summer to autumn of 1992. Finally, 15 lines (BC1F1) could be transplanted from pots.

In the winter of 1993, the BC1F1 15 lines were investigated into pollen fertility, morphological characteristics and the presence of orange color. In addition, their carotene contents in the root part were measured. The results are shown in Table 19. Characteristics of BC1F1 Lines Line

No.
No. of

clones
Pollen

fertility

(%)
Presence of orange color,

and orange color

exhibiting parts
Carotene

content1)
1 1 34       - - 2 5 43 Light orange, a part of vascular bundle at the base of the main stem 41 3 4 15 White 59 4 2 - White &phis;2) 5 5 0 Light orange, a parat of vascular bundle at the base of the main stem 87 6 8 12 Light orange, a part of vascular bundle of the base of the main stem, all over the root 117 7 6 6 White 38 8 6 0 Light orange, a part of vascular bundle of the base of the main stem, all over the root 27 9 10 0 Light orange, a part of vascular bundle of the base of the main stem, all over the root 68 10 2 0       - - 11 4 1 Light orange, a part of vascular bundle of the base of the main stem, all over the root - 12 7 0 Light orange, a part of vascular 159 bundle of the base of the main stem, all over the root 13 8 0 White &phis; 14 2 - Light orange, a part of vascular - bundle of the base of the main stem 15 4 0 White -
1) g/100 g

2) &phis; = not zero, but less than 6 g/100 g.

As shown in Table 19, most of the lines had no or extremely low pollen fertility but 4 lines out of 15 had pollen fertility. Like F1 individuals, BC1F1 individuals greatly resembled Japanese radish in the appearance of upper plant body and the shape and color of flowers. They exhibited strong green color, and the presence of orange color derived from their male parents could not be confirmed from the outside. Their root did not grow so thick as Japanese radish's. They had a rather thin main root, but it had a tendency of being thicker than that of F1 individuals. One clone individual was selected from each of the 15 lines, and was cut horizontally at several places. Then, several individuals exhibiting light orange color were found. The parts exhibiting orange color were a part of vascular bundle located at the base of the main stem and all over the cross-section of root including medullary tissue and vascular bundle. When the carotene contents of BC1F1 10 lines were measured, 8 lines out of 10 contained carotene. The highest carotene content was 159 g/100 g and the average content was 75 g/100 g.

In the spring of 1993, the inventors intended to produce BC2F1 individuals by backcrossing 4 lines which seemed to contain carotene because of their light orange color in the root part with pollen of Japanese radishes. The results are shown in Table 20. Harvested Amounts and Germination Ratios of BC2F1 Seeds Crossing

combination
No.

of

individuals
Total

No. of

seeds

harvested
No. of

seeds

sown
No. of

seeds which

germinated
Germination

ratio (%)
No. 11) 1 113 0 - -    (open pollination) No. 3 1 270 0 - -    (open pollination) No. 6 x D 5 219 62 34 55 No. 9 x D 7 198 94 48 51 No.11 x E 3 32 25 10 40 No.12 x E 4 116 63 39 62
1) Nos. 1,3,6,9,11,12 = BC1F1 lines

   D,E = Japanese radish lines

As shown in Table 20, despite the no or extremely low pollen fertility in the 4 lines, crossbred seeds could be obtained. In addition, Line Nos. 1 and 3, which did not have orange color or was unknown about the presence of orange color, were capable of producing seeds by open pollination. The backcrossed seeds (BC2F1 seeds) harvested in September of the same year were sown, and the germination ratio thereof was about 50%.


Anspruch[en]
  1. A plant of Brassica oleracea L., other than cauliflower, which contains the Or gene and has an increased carotene content.
  2. A plant according to claim 1 which is obtainable by a process comprising crossing (a) an orange cauliflower parent with (b) a non-cauliflower Brassica oleracea L. parent.
  3. A plant according to claim 1 or 2 selected from cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. var. gonglyodes L.), savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. bullta DC.), Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera Zenk.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) and Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. alboglabra Bayl.).
  4. A plant according to any one of the preceding claims further comprising a conditioning gene that promotes expression of the Or gene.
  5. A plant according to any one of the preceding claims which is obtainable by crossing a non-cauliflower Brassica oleracea L. parent with an orange cauliflower parent selected from inbred lines NY156, NY163 and NY165.






IPC
A Tglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Httenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

Anmelder
Datum

Patentrecherche

Patent Zeichnungen (PDF)

Copyright 2008 Patent-De Alle Rechte vorbehalten. eMail: info@patent-de.com