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Steuereinrichtung für eine Brennkraftmaschine - Dokument EP1288468
 
PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1288468 10.04.2003
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 1288468
Titel Steuereinrichtung für eine Brennkraftmaschine
Anmelder Yamaha Hatsudoki K.K., Iwata, Shizuoka, JP
Erfinder Samoto, Haruhiko, Iwata-shi, Shizuoka-ken, JP;
Kishi, Tomoaki, Iwata-shi, Shizuoka-ken, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 22.08.2002
EP-Aktenzeichen 020182689
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 05.03.2003
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 10.04.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse F02D 11/10
IPC-Nebenklasse F02D 41/22   F02D 37/02   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a control device of an internal combustion engine, in particular for a two-wheeled vehicle, comprising a failure detection means for detecting a failure and an engine torque reduction means.

Such engine control devices for controlling an engine are suited particularly for performing a so-called electronic control as in an engine with a fuel injection device for fuel injection.

With fuel injection devices called injectors becoming in wide use recently, control of fuel injection timing or the amount of fuel injection, that is, the air-fuel ratio or the like, has become easy, enabling promotion of a higher output power, a lower fuel consumption, clearer exhaust emissions or the like. Regarding the fuel injection timing among others, it is usual that conditions of intake valves to be exact, that is, typically phase conditions of the cam shaft are detected and fuel is injected according to these conditions. However, a so-called cam sensor for detecting phase conditions of the cam shaft is expensive, and in many cases, it is not adopted because of size increase in the cylinder head especially for two-wheeled vehicles. Therefore, for example, in JP-A-10-227252, an engine control device is suggested in which phase conditions of the crank shaft and pressure in the exhaust pipe are detected to detect stroke conditions of the cylinder. Therefore, with this prior art, stroke conditions can be detected without need of detecting the phase of the cam shaft, which enables the fuel ignition timing or the like to be controlled according to the stroke conditions.

In the foregoing engine control device in which the so-called electronic control is performed, it is usual that at the time of a system failure, fail-safe is performed by which engine torque is quickly decreased, such as an action of stopping fuel supply to the engine. However, as far as two-wheeled vehicles are concerned, a rapid decrease in engine torque would cause a feeling of wrongness in driver's stopping operation of the vehicle.

In view of the foregoing, it is an objective of the present invention to provide an engine control device as indicated above capable of performing fail-safe without causing the feeling of wrongness at the time of a system failure.

This objective is solved by a control device of an internal combustion engine, in particular for a two-wheeled vehicle, comprising a failure detection means for detecting a failure and an engine torque reduction means, wherein the engine torque reduction means is adapted to gradually decrease an engine torque when a failure is detected by said failure detection means.

As the present engine control device is adapted to gradually decrease engine torque when a failure is detected, no feeling of wrongness is caused, in particular for a driver of a two-wheeled vehicle.

According to a preferred embodiment, the control device is adapted to perform fail-safe at the time of a failure.

Beneficially, the control device comprises a condition detection section and/or a failure judgment section, and/or a failure-time control section.

Preferably, there is provided a throttle valve in each intake pipe of the internal combustion engine, wherein each throttle valve is provided with a driving device for driving of the throttle valve independently of an accelerator of the internal combustion engine.

The condition detection section may comprise an accelerator opening detection section and/or a throttle opening detection section and/or a side stand switch detection section and/or a turnover detection section.

The failure judgment section may comprise a target valve opening calculation section and/or an error failure judgment section and/or an accelerator opening sensor failure judgment section and/or a throttle opening sensor failure judgment section and/or a side stand failure judgment section and/or a turnover failure judgment section.

The failure-time control section may comprise a throttle valve control section and/or an ignition control section.

According to another preferred embodiment, said engine torque reduction means is provided with a failure-time throttle control means for controlling closing speed of the throttle valve to gradually decrease the engine torque.

Therein, said failure-time throttle control means may be adapted to control a closing speed of the throttle valve, in particular for engines with intermediate or large displacement, in such a way that a throttle valve closing speed is decreased with time or in such a way that the throttle valve is closed in a first part of the closing process with a constant first speed for a given time from beginning of valve closing and in a second part of the closing process with a constant second speed being smaller that said first speed.

Additionally, said failure-time throttle control means may also be adapted to control a closing speed of the throttle valve, in particular for engines with small displacement, in such a way that the throttle valve is closed at a constant speed.

According to yet another preferred embodiment, said engine torque reduction means is provided with a failure-time ignition control means for slowly decreasing the engine torque by at least one of delayed ignition timing, thinning-out of ignition, and cylinder-by-cylinder stopping of ignition.

Therein, the failure-time ignition control means may be provided with a relay circuit for stopping ignition, cylinder by cylinder, when a failure is detected by said failure detection means.

In the following, the present invention is explained in greater detail with respect to several embodiments thereof in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:

Fig. 1
is a schematic structural diagram of an engine for a motorcycle and its control device;
Fig. 2
is a block diagram showing an embodiment of an engine control device;
Fig. 3
is a diagram illustrating failure judgment performed in the error failure judgment section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4
are diagrams illustrating failure judgment performed in the accelerator opening sensor failure judgment section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 5
is a diagram illustrating failure judgment performed in the throttle opening sensor failure judgment section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 6
is a diagram illustrating failure judgment performed in the turnover failure judgment section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 7
is a flowchart of the processing performed in the throttle valve control section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 8
are diagrams illustrating throttle valve closing control performed in the processing of Fig. 7;
Fig. 9
is a diagram illustrating a relation between throttle valve opening and engine torque;
Fig. 10
is a block diagram showing an example of the ignition control section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 11
is is a flowchart of the processing performed in the ignition control section of Fig. 10;
Fig. 12
is a diagram illustrating a relation between ignition timing and engine torque;
Fig. 13
is a diagram illustrating a gradual decrease in engine torque by thinning-out of ignition;
Fig. 14
is a block diagram showing another example of the ignition control section of Fig. 2;
Fig. 15
is a diagram illustrating a gradual decrease in engine torque by cylinder-bycylinder stopping of ignition; and
Fig. 16
is a block diagram showing still another example of the ignition control section of Fig. 2.

An embodiment of the present control device will be described below.

Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram showing an example of an engine for a motorcycle and its control device. The engine 1 is a four-cylinder four-stroke engine, which comprises a cylinder body 2; a crank shaft 3; pistons 4; connecting rods 14; combustion chambers 5; intake pipes 6; intake valves 7; exhaust pipes 8; exhaust valves 9; and ignition plugs 10. In an intake pipe 6 is provided a throttle valve 12 adapted to be opened/closed in response to the opening of an accelerator 17, and an the intake pipes 6 on the downstream side from the throttle valve 12 are provided injectors 13 as fuel injection devices. The injector 13 is connected to a filter, a fuel pump and a pressure control valve (regulator) disposed in a fuel tank. This engine 1 has a so-called independent intake system, and the injector 13 is provided an the intake pipe 6 for each cylinder. In this embodiment, the throttle valve 12 is arranged such that opening/closing control is performed separately from the accelerator 17 by a step motor 16.

The operating condition of the engine 1 is controlled by an engine control unit 15. As means for detecting control input of the engine control unit 15, that is, the operating condition of the engine 1, there provided are a crank angle sensor 20 for detecting rotation angle, or phase of the crank shaft 3, a throttle opening sensor 23 for detecting opening of the throttle valve 12, intake pipe pressure sensors 24 for detecting intake pipe pressure in the intake pipes 6, and the like. In addition, there are provided a side stand switch 21 for detecting housing condition of a side stand, an accelerator opening sensor 22 for detecting the amount of operation of the accelerator 17, a turnover switch 25 for detecting turnover of the vehicle, and the like. The engine control unit 15 inputs detection signals of these sensors and outputs control signals to the fuel pumps, injectors 13, ignition coils 11 and step motor 16.

The engine control unit 15 is constituted by an unillustrated microcomputer or the like. Fig. 2 is a block diagram for fail-safe established by the processing performed in the engine control unit 15. This processing for the fail-safe is performed mainly in a condition detection section 31, a failure judgment section 32 and a failure-time control section 33.

The condition judgment section 31 comprises an accelerator opening detection section 34 for detecting an accelerator opening based an an accelerator opening signal from the accelerator opening sensor 22; a throttle opening detection section 35 for detecting an throttle opening based an an throttle opening signal from the throttle opening sensor 23; a side stand switch (SW in the figure) detection section 36 for detecting a housing condition of the side stand based an a side stand switch signal from the side stand switch 21; and a turnover detection section 37 for detecting a turnover based an a turnover switch signal from the turnover switch 25.

The failure judgment section 32 comprises a target valve opening calculation section 38 for calculating a target opening at the throttle valve from the accelerator opening detected in the accelerator opening detection section 34; an error failure judgment section 39 for judging a failure associated with the opening error at the throttle valve from the target valve opening calculated in the target valve opening calculation section 38 and the throttle opening detected in the throttle opening detection section 35; an accelerator opening sensor (APS in the figure) failure judgment section 40 for judging a failure of the accelerator opening sensor 22 from the accelerator opening detected in the accelerator opening detection section 34; a throttle opening sensor (TPS in the figure) failure judgment section 41 for judging a failure of the throttle opening sensor 23 from the throttle opening detected in the throttle opening detection section 35; a side stand failure judgment section 42 for judging a failure associated with the side stand from the housing condition of the side stand detected in the side stand switch detection section 36; and a turnover failure judgment section 43 for judging a failure associated with the turnover from the turning-over condition detected in the turnover detection section 37.

The failure time control section 33 comprises a throttle valve control section 44 for controlling the opening at the throttle valve 12, and an ignition control section 45 for controlling the igniting condition of the ignition plug 10.

The target valve opening calculation section 38 calculates, in response to the magnitude of the accelerator opening detected in the accelerator opening detection section 34, a throttle opening to be achieved normally in the throttle valve 12, which is generally found as the detected accelerator opening multiplied by a given factor.

The error failure judgment section 39 judges it to be a failure in which the difference between a target valve opening and the detected throttle opening is excessive, when the throttle opening detected in the throttle opening detection section remains outside a given acceptable error range for mare than a given failure judgment time with respect to the target valve opening calculated in the target valve opening calculation section 38, as shown in Fig. 3.

The accelerator opening sensor failure judgment section 40 judges either one or bath of the accelerator opening sensor 22 and the accelerator opening detection section 34 for detecting the accelerator opening, to be a failure, when the accelerator opening detected in the accelerator opening detection section 34 by the accelerator opening sensor 22 is constituted by a main accelerator opening APS(a) and a sub accelerator opening APS (b) and either one of these accelerator opening detection values remains outside a given allowable error range for mare that a given failure judgment time with respect to the other, for example, as shown in Fig. 4a, or when the accelerator opening APS detected in the accelerator opening detection section 34 remains within an abnormal sensor output range for more then a given failure judgment time, as shown in Fig. 4b.

The throttle opening sensor failure judgment section 41 judges either one or both of the throttle opening sensor 23 and the throttle opening detection section 35 for detecting the throttle opening, to e a failure, when the throttle opening TPS detected in the throttle opening detection section 35 remains within an abnormal sensor output range for more than a given failure judgment time, for example, as shown in Fig. 5.

The side stand failure judgment section 42 judges it to be a failure associated with the housing of a side stand, when the side stand is not housed and a condition in which engine speed exceeds a given value, continues far more than a given failure judgment time.

The turnover failure judgment section 43 judges it to be a failure associated with the turnover, when the turnover switch signal detected in the turnover detection section 37 remains within an abnormal output range for more than a given failure judgment time, for example, as shown in Fig. 6.

On the other hand, Fig. 7 is a flowchart of the processing performed in the throttle valve control section. In this processing, first at step S1, various conditions are detected in the condition detection section 31.

Then, procedure proceeds to step S2 and it is judged whether or not any failure has been detected in the failure judgment section 32. If any failure is detected, procedure proceeds to step S3, and if not, to step S4.

At the step S3, procedure proceeds to step S5 after a motor drive command value to dose the throttle valve is calculated in response to the current throttle valve opening.

At the step S4, procedure proceeds to the step S5 after a motor drive command value to bring the throttle valve opening dose to the target valve opening calculated in the target valve opening calculation section 38.

At the step S5, procedure returns to the step S1 after the step motor 16 is driven according to the motor drive command value calculated at the step S3 or step S4.

At the step S3 of this processing, closing control of the throttle valve performed when same failure is detected, is performed, for example, as shown in Fig. 8. In these figures, Fig. 8a shows a closing control in which the valve opening is closed uniformly with time, that is, at a constant speed. Fig. 8b shows a closing control in which valve closing speed is decreased with time, which is represented by a downwardly convex curve. Fig. 8c shows a closing control in which the valve is closed at a larger speed for a given time since the beginning of valve closing and thereafter at a smaller speed, which is represented by a downwardly broken line. Various kinds of closing speed control of the throttle valve are possible, but as shown in Fig. 9, it is represented by a generally upwardly convex curve in which engine torque increases at steep slope when the throttle valve opening is small and the slope decreases with increasing opening.

Therefore, for a vehicle with intermediate or large displacement which has engine torque of a large dynamic range, the throttle closing speed is preferably set in the shape of a downwardly convex curve as in Fig. 8b, or a downwardly broken line as in Fig. 8c, to smooth reduction in engine torque at the time of fail-safe so as to eliminate the feeling of wrongness of the driver. In a vehicle with small displacement which has engine torque of a small dynamic range, the feeling of wrongness is not so strong even if the throttle valve is closed at a uniform slope as in Fig. 8a.

Fig. 10 is a schematic structural diagram of the ignition control section 45. For the purpose of this ignition control, the engine control unit 15 comprises a CPU 15a for processing, a CPU monitoring and protection circuit 15b for monitoring and protecting the CPU, and an ignitor circuit 15c far converting ignition pulse signals from the CPU 15a into drive signals. Ignition drive signals from the ignitor circuit 15c are amplified by ignition coils 11a-11d each provided in the respective four cylinders for discharge and ignition of the respective ignition plugs 10a-10d. The CPU monitoring and protection circuit 15b is generally constituted by a sub CPU other than a main CPU 15a.

Fig. 11 is a flow chart of the processing performed in the ignition control section 45. In this processing, first at step S11, various kinds of conditions are detected in the condition detection section 31.

Then, procedure proceeds to step S12 and the ignition timing is calculated from information an the throttle valve opening, engine speed, and the like.

Then, procedure proceeds to step S13 and it is judged whether or not any failure is detected in the failure judgment section 32. If any failure is detected, procedure proceeds to step S14, and if not, to step S18.

At the step S14, procedure proceeds to step S15 after an ignition timing correction value is calculated corresponding to an elapsed time since occurrence of the failure.

At the step S15, the ignition timing correction value calculated at the step S14 is added to the ignition timing calculated at the step S12 into a new ignition timing, and then procedure proceeds to step S16.

At the step S16, it is judged whether or not a given time has passed since occurrence of the failure. If a given time has passed, procedure proceeds to step S17, and if not, to the step S18.

At the step S18, procedure returns to the step S11 after ignition control is performed based an the ignition timing value calculated at the step S12 or S15.

On the other hand, at the step S17, procedure is finished after ignition is stopped.

At the step S14 and step S15 of the processing of Fig. 11, delayed ignition timing is performed. As shown in Fig. 12, the ignition timing is usually set at a time at which maximum torque is obtained, but the later the setting value of the ignition timing is than that time, that is, the more the ignition timing is delayed, the smaller the engine torque becomes. Therefore, in this embodiment, control is performed according to the processing of Fig. 11 such that the ignition timing is delayed gradually with elapsed time since occurrence of the failure to decrease engine torque gradually. Thus, fail-safe can be performed without causing a feeling of wrongness of the driver.

As means for gradually decreasing engine torque by ignition control at the time of a failure, in place of or in addition to the foregoing delayed ignition timing, a method is also included in which ignition itself is thinned out gradually as shown in Fig. 13. In this example, ignition is thinned out in order of the cylinder number from the fourth cylinder, frequency of the thinning-out is increased with elapsed time to the final stopping of the ignition. In this method, engine torque is also decreased gradually, effecting fail-safe without causing a feeling of wrongness of the driver.

Also, as means for gradually decreasing engine torque by ignition control at the time of a failure, in place of or in addition to the foregoing delayed ignition timing and/or thinning-out of ignition, a method is also included in which ignition is stopped cylinder by cylinder. Fig. 14 shows a circuit in which this cylinder-by-cylinder stopping of ignition can be performed without a command from the CPU, that is, in an analogical way. In this ignition control section 45, an analogically driven ignition cut relay output circuit 26 is added in the engine control unit 15. The ignition cut relay output circuit 26 is a circuit for driving ignition cut relays 27a-27d disposed between ignition coils ha-lid and a power source, and the ignition cut relays 27a-27d are closed during ordinary engine operation. When the failure judgment section 32 judges the existence of same failure, output from the ignition cut relay circuit 26 to the ignition cut relays 27a-27d is stopped, causing the ignition cut relays 27a-27d to be opened successively, and as shown in Fig. 15, ignition is stopped in order of the cylinder number from the first cylinder. This cylinder-by-cylinder stopping of ignition also allows engine torque to be decreased gradually, thereby effecting fail-safe without causing a feeling of wrongness of the driver.

Although for a smooth decrease in engine torque, it is preferable to stop ignition, cylinder by cylinder, as described above, if in the case of the foregoing four-cylinder engine, no feeling of wrongness is caused even when igniti6n is stopped initially far three cylinders, for example, and finally for the remaining cylinder, this method may be adopted. Fig. 16 shows an arrangement of the ignition control section 45 in which ignition control of four cylinders is performed such that ignition is stopped initially far three cylinders and finally for the remaining cylinder. In this arrangement, a first ignition cut relay 27e is disposed between an ignition coil ha of the first cylinder, an ignition coil lib of the second cylinder and an ignition coil 11c of the third cylinder, and a power source, and a second ignition cut relay 27f is disposed between an ignition coil lid of the fourth cylinder and the power source. Therefore, if after detection of a failure, the first ignition cut relay 27e is first opened and then is the second ignition cut relay 27f, ignition is stopped initially for three of four cylinders and finally for the remaining cylinder.

Although in the foregoing embodiment, description is made on an in-intake pipe injection type engine, the present engine control device can also be applied to a direct injection type engine similarly.

In addition, although in the foregoing embodiment, description is made an a so-called multi-cylinder type engine with four cylinders, the present engine control device can also be applied to a single cylinder engine similarly, except for the case where ignition is stopped cylinder by cylinder.

Further, as for the engine control unit, various kinds of calculation circuits may be substituted for a microcomputer.

The description above discloses an engine control device for a two-wheeled vehicle, comprising failure detection means for detecting a failure, and engine torque reduction means for gradually decreasing engine torque when a failure is detected by said failure detection means.

As the engine control device as disclosed above is arranged such that engine torque is gradually decreased when a failure is detected, no feeling of wrongness is caused of the driver of the two-wheeled vehicle.

It is further disclosed that said engine torque reduction means may be provided with failure-time throttle control means for controlling closing speed of a throttle valve to gradually decrease engine torque.

As the closing speed of a throttle valve is controlled to gradually decrease engine torque, the throttle valve is closed slowly after being closed quickly from the state of valve opening, engine torque can be decreased smoothly.

It is further disclosed that said failure-time throttle control means may control the closing speed such that the throttle valve is closed slowly after being closed quickly from the state of valve opening.

Thus, there again, the throttle valve can be closed slowly after being closed quickly from the state of valve opening, therefore engine torque can be decreased smoothly.

Moreover, it is disclosed that said engine torque reduction means may be provided with failure-time ignition control means for slowly decreasing engine torque by at least one of delayed ignition timing, thinning-out of ignition, and cylinder-by-cylinder stopping of ignition.

As the engine torque is slowly decreased by at least one of delayed ignition timing, thinning-out of ignition, and cylinder-by-cylinder stopping of ignition, the ignition timing is delayed little by little, ignition is thinned out little by little, or ignition is stopped cylinder by cylinder, thus, engine torque can be decreased smoothly.

Additionally, it is disclosed that said failure-time ignition control means may be provided with a relay circuit for stopping ignition, cylinder by cylinder, when a failure is detected by said failure detection means.

As the engine control device according to the embodiment disclosed above is provided with a relay circuit for stopping ignition, cylinder by cylinder, when a failure is detected, the engine torque is enabled to be decreased reliably and gradually even when a requisite CPU far electronic control fails.

Briefly summarizing the above, the description discloses to gradually decrease engine torque at the time of a failure so as to eliminate the feeling of wrongness. Particularly, when a failure is detected, a throttle valve is closed gradually, on condition that it is closed initially quickly and then slowly so as to obtain a smooth decrease in engine torque. In addition, the ignition timing is changed gradually toward retardation to gradually decrease engine torque. Alternatively, ignition is thinned out gradually for a gradual decrease in engine torque, or in the case of a multi-cylinder engine, ignition is stopped cylinder by cylinder for a gradual decrease in engine torque.


Anspruch[en]
  1. Control device of an internal combustion engine, in particular for a two-wheeled vehicle, comprising a failure detection means for detecting a failure and an engine torque reduction means, characterized in that

    the engine torque reduction means is adapted to gradually decrease an engine torque when a failure is detected by said failure detection means.
  2. Control device according to claim 1, characterized in that the control device is adapted to perform fail-safe at the time of a failure.
  3. Control device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the control device (15) comprises a condition detection section (31) and/or a failure judgment section (32), and/or a failure-time control section (33).
  4. Control device according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 3, characterized in that a throttle valve (12) is provided in each intake pipe (6) of the internal combustion engine, wherein each throttle valve (12) is provided with a driving device (16) for driving of the throttle valve (12) independently of an accelerator (17) of the internal combustion engine.
  5. Control device according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the condition detection section (31) comprises an accelerator opening detection section (34) and/or a throttle opening detection section (35) and/or a side stand switch detection section (36) and/or a turnover detection section (37).
  6. Control device according to at least one of the preceding claims 3 to 5, characterized in that the failure judgment section (32) comprises a target valve opening calculation section (38) and/or an error failure judgment section (39) and/or an accelerator opening sensor failure judgment section (40) and/or a throttle opening sensor failure judgment section (41) and/or a side stand failure judgment section (42) and/or a turnover failure judgment section (43).
  7. Control device according to one of the preceding claims 3 to 6, characterized in that the failure-time control section (33) comprises a throttle valve control section (44) and/or an ignition control section (45).
  8. Control device according to at least one of the preceding claims 3 to 7, characterized in that said engine torque reduction means is provided with a failure-time throttle control means for controlling closing speed of the throttle valve (12) to gradually decrease the engine torque.
  9. Control device according to claim 8, characterized in that said failure-time throttle control means is adapted to control a closing speed of the throttle valve (12), in particular for engines with intermediate or large displacement, in such a way that a throttle valve closing speed is decreased with time or in such a way that the throttle valve (12) is closed in a first part of the closing process with a constant first speed for a given time from beginning of valve closing and in a second part of the closing process with a constant second speed being smaller that said first speed.
  10. Control device according to claim 8, characterized in that said failure-time throttle control means is adapted to control a closing speed of the throttle valve (12), in particular for engines with small displacement, in such a way that the throttle valve (12) is closed at a constant speed.
  11. Control device according to at least one of the preceding claims 1 to 10, characterized in that said engine torque reduction means is provided with a failure-time ignition control means for slowly decreasing the engine torque by at least one of delayed ignition timing, thinning-out of ignition, and cylinder-by-cylinder stopping of ignition.
  12. Control device according to claim 11, characterized in that the failure-time ignition control means is provided with a relay circuit for stopping ignition, cylinder by cylinder, when a failure is detected by said failure detection means.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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