PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1009702 05.06.2003
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 1009702
Titel VERFAHREN UND SYSTEM ZUM STEUEREN DER SPANNUNG VON PAPIER- UND FOLIENBAHNEN
Anmelder Tetra Laval Holdings & Finance S.A., Pully, CH
Erfinder PER, Hansen, Henrik, DK-8340 Malling, DK
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69721584
Vertragsstaaten DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, IT
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 03.11.1997
EP-Aktenzeichen 979102746
WO-Anmeldetag 03.11.1997
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/DK97/00499
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0098019948
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 14.05.1998
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 21.06.2000
EP date of grant 02.05.2003
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 05.06.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse B65H 23/188
IPC-Nebenklasse B65H 77/00   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a method and a system for controlling a material web, preferably of paper or plastic and in particular in connection with the packaging of products such as edible ice products, whereby at least one web is guided in an S-configuration over a set of guiding rollers in order to achieve a stabilized web tension.

A method and a system of this kind is commonly known in the art of web tension control.

In connection with a continuous advancing of a paper web - from unreeling to working or handling - in, for example, packaging machines for flow packing it is known to regulate the tension of the web in order to ensure a well defined longitudinal folding of the web, yet also to avoid that the guiding edges used for such a folding exhibit a cutting effect or even cause a rupture of the web, while a stabilized tension of the web also contributes to ensuring a desired uniformity of the final products.

For the folding it is important that the paper web is drawn over the folding edges with a sufficient tension to ensure that a longitudinal folding will take place, but without the tension being so high that the web is ruptured as a consequence of the folding edges being turned into cutting edges. Likewise it is important that the web be held correctly positioned in the lateral direction relative to the folding edges in order to ensure the desired folding profile relative to imprint details on the wrapping web.

The paper web is advanced in being pulled through the packaging line from the outer end of the web, by suitable advancing means such as draw rollers.

The tension in the web occurs by virtue of the web being pulled outwardly from a tension adjustment system, in which it is exposed to a controllable friction, based on a current detection of the web tension. In the adjustment system the web is guided about a synchronously rotating friction roller with an adjustable deflection angle, the web as paid out from this roller being guided about a delivery roller in the form of a dancing roller, the position of which is controllable for adjustment of the said deflection angle of the web. When the friction roller is driven with a peripheral speed corresponding to the moving speed of the web, a well defined frictional engagement is established between the web and the roller surface, given by the particular friction coefficient, the deflection angle and the pressure of the web against the roller surface. If for some reason a rising or falling web tension occurs, such a change may be return adjusted by causing the dancing roller to change its position for changing the said deflection angle of the web for a corresponding decreasing or increasing of the web friction against the roller, until the tension is detected to be normal.

In principle, all this functions well in practice, but the requirement of both a web tension detector and a moving system for the said dancing roller is a complication, and another problem is that in general the web tension has to be relatively high, higher than optimally desirable.

There is an associated, different problem, viz. with respect to the correct positioning of the web in the transverse direction. It is well known that in connection with the advancing of web materials via guiding rollers it is almost impossible to effect a lateral adjustment by mechanical abutment means in case of small changes of the web direction at the intake end, so it is required, moreover, to use detection means for detecting lateral displacements of the web and, controlled thereby, means for compensation adjustment of a roller for achieving an accurate lateral positioning of the paid out web, this being a significant additional and expensive complication. The problem is due to the fact that in case of a noticeable friction between a web material and a support surface therefor it is not possible to subject the web to an effective lateral displacement just by applying pressure to a side edge of the web, viz. when the web itself is not sufficiently stiff to be able to transfer the required pressure to the whole width of the web for overcoming the said friction with the support surface.

In plural lane packaging systems, more webs are moved in parallel through the packing machine, such that packing can be effected in a plurality of lanes for increasing the overall capacity of the system. These webs, which are advanced with the same speed, are handled by common friction and pay-out rollers and are also moved through a common tension adjustment station. Thus, the handling of the webs in plural lane systems is not particularly complicated due to the additional webs. However, problems may arise in case of production disturbances implying changes in the tension of the single webs, and besides, the plural lane system are limited to the handling of the same products in all the packaging lanes.

On this background, it is the purpose of the invention to provide a method and an associated system for adjusting the tension of a paper or sheet web to a relatively low tension level. Moreover, it is desired to provide a method and a system that will be well suited for individual control of the webs in plural lane packing machines.

Basically, the invention is characterized in that the said friction roller in the web tension adjustment station is driven with a peripheral speed which is substantially higher than the advancing speed of the web, such that a sliding friction is established between the web and the friction roller.

With the invention, an entirely novel principle for the adjustment of the tension in a paper or sheet web has been provided.

Inasfar as the friction roller is driven with a noticeably higher speed, the web will be subjected to an "auxiliary drive" due to the friction, but now it is no longer the static friction, but a considerably lower dynamical friction by the provoked marked sliding between the elements. Accordingly, a drop of tension in the paid out web will occur across the friction roller, compared to the tension at the intake side, resulting in a decreased tension in the web as advanced through the folding tools, whereby the risk of damaging the web by these tools will be lowered considerably.

Moreover, the said sliding engagement will condition a self adjusting effect with respect to the web tension, such that the adjustment system will not have to include special sensor or controlling units. Should the web tension decrease, the web will be pulled against the friction roller with a lower force, whereby the sliding friction and therewith the auxiliary drive effect of the friction roller will decrease. For a lower auxiliary drive effect of the friction roller, the said tension reducing effect on the web will also be decreased, whereby the original tension in the web will be reestablished automatically. Correspondingly, the auxiliary drive will be strengthened if the web tension tends to rise, this primarily referring to the tension in the web stretch between the web supply reel and the adjustment system, as the web is unreeled. Thus, the pulling off of the web will be effected with an increasing force, but in such a manner that the increased tension will not be transferred to the web length delivered from the adjustment system.

Thus, with a system according to the invention it is not a requirement to be able to change the deflection angle about the friction roller in order to adjust the web tension. The pay-out roller arranged in connection with the friction roller, need not be dynamically movably arranged, although it will of course still be an option that it could be arranged as a dancing roller in order to still enable a change of the deflection angle. However, it should be position adjustable, viz. to a correct position relative to the actual friction coefficient.

The disclosed principle of the invention is also well suited for use in a plural lane packaging machine, where more webs are advanced in parallel, inasfar as the tension of the single webs as handled by common friction and pay-out rollers is individually self adjusting, implying allowable variations of the material structure and thickness etc. of the paper webs, without this affecting the quality of the finished products or giving rise to production disturbances. The sliding friction in the adjustment system moreover provides for the advantage that the webs can pass the same friction roller, even if the advancing speeds of the webs are not identical. This results in a far greater production flexibility of the plural lane packing machines.

Also, it will be possible to pack different sizes and/or types of products on the different lines.

If a further adjustment possibility is desired, a common guiding roller in a plural lane system can be arranged as a dancing roller in a movable suspension. It will also be possible to use individual pay-out rollers for each of the lines, such that the deflection angles can be adjusted individually.

In connection with the invention there is another aspect of such a significance that in some connections it may even overshadow the tension adjustment, viz. relating to the said required guiding or maintaining of the lateral location of the material web.

As mentioned, the invention provides for changed friction conditions in connection with the disclosed auxiliary drive for the web, but a reduced driving or holding friction will apply in general for the frictional engagement, i.e. also in the transverse direction. Therewith, it is correspondingly much easier to effect a provoked lateral displacement or side anchoring of the web. Already for a moderate lateral stiffness of the web the force required for this purpose can be established solely with the use of simple side edge abutments, this denoting a great simplification.

It should be mentioned that in connection with the guiding of yarn, see GB 2,078,792, it is known to make use of a yarn reversing roller driven with a peripheral speed which is bigger or smaller than the speed of the yarn, the yarn being guided laterally to and fro along the roller in order to be reeled onto an elongated yarn bobbin. The problems here in focus relate to the tension conditions in the triangular pattern operatively described by the yarn, when the latter is paid out from a fixedly mounted flange wheel and, spaced therefrom, is guided to and fro along the said reversing roller. Problems in that respect are irrelevant for the present invention, and there is not disclosed anything about the advancing of web structures, nor about conditions for choosing between the said higher and lower peripheral speed or about any qualified choice with respect to the degree of surrounding about the reversing roller.

In the following the invention is described in more detail with reference to the drawing, in which:

  • Fig. 1 is a schematic view of an adjustment system according to the invention, for controlling a paper web;
  • Figs. 2 and 3 show different embodiments of means for positioning of a paper web on a roller; and
  • Fig. 4 illustrates an embodiment of the invention in connection with a plural lane system.

In Fig. 1, an adjustment system according to the invention is shown, in which a paper web 1 is guided through an inlet area 1a, about a friction roller 2 with a deflection angle w, further through an outlet area 1b and over a web reversing roller 4. The further pay-out 1c takes place over a guiding roller 6 to non-illustrated working units such as folding tools. The paper web 1 is pulled through the tension adjustment system and the other handling and working units by means of a main pulling action represented by the arrow T. The associated main drive is arranged at the outer end of the web stretch 1c and is adapted to advance the web 1 with a speed Vb. The friction roller 2 is connected with driving means driving this roller with a peripheral speed Vr, which is substantially higher than the web speed Vb.

The paper web is drawn off from a supply which offers a certain resistance R against the drawing off, this resistance normally being non-constant. If the resistance increases, the pull T will cause the web 1 to be pressed harder against the friction roller 2, whereby the latter will increase its function as an auxiliary drive such that the tension in the web stretch 1a will increase, but be held constant in the stretches 1b and 1c. The attainment of this constancy will be a matter of selecting a suitable deflection angle w, and as indicated in dotted lines the web reversing roller 4 can be movably mounted such that it can be positioned for defining a desired deflection angle all according to the friction coefficient between the web and the friction roller 2. This can be considered analogously with the movement of the said dancing roller in conventional adjustment systems, but with the marked difference that with the invention the adjustment is static and not necessarily dynamic for achieving a constant tension in the web length 1c.

If for other reasons a tension change occurs in the web length 1c, the effect will be quite the same, viz. that against the resistance R a tension change will occur, which, when increased, will intensify the auxiliary drive of the friction roller 2, while when decreased it will weaken the auxiliary drive, such that in both cases the change of tension will be counteracted.

The sliding, dynamical advancing friction between the web 1 and the friction roller 2 will imply that the friction also in the transverse direction is significantly lower than the static friction. This means that the forces required to overcome the friction and correct the transverse location of the web on the friction roller 2 are so relatively weak that in practice it is possible to apply such transverse forces directly to the edges of the web, without any hazard of damaging the web.

In order to utilize this for an effective transverse stabilization of the web, the friction roller may be provided with annular radial projections 6, as shown in Fig. 2. These annular ribs can be made integral with the roller or as ring members to be tightened to the roller. The latter embodiment has the advantage that the ribs may be manually moved according to the width of the web to be handled.

An alternative embodiment of these positioning means is shown in Fig. 3. Here, the two lateral guiding members 8 are placed in connection with the friction roller 2, but without rotating therewith. Thus, they are freely adjustable in the axial direction of the roller 2 for lateral positioning of the paper web 1.

Fig. 4 shows a system for controlling a number of paper webs 1,1' laid about the same friction roller 2. Because the latter is rotated with a peripheral speed vr, which is noticeably higher than any one of the web velocities Vb, Vb' of the paper webs 1,1', there will always be a sliding friction between the friction roller 2 and these webs. Thus, the sliding friction is established even when the velocities vb and vb' are not equal.

As further apparent from Fig. 4, in a preferred embodiment of the invention it is chosen to use individual, adjustable web reversing rollers 4, 4' in order to take advantage of the associated additional adjustment possibility.

The invention is not limited to use in connection with tension adjustment of paper webs in packaging machines. Thus, the method and the associated system according to the invention may well be used for tension and positioning control of different types of material webs such as plastic sheet, conveyor belts and the like, where the invention may offer the same advantages.

In principle, the web reversing roller 4 could just as well be used for co-operation with the inlet stretch 1a.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Ein Verfahren zum Steuern der Spannung in einer Materialbahn (1, 1'), vorzugsweise einer Papier- oder Kunststoffbahn, insbesondere in Verbindung mit dem Verpacken von Produkten wie eßbaren Eisprodukten, wobei wenigstens eine Bahn (1, 1') in einer S-Konfiguration über einen Satz Führungswalzen (2, 4, 6) geführt wird, um eine stabilisierte Bahnspannung zu erzielen,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß

    eine Reibungswalze (2) in einer Bahnspannung-Einstellstation mit einer Umfangsgeschwindigkeit (vr) angetrieben wird, die wesentlich höher als die Vorschubgeschwindigkeit (vb, vb') der Bahn (1, 1') ist, wodurch zwischen der wenigstens einen Bahn (1, 1') und der Reibungswalze (2) eine dynamische Reibung aufgebaut wird; und

    die Position einer Bahnumlenkwalze (4) in Übereinstimmung mit dem Reibungskoeffizienten zwischen der mindestens einen Bahn (1, 1') und der Reibungswalze (2) so ausgewählt wird, daß eine steigende Bahnspannung automatisch zu einer erhöhten dynamischen Reibung führt und die Reibungswalze (2) ihre Hilfsantriebswirkung auf die wenigstens eine Bahn (1, 1') erhöht, um die Spannung der wenigstens einen Bahn (1, 1') annähernd konstant zu halten und gleichzeitig die Kraft zu erhöhen, mit der die wenigstens eine Bahn (1, 1') von einer Bahnzuführquelle gezogen wird.
  2. Ein Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die Position der Bahnumlenkwalze (4) einstellbar ist und die voreingestellte Position der Bahnumlenkwalze (4) für ein gegebenes Bahnmaterial ohne Verwendung von Steuermitteln, die durch ein Abtasten der Spannung in der Bahn geregelt werden, aufrechterhalten wird.
  3. Ein Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem eine Stabilisierung der Querpositionierung der wenigstens einen Bahn (1, 1') auf der Reibungswalze allein durch die Verwendung von Führungsmitteln (6, 8) zum Angriff an den Seitenrändern der wenigstens einen Bahn (1, 1') bewirkt wird.
  4. Eine Vorrichtung zum Durchlaufverpacken von Produkten wie eßbaren Eisprodukten, mit Mitteln zum Ziehen wenigstens einer Bahn (1, 1') von einer Bahnzuführquelle, wobei die wenigstens eine Bahn (1, 1') durch ein Bahnspannung-Einstellsystem in S-Konfiguration über einen Satz Führungswalzen (2, 4, 6) geführt wird, um eine stabilisierte Bahnspannung zu erzielen,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß

    das Bahnspannung-Einstellsystem eine Reibungswalze (2), die zum Antreiben mit einer Umfangsgeschwindigkeit (vr) angeordnet ist, die wesentlich höher als die Vorschubgeschwindigkeit (vb, vb') der Bahn (1, 1') ist, wobei zwischen der wenigstens einen Bahn (1, 1') und der Reibungswalze (2) eine dynamische Reibung aufgebaut wird, und eine Bahnumlenkwalze (4) umfaßt.
  5. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 4, bei der ein Mittel vorgesehen ist, um ein Selbsteinstellen des Aufrechterhaltens der Bahnspannung zu bewirken.
  6. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, bei der das Mittel eine pendelnde Bahnumlenkwalze (4) umfaßt.
  7. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5 oder 6, bei der das Mittel vorgesehen ist, indem ein Hilfsantrieb der Bahn (1, 1') durch die Reibungswalze (2) bewirkt wird.
  8. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 4, bei der in dem Berührungsbereich oder nahe demselben zwischen der wenigstens einen Materialbahn (1, 1') und der Reibungswalze (2) Anschlagmittel (6, 8) zum seitlichen Positionieren der wenigstens einen Bahn (1, 1') durch einen direkten, mechanischen Führungsangriff an den Seitenrändern der Bahn (1, 1') angeordnet sind.
  9. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 8, bei der die Anschlagmittel (8) seitlich verlagerbar sind.
  10. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 8, bei der die Anschlagmittel als ringförmige Rippenteile (6) an der Reibungswalze (2) selbst vorgesehen sind.
  11. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 4, bei der zwei oder mehr parallele Vorschub-Bahnlinien (1, 1') vorgesehen sind, wobei die Bahnen (1, 1') sich in einem dynamischen Reibungsangriff mit einer üblichen Reibungswalze (2) befinden.
  12. Eine Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 11, bei der jeder Bahn (1, 1') eine Bahnumlenkwalze (4, 4') zugeordnet ist, um die einzelnen Umlenkwinkel (w) jeder der Bahnen (1, 1') um die Reibungswalze (2) zu definieren.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A method for controlling the tension in a material web (1, 1'), preferably a web of paper or plastic, particularly in connection with packaging of products such as edible ice products, whereby at least one web (1, 1') is guided in an S-configuration over a set of guiding rollers (2, 4, 6) in order to achieve a stabilised web tension,

    characterised in that

    a friction roller (2) in a web tension adjustment station is driven with a peripheral speed (vr) which is substantially higher than the advancing speed (vb, vb') of the web (1, 1'), whereby a dynamic friction is established between the at least one web (1, 1') and the friction roller (2); and

    the position of a web reversing roller (4) is selected in accordance with the friction coefficient between the at least one web (1, 1') and the friction roller (2) in such a manner that an increasing web tension automatically results in an increased dynamical friction and the friction roller (2) will increase its auxiliary driving effect on the at least one web (1, 1') to keep the tension of the at least one web (1, 1') approximately constant and simultaneously increasing the force with which the at least one web (1, 1') is pulled from a web supply source.
  2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the position of the web reversing roller (4) is adjustable and the pre-set position of the web reversing roller (4) is maintained for a given web material without the use of control means governed by a sensing of the tension in the web.
  3. A method according to claim 1, wherein a stabilisation of the transverse positioning of the at least one web (1, 1') on the friction roller (2) is effected solely by the use of guide means (6, 8) for engagement with the side edges of the at least one web (1, 1').
  4. An apparatus for flow packaging of products, such as edible ice products, having means for pulling at least one web (1, 1') from a web supply source and said at least one web (1, 1') is guided through a web tension adjustment system in an S-configuration over a set of guiding rollers (2, 4, 6) in order to achieve a stabilised web tension,

    characterised in that

    the web tension adjustment system includes a friction roller (2), which is arranged to be driven with a peripheral speed (vr) which is substantially higher than the advancing speed (vb, vb') of the web (1, 1'), whereby a dynamic friction is established between the at least one web (1, 1') and the friction roller (2), and a web reversing roller (4).
  5. An apparatus according to claim 4, wherein means for effecting a self-adjusting maintaining of the web tension is provided.
  6. An apparatus according to claim 5, wherein said means includes a dancing web reversing roller (4).
  7. An apparatus according to claim 5 or 6, wherein said means are provided by effecting an auxiliary driving of the web (1, 1') by the friction roller (2).
  8. An apparatus according to claim 4, wherein in or near the area of engagement between the at least one material web (1, 1') and the friction roller (2), abutment means (6, 8) are arranged for lateral positioning of the at least one web (1, 1') by a direct, mechanical guiding engagement with the side edges of the web (1, 1').
  9. An apparatus according to claim 8, wherein said abutment means (8) are laterally displaceable.
  10. An apparatus according to claim 8, wherein said abutment means are provided as annular rib portions (6) on the friction roller (2) itself.
  11. An apparatus according to claim 4, wherein two or more parallel advancing lines of webs (1, 1') are provided, said webs (1, 1') being in dynamical friction engagement with a common friction roller (2).
  12. An apparatus according to claim 11, wherein a web reversing roller (4, 4') is associated with each web (1, 1') for definition of individual deflection angles (w) of each of the webs (1, 1') about the friction roller (2).
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Procédé pour contrôler la tension dans une bande de matière (1, 1'), de préférence une bande de papier ou de matière plastique, particulièrement en liaison avec le conditionnement de produits tels que des produits glacés comestibles, au moins une bande (1, 1') étant guidée dans une configuration en S sur une série de rouleaux de guidage (2, 4, 6) de façon à obtenir une tension stabilisée de la bande,

    caractérisé en ce que

    un rouleau de frottement (2) dans un poste de réglage de tension de la bande est entraîné avec une vitesse périphérique (vr) qui est sensiblement plus élevée que la vitesse d'avance (vb, vb') de la bande (1, 1'), grâce à quoi un frottement dynamique est établi entre la bande (1, 1') et le rouleau de frottement (2) ; et

    la position d'un rouleau d'inversion de bande (4) est choisie selon le coefficient de frottement entre la bande (1, 1') et le rouleau de frottement (2) de telle manière qu'une tension de bande croissante entraîne automatiquement un frottement dynamique augmenté et le rouleau de frottement (2) augmente son effet d'entraînement auxiliaire sur la bande (1, 1') pour conserver la tension de la bande (1, 1') approximativement constante et augmentant simultanément la force avec laquelle la bande (1, 1') est tirée d'une source d'amenée de la bande.
  2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la position du rouleau d'inversion de bande (4) est réglable et la position préréglée du rouleau d'inversion de bande (4) est maintenue pour une matière de bande donnée sans l'utilisation de moyens de commande régis par une détection de la tension dans la bande.
  3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel une stabilisation du positionnement transversal de la bande (1, 1') sur le rouleau de frottement (2) est effectuée seulement par l'utilisation de moyens de guidage (6, 8) pour l'engagement avec les bords latéraux de la bande (1, 1').
  4. Appareil pour le conditionnement en flux de produits, tels que des produits glacés comestibles, ayant des moyens pour tirer au moins une bande (1, 1') d'une source d'amenée de la bande et ladite bande (1, 1') est guidée via un système de réglage de tension de la bande dans une configuration en S sur une série de rouleaux de guidage (2, 4, 6) de façon à obtenir une tension stabilisée de la bande,

    caractérisé en ce que le système de réglage de tension de la bande inclut un rouleau de frottement (2), qui est agencé pour être entraîné avec une vitesse périphérique (vr) qui est sensiblement plus élevée que la vitesse d'avance (vb, vb') de la bande (1, 1'), grâce à quoi un frottement dynamique est établi entre la bande (1, 1') et le rouleau de frottement (2), et un rouleau d'inversion de bande (4).
  5. Appareil selon la revendication 4, dans lequel des moyens pour effectuer un maintien auto-réglable de la tension de la bande sont prévus.
  6. Appareil selon la revendication 5, dans lequel lesdits moyens incluent un rouleau d'inversion de bande oscillant (4).
  7. Appareil selon la revendication 5 ou 6, dans lequel lesdits moyens sont prévus pour effectuer un entraînement auxiliaire de la bande (1, 1') par le rouleau de frottement (2).
  8. Appareil selon la revendication 4, dans lequel, dans ou proche de la zone d'engagement entre la bande de matière (1, 1') et le rouleau de frottement (2), sont agencés des moyens de butée (6, 8) pour le positionnement latéral de la bande (1, 1') par un engagement de guidage mécanique, direct avec les bords latéraux de la bande (1, 1').
  9. Appareil selon la revendication 8, dans lequel les moyens de butée (8) sont déplaçables latéralement.
  10. Appareil selon la revendication 8, dans lequel lesdits moyens de butée sont prévus comme des parties de nervures annulaires (6) sur le rouleau de frottement (2) lui-même.
  11. Appareil selon la revendication 4, dans lequel deux ou plusieurs lignes d'avance parallèles de bandes (1, 1') sont prévues, lesdites bandes (1, 1') étant en engagement de frottement dynamique avec un rouleau de frottement commun (2).
  12. Appareil selon la revendication 11, dans lequel un rouleau d'inversion de bande (4, 4') est associé à chaque bande (1, 1') pour définir des angles de déflexion individuels (w) de chacune des bandes (1, 1') autour du rouleau de frottement (2).






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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