PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1137614 09.09.2004
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001137614
Titel LÖSLICHE DÜNGERMITTELZUSAMMENSETZUNG
Anmelder Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, Pa., US
Erfinder SVEC, H., Charles, Hanover, US;
VIDYARTHI, Akshay, Abbottstown, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60012686
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 24.03.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 009183922
WO-Anmeldetag 24.03.2000
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/US00/07939
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000063138
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 26.10.2000
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 04.10.2001
EP date of grant 04.08.2004
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 09.09.2004
IPC-Hauptklasse C05F 11/10
IPC-Nebenklasse C05B 21/00   C05C 13/00   G11B 20/12   

Beschreibung[en]
Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to fertilizers for use in stimulating the health and growth of plants.

Background of the Invention

Fertilizers are added to the soil or foliage of crops to supply elements needed for plant nutrition. Typically, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are the principal components of such fertilizers. US Patent 5,797,976 discloses an aqueous composition which has as its primary component a carbon skeleton/energy component and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds in small amounts.

Fertilizer formulations and methods are the subject of on-going research, in order to improve the growth stimulating and stress tolerance effect on the plants. Additionally, there are on-going efforts to reduce the amount of fertilizer required for application to plants, in order to avoid leaching of nitrogen and phosphate into the groundwater.

Thus, there is a need for new methods of fertilizer application that supply nutrients in a readily available form and which can be applied as a foliar product.

Summary of the Invention

The present invention provides a fertilizer which is readily water-soluble and particularly well adapted for foliar application.

In one aspect, the invention provides a fertilizer comprising nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium compounds, micronutrients and vitamins, characterised in that the fertilizer is a dry concentrated fertilizer comprising at least 10% by weight of nitrogen compounds, at least 10% by weight of phosphorus compounds, at least 10% by weight of potassium compounds and from 5% to 10% by weight of a growth-enhancing mixture comprising vitamins and at least one component selected from growth promoters, amino acids, carbohydrates, polysaccharides and adjuvants.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of preparing a dry, water-soluble fertilizer useful for foliar application. This method involves adding from 5% to 10% by weight of a growth-enhancing mixture to a dry base fertilizer mix comprising at least 10% by weight of nitrogen compounds, at least 10% by weight of phosphorus compounds and at least 10% by weight of potassium compounds, wherein the growth-enhancing mixture comprises vitamins and at least one component selected from growth promoters, amino adds, carbohydrates, polysaccharides and adjuvants.

In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method of promoting crop production This method involves placing concentrated fertilizer as described herein into a multiplicity spray tank and dissolving or diluting the fertilizer with water to obtain a liquid fertiliser mixture for application to crops; and spraying crops with the liquid fertiliser mixture.

Detailed Description of the Invention

The fertilizer is intended to improve the effectiveness of various nutrient inputs and enhances the plant's ability to convert the input to a growth response. The concentrated fertiliser can be added to water and sprayed on the growing crops, thereby stimulating the crop growth response greater than conventional fertilizers. This method of the invention incorporates liquid and dry materials to a base fertilizer mix, as described below, in a manner which promotes solubility and the ability of the plant to better utilize the nutrients present in the fertilizer. In one desirable embodiment, the present invention provides for adding liquid to dry components to produce a dry fertilizer mix. Advantageously, the dry fertilizer mix of the invention is capable of handling more liquids than known dry fertilizers before experiencing the effects of hygroscopicity, i.e., clumping. In another embodiment, the invention seeks to provide a liquid fertilizer mix having significant advantages in growth enhancing and stress tolerance as compared to conventional fertilizers.

A Composition of Fertilizer

Suitably, the present invention provides a novel mixture of growth-enhancing components together with conventionally recognized macro nutrients (i.e. N, P, and K compounds) and micro nutrients (e.g., boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and the like) and secondary nutrients (e.g., calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S)), where applicable. Suitable sources of these macro, secondary and micro nutrients will be readily apparent to those of skill in the art.

The growth-enhancing mixture used in the invention comprises one or more vitamins and at least one other component selected from among growth promoters, amino acids, and carbohydrates, polysaccharides and adjuvant. Generally, the growth-enhancing mixture comprises 5% to 10%, by weight, more preferably about 8% by weight, of the dry concentrated fertilizer, with the remainder being composed of a mixture of macro and micro nutrients. Advantageously, the precise amounts of each of the components of the growth enhancing mixture may be adjusted as needed or desired, taking into consideration the crops in to which they are to be applied, the soil type and conditions, among other factors. Preferably, at least one component from each of the above categories is included in the mixture.

Generally, vitamins are present in an amount of 0.01% to 10%, by weight, preferably 0.01% to 5%, more preferably 0.01% to 3%, by weight of the total dry fertilizer composition. Suitable vitamins are readily selected from among niacin, d-Biotin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine mononitrate, thiamine hygrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride, folic acid, derivatives of these vitamins, and mixtures thereof. These vitamins are preferably obtained in dry form as a pre-mixed package. Alternatively, the vitamins may be supplied individually or as other mixtures, which may be obtained from a variety of other sources. These sources include, without limitation, sources which are conventionally associated with sale of vitamins suitable for human consumption and/or formulation into human vitamins.

Growth promoters may be present in an amount of 0.0001 to 1%, preferably 0.0001% to 0.5%, more preferably 0.0001 to about 0.3%, by weight based on the total weight of the dry fertilizer composition. Desirably, these growth promoters and/or precursors thereof may be selected from among cytokinins, purines, gibberellins (including, without limitation, gibberellic acid), auxins, and mixtures thereof. Particularly suitable cytokinins include, without limitation, kinetin, zeatin, and the like. These growth promoters and precursors may be derived from natural sources or synthetic sources. These compounds are available commercially from a variety of sources.

Amino acids may be present in an amount of 0.01% to 10%, by weight, preferably 0.01% to 5%, more preferably 0.01 to about 3%, by weight of the total dry fertilizer composition. Useful amino acids include alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, betaines, choline, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, mixtures thereof, derivatives and metabolites of these amino acids, and mixtures thereof.

The growth promoters and amino acids may be obtained individually or as mixtures from a variety of sources which are known in the art. In a particularly desirable embodiment, the growth promoters and amino acids are supplied by seaweed extracts, which may be purchased from commercial sources.

Suitable carbohydrates and polysaccharides are selected from among alginic acid, mannitol, laminarin, succinic acid, sorbitol, fructose, sucrose, dextrose, lactose, derivatives thereof, and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment, the polysaccharides are composed of a mixture of fructose and sucrose, most preferably, which are obtained in dry form. Suitably, the mixture may contain approximately equivalent amounts of the fructose and sucrose. Alternatively, the mixture may contain 55 - 90% fructose, with the remainder being sucrose. Still other mixtures may be readily selected. These carbohydrates and polysacchardes may be present in a total amount of 0.01% to 10%, preferably 0.01 to 5%, more preferably 0.01 to 3%, by weight of the total dry fertilizer composition.

Adjuvants useful in the dry fertilizer of the invention include alcohol ether sulfates, alcohol sulfates, alkylaryl ether sulfates, alkylaryl sulfonates, carboxylated nonionics, naphthalene, sulfonates, phosphate esters, sulfonic acids, sulfosuccinates, terpenes, alcohol ethers, alkoxylated alkylphenol resins, alkoxylated vegetable oils, esterified seed oils, alkylphenol ethers, block co-polymers, sorbitol and sorbitan alkoxylates, sorbitol and sorbitan esters, alkanolamides, amine ethoxylates, methyl esters of fatty acids, ethyl esters of fatty acids, fatty acid alkyloxalates, and fatty acid resins. Currently, a particularly desirable adjuvant is a terpene. In one desirable embodiment, the terpene is a polymeric form of α- and β-pinene. These adjuvants are typically present in an amount which totals 0.1 to 10%, by weight, preferably 0.1 to 5%, by weight, or more preferably 0.1 to 3%, by weight of the dry fertilizer composition. Advantageously, the adjuvants used in the composition of the invention increase uptake of the fertilizer by the plant to which it is delivered, thereby decreasing the amount of macro, micro, and secondary nutrients required.

The dry fertilizer of the invention contains, in addition to the components of the growth-stimulating mixture, macro nutrients comprising nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium compounds. A variety of sources of these components are known. For example, suitable sources of nitrogen compounds include, urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulfate, urea phosphate, and ammonium molybdate, among others. The dry fertilizer of the invention contains at least 10%, generally 10% to 50%, preferably 15% to 40%, more preferably 20% to 30%, by weight, total nitrogen-containing compounds. Potassium may be readily obtained from, for example, potassium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, potassium phosphate, potassium sulfate, or potassium chloride. Potassium compounds total from 10% to 80%, preferably 20% to 60%, more preferably 30% to 40%, by weight, of the total dry fertilizer of the invention. Depending upon the sources of potassium and/or nitrogen selected, the required amount of phosphorus for inclusion in the dry fertilizer of the invention may be provided in the form of a potassium phosphate or an ammonium phosphate. However, where desired, other sources of phosphorus may be utilized. Such sources may include, e.g., phosphorous acids and salts thereof, e.g., phosphite. The dry fertilizer contains from 10% to 80%, by weight, preferably 20% to 60%, more preferably 30% to 50%, by weight, total phosphorus-containing compounds.

A variety of sources of conventional secondary and micronutrients are known. These micronutrients include, for example, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium borate, magnesium nitrate, chelated complexes of copper, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese. ammonium or sodium molybdate, and mixtures thereof. Suitably, the total amount of these micronutrients totals 1% to 3%, by weight, of the total dry fertilizer of the invention, most preferably about 2%, by weight, of the total dry fertilizer.

In addition to the desired nutrients, other additives known in the fertilizer industry can be added. These include, benzoic acids and derivatives thereof, salicylic acid and derivatives thereof, including, e.g., acetylsalicylic acid. Other additives may include, e.g., wetting-agents, surfactants, spreaders, stickers and the like. Still other suitable additives may be readily selected by one of skill in the art.

The components of the growth stimulating mixture may be separately mixed, and added to a base composed of a previously formulated fertilizer. Alternatively, the components of the growth stimulating mixture may be added during the preparation of the fertilizer composition of the invention, as described below.

B. Formulation of Fertilizer

The present invention provides in a single dry source, all components required to stimulate plant growth. The fertilizer formulation of the invention provides significant convenience, insofar as it avoids the need to mix dry and liquid nutrients and other additives at the time of application.

Thus, the invention provides a method of preparing a dry, water-soluble, fertilizer useful for foliar application. In one desirable embodiment, the dry components, selected from among those described above, go through a grinding unit and a mixer (typically, 900 kg (2000 lb) batches are prepared) is charged with the dry ingredients. The liquid components, e.g., the adjuvant, are injected or sprayed into the mixer and blended until a substantially homogenous dry mixture is achieved. Generally, a suitably mixed blend is obtained in about 5 to about 15 minutes. However, mixing times may be adjusted as necessary for convenience.

While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the dry polysaccharides (or other carbohydrates) are the component(s) which facilitate the preparation of these dry fertilizer mixtures of the invention. Advantageously, these fertilizer mixtures are capable of remaining in dry form without clumping upon exposure to higher moisture levels than conventional dry fertilizer mixtures. More specifically, it is believed that the polysaccharides and/or other carbohydrates absorb the moisture associated with the liquid components and form a matrix. Thus, it is preferred that the polysaccharide and carbohydrate components be in dry form when added to the mixer. Preferably the vitamins are also provided in dry form. However, as these dry vitamin preparations tend to be hygroscopic, it may be necessary to dissolve any clumps in water and to spray the vitamins in liquid form into the mixer. Most preferably, the growth promoters and amino acids are provided by seaweed extracts which are purchased in dry or liquid forms.

Although not as desirable, other methods for mixing the components of the fertilizer of the invention will be readily apparent to one of skill in the art. Alternatively, the fertilizer described herein may be prepared as a liquid concentrate using conventional techniques.

C. Application of Fertilizer

The fertilizer of the invention is particularly well suited to foliar application but is readily adapted for application by other methods, including, irrigation and soil. Typically, prior to application, the dry fertilizer of the invention is dissolved (or diluted) in water at a ratio of 1 part fertilizer to 4 to 600 parts water, or more. Generally, for foliar application, the fertilizer is administered in an amount ranging from 3.5 to 11.75 kg/ha (3 to 10 pounds per acre), and most preferably 5-75 kg/ha (5 pounds per acre).

The fertilizer is applied according to crop-specific recommendations which will depend upon the application method, time of application, rate of application, and product formulation. Crops that will benefit from the fertilizer include, but are not limited to, fruit, nuts, citrus, watermelon, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, row crops such as cotton, corn and wheat, as well as other edible, commercial and ornamental plants.

In one currently preferred embodiment, the fertilizer of the invention is applied through the use of a multiplicity spray tank. However, other methods for delivery of the fertilizer will be readily apparent to those of skill in the art.

The following examples illustrate the effect of two exemplary fertilizers according to the present invention on crop production, in comparison to standard fertilizer programs These examples are not a limitation on the present invention.

Example 1 - Preparation of Exemplary Fertilizers

The following fertilizers were prepared for use in the field trials described below. All fertilizers are commercially available, with the exception of Nutrient Express 18-18-18 and Nutrient Express 4-41-27, which were prepared in accordance with the present invention. Nutrient Express®, NutriLeaf®, Sol-U-Gro®, Crop Finisher™ and NutriChem™ are trademarks for crop fertilizers owned by Miller Chemical & Fertilizer Corporation, Hanover Pennsylvania.

The Nutrient Express 18-18-18 or 4-41-27 formulations were prepared using the components identified below, by grinding the dry ingredients and then blending in a mixer charged with all ingredients, as described above. With respect to the components of the growth enhancing mixture, the growth promoters and amino acids were obtained from seaweed extracts. The vitamin mix, carbohydrate mix and terpene adjuvant were obtained from commercial sources. The micronutrients used in these formulations include boron (0.02%), copper (0.05%), iron (0.1%), manganese (0.05%), molybdenum (.001%), and zinc (0.05%). In certain of the other fertilizers, the micronutrients also included magnesium, which is typically present in an amount of 0.5%. This percentage, as well as the percentages identified above, are based upon the total weight of the fertilizer mixture. After mixing of the dry components, which included the carbohydrate, the liquid components were sprayed directly into the mixer and then blended for about 15 minutes. Field Test Product Formulae Nutri Leaf 20-20-20 Sol-U-Gro 12-48-8 Crop Finisher 4-2-41 Nutri Chem 9-15-30 Nutrient Express 18-18-18 Nutrient Express 4-41-27 Potassium Nitrate 40.50% 10.00% 29.96% 45.50% 40.00.% Monoammonium Phosphate 15.00% 71.35% 20.00% Diammonium Phosphate 17.50% 12.50% Urea 20.00% 17.50% 10.00% Monopotassium Phosphate 5.00% 10.00% 4.99% 30.0% 80.00% Ammonium Nitrate 6.65% Potassium Sulfate 52.92% Ammonium Sulfate 22.05% Magnesium Chelate 0.45% Magnesium Sulfate 10.13% Micronutrients 2.00% 2.00% 2.00% 2.00% 200% 200% Growth cnhancing mixture 8.00% 8.00% Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

Example 2 - Field Trial - Watermelons

Location: Metler, California

Crop: Watermelons Tri X313

Treatment 1: Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lbs./A.) - May 15

   Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lbs./A.) - June 1

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A.) - June 15

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A.) - July 1

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A.) - July 15

Treatment 2: For purposes of comparison, Sol-U-Gro 12-48-8 was applied at the same rates and application times as described above for Nutrient Express 4-41-27. Similarly, Nutri Leaf 20-20-20 was applied using the same rates and application times as described for Nutrient Express 18-18-18.

Two pickings of the fertilized crops were made. The total yield, provides in tonnes per hectare (t/ha) (tons per acre (T/A)) was as follows. Picking 1 Picking 2 Total Nutrient Express 135 t/ha (53 T/A) 38 t/ha (15 T/A) 170 t/ha (68 T/A) Standard 90 t/ha (35 T/A) 45 t/ha (18 T/A) 135 t/ha (53 T/A)

The Nutrient Express program increases yields by 37.5 tonnes/ha (15 tons per acre) or 28% improvement over the Standard program.

Example 3 - Tomatoes

Location: Metier, CA

Crop: Tomatoes (Processing)

The following treatments were applied by spraying, at the rates and times listed below.

Treatment 1: Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lbs./A) - May 15

   Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lbs./A) - June 1

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A) - June 15

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A) - July 1

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A) - July 15

Treatment 2: As a control, a standard fertilizer program, as described in Example 2, was used.

The crop was mechanically harvested one time. The Nutrient Express program yielded 130 tonnes per hectare (51 tons per acre) while the Standard program yielded 100 tonnes per hectare (39 tons per acre). The Nutrient Express program increases yields 18 tonnes per hectare (12 tons per acre) or 31% over the Standard program.

Example 4 - Peppers

Location: Metler, CA

Crop: Hot Yellow Peppers (Santa Fe)

The following treatments were applied by spraying, at the rates and times listed below.

Treatment 1: Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lbs./A.) - May 15.

   Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lbs./A.) - June 1.

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs/A.) - June 15

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A.) July 1

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5lbs./A.) - July 15

Treatment 2: A Standard Fertilizer program, as described in Example 2, was used as a control and for comparison.

The peppers from both treatment programs were picked three times. The Nutrient Express program yielded 48 tonnes/hectare (19 tons per acre), while the Standard program yielded 38 tonnes/hectare (15 tons per are). The Nutrient Express program increased 10 tonnes/hectare (4 tons per acre) or 27% over the Standard program.

Example 5 - Cucumbers

Location: Eastern Shore, VA

Crop: Cucumbers (Speedway)

The following treatments were applied by spraying, at the rates and times listed below.

Treatment 1: Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 3 to 5 leaf stage

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 10 to 14 days later

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 10 to 14 days later

   Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - directly after 1st pick

   Nutrient Express 4-41-27 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A) - 7 days after 1st picking

Treatment 2: For comparison. the following standard fertilizer program was followed using the same rates and application times as described for Treatment 1 of this example.

   Nutri-Leaf 20-20-20 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 3 to 5 leaf stage

   Nutri-Leaf 20-20-20 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 10 to 14 days later

   Nutri-Leaf 20-20-20 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 10 to 14 days later

   Nutri-Chem 9-15-30 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - directly after 1st pick

   Nutri-Chem 9-15-30 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - lb./A.) - 7 days after 1" picking Results: % Yield Fancy Yield Total Yield Treatment 1st Pick 2nd Pick 3rd Pick Bushels Hectare (Acre) Bushels Hectare (Acre) Nutrient Express (Treatment 1) 20 47 34 874 (349.6) (76%) 1150 (460) Standard Program (Treatment II) 17 42 36 765 (306) (73%) 820 (328)

Treatment 1 (Nutrient Express) was the highest yielder of fancy fruit and total yield when compared to the Standard program.

Example 6 - Cotton

Location: Clarksdale, MS

Crop: Cotton

The following treatments were applied by spraying, at the rates and times listed below.

Treatment 1: Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 4 leaf stage

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Pin Head Square

   Nutrient Express 11-41-8 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - First Flower

   Nutrient Express 11-41-8 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Two weeks later

   Crop Finisher 4-2-41 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Four weeks later.

Treatment 2: For comparison, the following standard fertilizer program was followed using the same rates and.application times as described for Treatment 1 of this example.

   Nutri-Leaf 20-20-20 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - 4 leaf stage

   Nutri-Leaf 20-20-20 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Pin Head Square

   Sol-U-Gro 12-48-8 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A) - First Flower

   Sol-U-Gro 12-48-8 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Two weeks later

   Crop Finisher 4-2-41- 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Four weeks later

The Nutrient Express program yielded 1.4 tonnes/hectare (1,263 lbs. per acre) of short staple lint while the Standard program yielded 1 tonne/hectare (884 lbs. per acre). The Nutrient Express program yielded 0.4 tonne/hectare (379 lbs. per acre) of lint more than the Standard program for a 43% increase in lint weight per acre.

Example 7 - Cucumbers

Location: Marathona, Greece

Crop: Cucumbers (Dinado)

The following treatments were applied by spraying, at the rates and times listed below.

Treatment 1: Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Sept. 10

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5·75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Sept. 20

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A) - Sept. 30

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Oct. 14

   Nutrient Express 18-18-18 - 5.75 kg/ha (5 lb./A.) - Oct. 31

Treatment 2: For comparison, the following standard fertilizer programs were followed using the same rates and application times as described for Treatment 1 of this example

   29-0-0 - 4.75 l/ha (2 qt./A) - Sept. 10

   0-17-22 - 7 l/ha (3 qt./A) - Sept. 20

   0-17-22 - 7 l/ha (3 qt./A) - Sept. 30

   13-0-46 - 4·5 kg/ha (4 lb./A) - Oct. 14

   13-0-46 - 4-5 kg/ha (4 lb./A) - Oct. 31

Cucumbers were picked 16 times with total yield as indicated. Yield Nutrient Express 26.5 tonnes (58.400) (+15.4%) Standard program 22.4 tonnes (49.400 lbs.)

Nutrient Express improved crop production by 15.4 % over the Standard nutritional program.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger, der mindestens 10 Gew.-% Stickstoffverbindungen, 10 Gew.-% bis 80 Gew.-% Phosphorverbindungen, 10 Gew.-% bis 80 Gew.-% Kaliumverbindungen, Spurenelemente und 5 Gew.-% bis 10 Gew.-% einer wachstumsfördernden Mischung, die Vitamine sowie mindestens eine Komponente aus der Reihe Wuchsstoffe, Aminosäuren, Kohlenhydrate, Polysaccharide und Hilfsstoffe umfaßt, umfaßt.
  2. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung ungefähr 8 Gew.-% des konzentrierten Düngers ausmacht.
  3. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung einen oder mehrere Wuchsstoffe aus der Reihe Cytokinine, Purine, Gibberelline und Auxine enthält.
  4. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Vitamine aus der Reihe Niacin, d-Biotin, Riboflavin, Ascorbinsäure, Thiamin-mononitrat, Thiamin-hydrochlorid, Pyridoxin-hydrochlorid und Folsäure stammen.
  5. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung eine oder mehrere Aminosäuren aus der Reihe Alanin, Arginin, Asparaginsäure, Betaine, Cholin, Cystein, Glutaminsäure, Glycin, Histidin, Isoleucin, Leucin, Lysin, Methionin, Phenylalanin, Prolin, Serin, Threonin, Tryptophan, Tyrosin und Valin enthält.
  6. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung ein oder mehrere Kohlenhydrate oder Polysaccharide aus der Reihe Alginsäure, Mannit, Laminarin, Bernsteinsäure, Sorbit, Fructose, Saccharose, Dextrose, Lactose und deren Mischungen enthält.
  7. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach Anspruch 6, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung Kohlenhydrate in Form einer Mischung aus Fructose und Saccharose enthält.
  8. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung einen oder mehrere Hilfsstoffe aus der Reihe Alkoholethersulfate, Alkoholsulfate, Alkyl- oder Arylethersulfate, Alkylarylsulfonate, carboxylathaltige nichtionische Substanzen, Naphthalinsulfonate, Phosphatester, Sulfonsäuren, Sulfobernsteinsäureester, Terpene, Alkoholether, alkoxylierte Alkylphenolharze, alkoxylierte Pflanzenöle, veresterte Samenöle, Alkylphenolether, Blockcopolymere, Sorbit- und Sorbitanalkoxylate, Alkanolamide, Aminethoxylate, Fettsäuremethylester, Fettsäureethylester, Fettsäurealkyloxylate und Fettsäureharze enthält.
  9. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger mindestens 40 Gew.-% eines Kaliumsalzes umfaßt.
  10. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach Anspruch 9, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß es sich bei dem Kaliumsalz um mindestens eine Substanz aus der Reihe Kaliumhydroxid, Kaliumnitrat, Kaliumphosphat, Kaliumsulfat und Kaliumchlorid handelt.
  11. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger 10 Gew.-% bis 50 Gew.-% Stickstoffverbindungen umfaßt.
  12. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß es sich bei den Stickstoffverbindungen um mindestens eine Substanz aus der Reihe Ammoniumphosphat, Ammoniumsulfat, Harnstoffphosphat und Ammoniummolybdat handelt.
  13. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger 10 Gew.-% bis 50 Gew.-% einer Phosphorverbindung umfaßt.
  14. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Phosphorverbindungen aus der Reihe Kaliumphosphat, Ammoniumphosphat und Phosphorsäuren sowie deren Salzen stammen.
  15. Trockener konzentrierter Dunger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 14, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger ein oder mehrere Spurenelemente aus der Reihe Magnesiumsulfat, Calciumnitrat, Magnesiumnitrat, chelierter Komplex von Kupfer, Calcium, Eisen, Zink, Magnesium, Mangan, Natriumborat und Ammonium- oder Natriummolybdat umfaßt.
  16. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 15, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger ungefähr 2 Gew.-% an einem oder mehreren Spurenelementen umfaßt.
  17. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 16, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die wachstumsfördernde Mischung weiterhin einen Bestandteil aus der Reihe Salicylsäure und ihren Derivaten sowie Benzoesäure und ihren Derivaten umfaßt.
  18. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 oder 15 bis 17, weiterhindadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger ungefähr 10 Gew.-% Harnstoff, ungefähr 80 Gew.-% Kaliumdihydrogenphosphat, ungefähr 2 Gew.-% Spurenelemente und ungefähr 8 Gew.-% der wachstumsfördernden Mischung umfaßt.
  19. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger Kaliumnitrat, Ammoniumdihydrogenphosphat, ungefähr 2 Gew.-% Spurenelemente und ungefähr 8 Gew.-% der wachstums fördernden Mischung umfaßt.
  20. Trockener konzentrierter Dunger nach Anspruch 19, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Dünger aus ungefähr 40 Gew.-% Kaliumnitrat, ungefähr 20 Gew.-% Ammoniumdihydrogenphosphat, ungefähr 12,50 Gew.-% Diammoniumphosphat, ungefähr 17,50 Gew.-% Harnstoff, ungefähr 2 Gew.-% Spurenelemente und ungefähr 8 Gew.-% der wachstumsfördernden Mischung besteht.
  21. Trockener konzentrierter Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 20, weiterhin dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß er auch einen oder mehrere Sekundärnährstoffe enthält.
  22. Verfahren zur Förderung der Produktion von Kulturpflanzen, das die folgenden Schritte umfaßt:
    • Beschicken eines Multi-Spraytanks mit trockenem konzentriertem Dünger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 21 und Auflösen des Düngers mit Wasser, wodurch man eine Flüssigdüngermischung enthält; sowie Spritzen von Kulturpflanzen mit der Flüssigdüngermischung.
  23. Verfahren nach Anspruch 22, wobei der Trockendünger mit Wasser im Verhältnis 1 Gewichtsteil Dünger zu 4 bis 600 Gewichtsteilen Wasser gelöst wird.
  24. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines trockenen wasserlöslichen Düngers, der sich für die Blattspritzung eignet, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte umfaßt:
    • Zugeben von 5 Gew.-% bis 10 Gew.-% einer wachstumsfördernden Mischung zu einer trockenen Düngergrundmischung, die mindestens 10 Gew.-% Stickstoffverbindungen, 10 Gew.-% bis 80 Gew.-% Phosphorverbindungen und 10 Gew.-% bis 80 Gew.-% Kaliumverbindungen umfaßt, wobei die wachstumsfördernde Mischung Vitamine und mindestens einen Bestandteil aus der Reihe Wuchsstoffe, Aminosäuren, Kohlenhydrate, Polysaccharide und Hilfsstoffe umfaßt.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A dry concentrated fertilizer comprising at least 10% by weight of nitrogen compounds, from 10% to 80% by weight of phosphorus compounds, from 10% to 80% by weight of potassium compounds, micronutrients and from 5% to 10% by weight of a growth-enhancing mixture comprising vitamins and at least one component selected from growth promoters, amino acids, carbohydrates, polysaccharides and adjuvants.
  2. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to claim 1, further characterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture constitutes about 8% by weight of the concentrated fertilizer.
  3. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to claim 1 or claim 2, furthercharacterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture contains one or more growth promoters selected from cytokinins, purines, gibberellins and auxins.
  4. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 3, furthercharacterized in that the vitamins are selected from niacin, d-Biotin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine mononitrate, thiamine hydrocholoride, pyridoxine hydrochloride and folic acid.
  5. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 4, furthercharacterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture contains one or more amino acids selected from alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, betaines, choline, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine.
  6. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 5, furthercharacterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture contains one or more carbohydrates or polysaccharides selected from alginic acid, mannitol, laminarin, succinic acid, sorbitol, fructose, sucrose, dextrose, lactose and mixtures thereof.
  7. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to claim 6, further characterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture contains carbohydrates in the form of a mixture of fructose and sucrose.
  8. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 7, furthercharacterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture contains one or more adjuvants selected from alcohol ether sulfates, alcohol sulfates, alkyl or aryl ether sulfates, alkylaryl sulfonates, carboxylated nonionics, naphthalene sulfonates, phosphate esters, sulfonic acids, sulfosuccinates, terpenes, alcohol ethers, alkoxylated alkylphenol resins, alkoxylated vegetable oils, esterified seed oils, alkylphenol ethers, block co-polymers, sorbitol and sorbitan alkoxylates, alkanolamides, amine ethoxylates, methyl esters of fatty acids, ethyl esters of fatty acids, fatty acid alkyloxylates and fatty acid resins.
  9. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 8, furthercharacterized in that the fertilizer comprises at least 40% by weight of a potassium salt.
  10. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to claim 9, further characterized in that the potassium salt is at least one member selected from potassium hydroxide, potassium nitrate, potassium phosphate, potassium sulfate and potassium chloride.
  11. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 10, further characterised in that the fertilizer comprises from 10% to 50% by weight of nitrogen compounds.
  12. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 11, furthercharacterized in that the nitrogen compounds are at least one member selected from ammonium phosphate, ammonium sulfate, urea phosphate and ammonium molybdate.
  13. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 12, furthercharacterized in that the fertilizer comprises from 10% to 50% by weight of a phosphorus compound.
  14. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 13, furthercharacterized in that the phosphorus compounds are selected from a potassium phosphate, an ammonium phosphate and phosphorous acids and salts thereof.
  15. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 14, furthercharacterized in that the fertilizer comprises one or more micronutrients selected from magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, chelated complex of copper, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, sodium borate and ammonium or sodium molybdate.
  16. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 15, furthercharacterized in that the fertilizer comprises about 2% by weight of one or more micronutrients.
  17. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 16 furthercharacterized in that the growth-enhancing mixture further comprises a component selected from salicylic acid and derivatives thereof and benzoic acid and derivatives thereof.
  18. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 8 or 15 to 17, furthercharacterized in that the fertilizer comprises about 10% by weight of urea, about 80% by weight of monopotassium phosphate, about 2% by weight of micronutrients, and about 8% by weight of the growth-enhancing mixture.
  19. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to claim 1, further characterized in that the fertilizer comprises potassium nitrate, monoammonium phosphate, about 2% by weight of micronutrients, and about 8% by weight of the growth-enhancing mixture.
  20. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to claim 19, further characterized in that the fertilizer consists of about 40% by weight of potassium nitrate, about 20% by weight of monoammonium phosphate, about 12.50% by weight of diammonium phosphate, about 17.50% by weight of urea, about 2% by weight of micronutrients, and about 8 % by weight of the growth-enhancing mixture.
  21. A dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 20, furthercharacterized in that it also contains one or more secondary nutrients.
  22. A method of promoting crop production, comprising the steps of:
    • placing dry concentrated fertilizer according to any of claims 1 to 21 into a multiplicity spray tank and dissolving the fertilizer with water to obtain liquid fertilizer mixture; and spraying crops with the liquid fertilizer mixture.
  23. A method according to claim 22 wherein the dry fertilizer is dissolved with water at a ratio of 1 part fertilizer to from 4 to 600 parts water, by weight.
  24. A method of preparing a dry, water-soluble fertilizer useful for foliar application,characterized in that the method comprises the steps of:
    • adding from 5% to 10% by weight of a growth-enhancing mixture to a dry base fertilizer mix comprising at least 10% by weight of nitrogen compounds, from 10% to 80% by weight of phosphorus compounds and from 10% to 80% by weight of potassium compounds, wherein the growth-enhancing mixture comprises vitamins and at least one component selected from growth promoters, amino acids, carbohydrates, polysaccharides and adjuvants.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Engrais concentré sec comprenant au moins 10% en poids de composés azotés, de 10% à 80% en poids de composés phosphorés et de 10% à 80% en poids de composés de potassium, des micronutriments, et de 5% à 10% en poids d'un mélange favorisant la croissance comprenant des vitamines et au moins un constituant choisi parmi les stimulants de croissance, les acides aminés, les glucides, les polysaccharides et les adjuvants.
  2. Engrais concentré sec selon la revendication 1,caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance constitue environ 8% en poids de l'engrais concentré.
  3. Engrais concentré sec selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance contient un ou plusieurs stimulants de croissance choisis parmi les cytokinines, les purines, les gibbérellines et les auxines.
  4. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en outre en ce que les vitamines sont choisies parmi la niacine, la d-Biotine, la riboflavine, l'acide ascorbique, le mononitrate de thiamine, le chlorhydrate de thiamine, le chlorhydrate de pyridoxine et l'acide folique.
  5. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance contient un ou plusieurs acides aminés choisis parmi l'alanine, l'arginine, l'acide aspartique, les bétaïnes, la choline, la cystéine, l'acide glutamique, la glycine, l'histidine, l'isoleucine, la leucine, la lysine, la méthionine, la phénylalanine, la proline, la sérine, la thréonine, le tryptophane, la tyrosine et la valine.
  6. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance contient un ou plusieurs glucides ou polysaccharides choisis parmi l'acide alginique, le mannitol, la laminarine, l'acide succinique, le sorbitol, le fructose, le saccharose, le dextrose, le lactose, et leurs mélanges.
  7. Engrais concentré sec selon la revendication 6,caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance contient des glucides sous forme de mélange de fructose et le saccharose.
  8. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance contient un ou plusieurs adjuvants choisis parmi les alcool-éther-sulfates, les alcool-sulfates, ou les alkyl- ou aryl-éther-sulfates, les alkylarylsulfonates, les non ioniques carboxylés, le naphtalène-sulfonates, les esters phosphate, les acides sulfoniques, les sulfosuccinates, les terpènes, les alcool-éthers, les résines d'alkylphénol alcoxylé, les huiles végétales alcoxylées, les huiles de graines estérifiées, les éthers d'alkylphénol, les copolymères séquencés, les alcoxylates de sorbitol et de sorbitane, les alcanol-amides, les éthoxylates d'amine, les esters méthyliques d'acides gras, les esters éthyliques d'acides gras, les alkyloxalates d'acides gras et les résines d'acides gras.
  9. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend au moins 40% en poids d'un sel de potassium.
  10. Engrais concentré sec selon la revendication 9,caractérisé en outre en ce que le sel de potassium est au moins un composé choisi parmi l'hydroxyde de potassium, le nitrate de potassium, le phosphate de potassium, le sulfate de potassium et le chlorure de potassium.
  11. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend de 10% à 50% en poids de composés azotés.
  12. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, caractérisé en outre en ce que les composés azotés sont au moins un composé choisi parmi le phosphate d'ammonium, le sulfate d'ammonium, le phosphate d'urée et le molybdate d'ammonium.
  13. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend 10% à 50% en poids d'un composé phosphoré.
  14. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, caractérisé en outre en ce que les composés phosphorés sont choisis parmi un phosphate de potassium, un phosphate d'ammonium et les acides phosphoreux et leurs sels.
  15. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 14, caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend un ou plusieurs micronutriments choisis parmi le sulfate de magnésium, le nitrate de calcium, le nitrate de magnésium, les complexes chélatés de cuivre, de calcium, de fer, de zinc, de magnésium, de manganèse, le borate de sodium et le molybdate d'ammonium ou de sodium.
  16. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 15, caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend environ 2% en poids d'un ou plusieurs micronutriments.
  17. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 16, caractérisé en outre en ce que le mélange favorisant la croissance comprend également un constituant choisi parmi l'acide salicylique et ses dérivés et l'acide benzoïque et ses dérivés.
  18. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8 ou 15 à 17, caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend environ 10% en poids d'urée, environ 80% en poids de phosphate mono-potassique, environ 2% en poids de micronutriments et environ 8% en poids du mélange favorisant la croissance.
  19. Engrais concentré sec selon la revendication 1,caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais comprend du nitrate de potassium, du phosphate de monoammonium, environ 2% en poids de micronutriments et environ 8% en poids du mélange favorisant la croissance.
  20. Engrais concentré sec selon la revendication 19,caractérisé en outre en ce que l'engrais est constitué d'environ 40% en poids de nitrate de potassium, d'environ 20% en poids de phosphate de monoammonium, d'environ 12,50% en poids de phosphate de diammonium, d'environ 17,50% en poids d'urée, d'environ 2% en poids de micronutriments et d'environ 8% en poids du mélange favorisant la croissance.
  21. Engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 20, caractérisé en outre en ce qu'il contient aussi un ou plusieurs nutriments secondaires.
  22. Procédé permettant de favoriser la production d'une récolte, comprenant les étapes consistant à :
    • placer l'engrais concentré sec selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 21 dans de multiples cuves de pulvérisateur et dissoudre l'engrais avec de l'eau pour obtenir un mélange d'engrais liquide; et pulvériser sur les récoltes le mélange d'engrais liquide.
  23. Procédé selon la revendication 22, dans lequel l'engrais sec est dissous avec de l'eau dans un rapport de 1 partie d'engrais pour 4 à 600 parties d'eau, en poids.
  24. Procédé permettant de préparer un engrais sec, soluble dans l'eau, utile pour l'application foliaire, ledit procédé étant caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend les étapes consistant à:
    • ajouter de 5% à 10% en poids d'un mélange favorisant la croissance à un mélange d'engrais de base sec comprenant au moins 10% en poids de composés azotés, de 10% à 80% en poids de composés phosphorés et de 10% à 80% en poids de composés de potassium, dans lequel le mélange favorisant la croissance comprend des vitamines et au moins un constituant choisi parmi les stimulants de croissance, les acides aminés, les glucides, les polysaccharides et les adjuvants.






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