Dokumentenidentifikation EP0802023 21.10.2004
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000802023
Titel Pneumatisch angetriebener Schraubendreher
Anmelder Atlas Copco Tools AB, Stockholm, SE
Erfinder Schoeps, Knut Christian, 135 47 Tyresö, SE;
Jonsson, Fred Rickard, 124 64 Bandhagen, SE
Vertreter Beyer & Jochem Patentanwälte, 60322 Frankfurt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69730643
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB, IT
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 10.04.1997
EP-Aktenzeichen 978500544
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 22.10.1997
EP date of grant 15.09.2004
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 21.10.2004
IPC-Hauptklasse B25B 23/145
IPC-Nebenklasse B25B 21/00   


This invention relates to a pneumatic power wrench, in particular to a pneumatic power wrench having the specific features stated in the preamble of claim 1.

A general problem concerned with most types of screw joint tightening tools is to actually accomplish the desired pretension level in all joints, irrespectively of difference in torque resistance characteristics of the screw joints. A particular problem of this kind is to avoid undesireable torque overshoot or premature motor shut-off at tightening of stiff or hard joints, depending on whether the wrench is of the stalling type or if it is provided with a retardation responsive shut-off means.

The best way to solve this kind of problem is to reduce the idle or low-load speed of the motor such that the kinetic energy of the rotating parts as well as the retardation magnitude is reduced. A lower kinetic energy adds less tightening torque to the desired target torque level, and lower retardation magnitudes do not cause any premature shut-off in retardation responsive shut-off mechanisms.

One previously known way to solve the above problems is to provide the power wrench with a speed governor which reduces the idle speed level of the motor without impairing the low speed output capacity of the tool. This, however, is a relatively complicated solution to the problem, since it adds a number of details and complicates the power tool design.

Another, simpler and commonly used way to solve this kind of problem is to employ a restriction in the pressure air inlet passage to the motor. This results in a reduction of the idle speed of the motor and, accordingly, a reduction in the kinetic energy of the rotating tool parts. However, this solution to the problem also causes a restriction of the low speed power output of the motor, which of course is a disadvantage since the full capacity of the tool is not available.

Still another way of reducing the idle speed of a pneumatic power tool is to restrict the exhaust air outlet flow from the motor. This way is better than restricting the pressure air inlet flow of the motor, because an outlet flow restriction is effective in reducing the idle speed of the motor without impairing the low speed power output of the motor. This is important since it makes it possible to utilize the full capacity of the motor during the final pretensioning phase of a screw tightening process.

A prior art publication showing a power wrench with an exhaust flow restricting valve is a pamphlet and a spare parts list from Gardner-Denver. As can be appreciated from the exploded view in the spare parts list the "exhaust throttle" comprises two washers 30, 31, both having banana-shaped apertures. One of these washers is rotatable relative to the other. At full coincidence between the banana-shaped apertures there is a low degree of flow restriction, whereas at part-coincidence only between these apertures gives a higher degree of flow restriction.

This washer type flow restriction, however, has poor flow characteristics, i.e. the exhaust flow is restricted in an undesired way, and has a power restricting effect also at low motor speed levels.

A general object of the invention is to provide a pneumatic power wrench by which the torque overshoot and/or premature shut-off problem is solved by introduction of an outlet flow restricting means, which without having any negative effect on the low speed power output and without complicating the power wrench design effectively reduces the idle speed of the wrench.

A particular object of the invention is to provide a pneumatic power wrench equipped with an outlet flow restriction of a simple and rugged design, and which is easy to adjust.

These objects are achieved by providing a pneumatic power wrench as defined in claim 1.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the following specification and claims.

A preferred embodiment of a pneumatic power wrench according to the invention is described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.

On the drawings

  • Fig 1 shows a diagram illustrating the power output characteristics of a power wrench comprising an outlet flow restriction in comparison with the power output characteristics of a tool having an unrestricted pneumatic motor and a tool having an inlet flow restriction.
  • Fig. 2 shows a longitudinal section through a power wrench according to the invention, including the outlet flow restricting means.
  • Fig. 3 shows, on a larger scale, a section through the handle of the power wrench and illustrates the outlet flow restricting means.

In the diagram in Fig. 1, the output torque T as well as the output power P of an outlet flow restricted motor are illustrated as functions of rotation speed n. For the purpose of comparison, the diagram also illustrates the output characteristics of an unrestricted tool and a tool having an inlet flow restriction.

The torque/speed characteristic for an unrestricted tool is illustrated as a straight continuous line Ta, and the power/speed characteristic is illustrated by the continuous curve line Pa. The idle or unloaded speed of the unrestricted tool is n(1).

The general aim of the invention is to reduce the idle speed or unloaded speed by 20 - 25%. This is represented by the point n(2). By employing an inlet type of flow restriction, as commonly used, there is obtained a substantially lowered torque/speed characteristic, as illustrated by the dash dotted line Tb. Compared to the power/speed characteristic Pa of an unrestricted tool, the power/speed characteristic Pb of the inlet restricted tool is substantially reduced too, also in the low speed range.

Accomplishing the same idle speed reduction as by the inlet flow restriction, to point n(2), the outlet flow restriction causes a substantially less torque reduction, as illustrated by the dash line Tc. Typically, an outlet restricted tool provides a much smaller torque reduction than an inlet restricted tool, especially in the low speed range. The same goes for the reduction in output power compared to an unrestricted tool. The power /speed characteristic for an outlet restricted tool is illustrated by the dash line Pc.

One important group of tools to be provided with an outlet flow restricted motor is pneumatic power wrenches having an hydraulic impulse clutch, in particular an impulse clutch of the type without a shunt connection between the pressure chamber compartments. In this type of tools, the first delivered torque impulse tends to have a significantly higher amount of energy due to a higher speed. This means that when tightening a hard screw joint where the torque resistance starts very abruptly, the energy of the first impulse is very high and can easily overtighten the screw joint. Moreover, if this type of tool is provided with a retardation responsive shut-off mechanism, the very first impulse could also cause a premature shut-off of the power supply to the motor.

Looking now at the embodiments of the invention, Fig. 2 shows a section through a pistol type power wrench comprising a housing 10, a rotation motor 11, a power transmission in the form of a hydraulic torque impulse clutch 12 and an output shaft 14. The impulse clutch 12 is provided with an automatic shut-off means comprising a retardation responsive trigger mechanism 13a mounted on the impulse clutch and a pressure air inlet shut-off valve 13b located at the rear end of the housing 10. The shut-off valve 13b is connected to the trigger mechanism 13a via a push rod 13c which extends axially through the motor 11.

The shut-off mechanism is previously described in US Patent No. 5,082,066 granted to applicant.

Moreover, the housing 10 is formed with a pistol type handle 15 which comprises a pressure air inlet passage 16 including an air line connection tube 17, threadingly mounted at the lower end of the handle 15, and a throttle valve 18. The latter comprises a tiltable valve element 19 arranged to sealingly cooperate with a valve seat seal ring 20 and to be operated by a push button 21. A spring 22 takes support against the inner end of the connection tube 17 and biasses the valve element 19 toward closed position.

In parallel with the air inlet passage 16, there is an exhaust air outlet passage 23 which via a flow restricting means 24 and an outlet deflector 25 communicates with the atmosphere. The outlet deflector 25 surrounds an outer portion of the connection tube 11 and is rotatable to enable adjustment of the outlet flow direction.

Attached to the lower part of the handle, there is an end piece 27 through which extends an axial bore 28 and a threaded valve spindle 29. The thread on the latter engages a threaded sleeve 30 rigidly secured in the end piece 27, and by means of an internal screw bit grip 31 in the spindle 29, the latter is rotatble to adjust its axial position in relation to the end piece 27. On the inner end of the spindle 29, there is supported a valve element 32 which is formed with a conical portion 33 for flow restricting cooperation with an annular seat 34 formed by the inner end of the end piece 27. A lock ring 35 is mounted in a circumferential groove 36 on the spindle 29 to form an axial lock means for the valve element 32. The valve element 32 is rigidly secured to the spindle 29 between a shoulder 39 on the spindle 29 and the lock ring 35 and the flow restricting opening is variable by adjusting the axial position of the spindle 29.

In operation of the power tool, the valve spindle 29 is set to accomplish a flow restricting passage between the valve element 32 and the seat 34 that is adequate in relation to the desired idle speed. The setting of the restriction valve 24 is adjusted to adapt the output characteristics of the tool to the actual screw joint characteristics. The desired flow restriction is set by rotating the spindle 29 in either direction.

  1. Pneumatisch angetriebener Motorschraubendreher, der ein Gehäuse (10), einen Drehantriebsmotor (11), eine Abtriebswelle (14) zur Verbindung mit einer anzuziehenden Schraubverbindung, ein den Motor (11) mit der Abtriebswelle (14) verbindendes Getriebe (12), einen Drucklufteinlaßkanal (16), einen Abluftauslaßkanal (23) und einstellbare, den Durchfluß begrenzende Mittel (24), die in dem Abluftauslasskanal (23) zur Begrenzung der Motordrehzahl bei niedriger Last angeordnet sind, umfaßt, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die den Durchfluß begrenzenden Mittel (24) eine in dem Gehäuse (10) montierte und sich im wesentlichen in Längsrichtung durch den Austrittskanal (23) erstreckende Ventilspindel (29), einen von einer ringförmigen Schulter in dem Austrittskanal (23) gebildeten Ventilsitz (34) und ein Ventilelement (32) umfassen, das starr an der Ventilspindel (29) befestigt ist, einen konischen Bereich (33) zum Zusammenwirken mit dem Ventilsitz (34) aufweist und eine den Auslaßdurchfluß drosselnde Öffnung bildet, wobei die Ventilspindel (29) relativ zu dem Gehäuse (10) und dem Ventilsitz (34) axial einstellbar ist, um die Querschnittsfläche der den Durchfluß begrenzenden Öffnung zwischen dem Ventilelement (32) umd dem Ventilsitz (34) zu variieren.
  2. Motorschraubendreher nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Ventilspindel (29) mit einem Gewinde zum Eingriff mit einer Gewindebohrung (30) in dem Gehäuse (10) und mit einem Werkzeugansatz (31) zur Längseinstellung der Ventilspindel (29) ausgebildet ist.
  1. Pneumatic power wrench, comprising a housing (10), a rotation motor (11), an output shaft (14) for connection to a screw joint to be tightened, a power transmission (12) connecting said motor (11) to said output shaft (14), a pressure air inlet passage (16), an exhaust air outlet passage (23), and an adjustable flow restricting means (24) located in said outlet passage (23) for limiting the low-load motor speed,

    characterized in that said flow restricting means (24) comprises a valve spindle (29) mounted in said housing (10) and extending substantially longitudinally through said outlet passage (23),

    a valve seat (34) formed by an annular shoulder in said outlet passage (23), and

    a valve element (32) rigidly secured to said valve spindle (29) and having a conical portion (33) for cooperation with said valve seat (34) and forming a outlet flow restricting opening, wherein said valve spindle (29) is axially adjustable relative to said housing (10) and said valve seat (34) for varying the cross sectional area of the flow restricting opening between said valve element (32) and said valve seat (34).
  2. Power wrench according to claim 1, wherein said valve spindle (29) is formed with a thread for engagement with a threaded bore (30) in said housing (10) and with a tool grip (31) for longitudinal adjustment of said valve spindle (29).
  1. Clé motorisée pneumatique comprenant un carter (10), un moteur rotatif (11), un arbre de sortie (14) pour la connecter à un joint à vis à serrer, une transmission d'énergie (12) connectant le moteur (11) à l'arbre de sortie (14), un passage d'admission d'air comprimé (16), un passage d'échappement d'air (23) et un moyen de restriction de flux réglable (24) situé dans le passage d'échappement (23) pour limiter la vitesse du moteur à faible charge,

    caractérisée en ce que

    le moyen de restriction de flux (24) comprend une tige de soupape (29) montée dans le carter (10) et s'étendant sensiblement longitudinalement dans le passage d'échappement (23), un siège de soupape (34) formé par un épaulement annulaire dans le passage d'échappement (23), et un élément de soupape (32) fixé de manière rigide sur la tige de soupape (29) et ayant une partie conique (33) pour coopérer vers le siège de soupape (34) et formant une ouverture de restriction de flux d'échappement,

    la tige de soupape (29) étant réglable axialement par rapport au carter (10) et au siège de soupape (34) pour faire varier la superficie de la section de l'ouverture de restriction de flux entre l'élément de soupape (32) et le siège de soupape (34).
  2. Clé motorisée pneumatique selon la revendication 1,

    caractérisée en ce que

    la tige de soupape (29) est formée avec un filetage pour s'engager avec un trou fileté (30) dans le carter (10) et avec un porte-outil (31) pour le réglage longitudinal de la tige de soupape (29).

A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik



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