Dokumentenidentifikation EP1175142 23.12.2004
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001175142
Anmelder Babo, Tivadar, Budapest, HU
Erfinder Babo, Tivadar, 1094 Budapest, HU
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69922056
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 14.12.1999
EP-Aktenzeichen 999624802
WO-Anmeldetag 14.12.1999
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/HU99/00098
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000035269
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 22.06.2000
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 30.01.2002
EP date of grant 17.11.2004
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 23.12.2004
IPC-Hauptklasse A01G 17/02

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to an agrotechnical method for the training of branch cordon vine and for the mechanizable regulation of its growth and yield.

Background of the Invention

It is known that all work procedures required by vine production have been successfully mechanized, but for winter pruning - which regulates the yield, the quality of the crop and the condition of the stem - no adequate machinery, replacing manual pruning has been constructed until now. The lack of mechanizing in the area of pruning results in a temporary peak in labour demand.

Crop regulation by pruning is problematic because, as it is well known, winter pruning forces the vines to exert intense vegetative activity in developing "long" shoots, canes. As a result of the unnecessary "cane yield", the amount of crop is by far lower than the biologically possible yield. (The cane yield of the vine grows at the expense of cluster yield.)

These problems led researchers to conduct more detailed investigations into possibilities of viticulture without regular pruning. The experiments proved that the omission of winter pruning is very detrimental - especially in the first years of transition - for the stems that were formerly regularly pruned and have long shoots, canes. This, due to the greater yield, often leads to the exhaustion of stems. Years after the cancellation of pruning the plants reach a state where they are capable of self-regulation. In the average of many years, their yield is greater than the yield of the pruned stems. The number of shoots increases, their length is much shorter than with the pruned vines. The ripening of the shoots customarily depends on the yield and the amount of shadow cast on them. The densely sprouted stem sections sooner or later thin themselves, because the shoots become mature in a shorter length. On the stem sections, however, that are less dense, the X ripening of the shoots that receive more sunlight improves. Thus, shoot density becomes balanced on the stem; the shoots "migrate" to the sun.

In the function of the yield, the yield and the average cane length of the stems fluctuate reversal. In the intermittent year, the number of shoots is smaller than the average of many years, and they get comparatively longer ripened by fall. The must degree of the crop is generally high. A growth in the yield may be expected in the following year. In years with high amount of yield the number of shoots increases, their productivity improves, but shoot growing capacity and ripening of canes worsen. The loose clusters are less sweet. A year with high amount of yield is thus followed by an intermittent year.

Often about 70-95% of the short shoots of vine cultivated regularly without pruning do not become ripened, do not turn into wood. The parts of the shoots that did not grow fully ripe break off after defoliating; the vine thus "prunes" itself.

With the knowledge of the mentioned self-regulation of the unpruned vine, a new method of vine-stock training was developed.

This is the so-called Branch Cordon vine-stock training ("agaskordon", "Senkrechtes Spalier") which is described in detail in the specification US 4 333 266, granted for the Applicant of the present application.

The above mentioned, comparatively new stock training method requires a wired support system.

The support system may be single, or double layered. The single layer support system is in most cases identical with the Single Curtain, the double layer support system with the G.D.C. (Geneva Double Curtain) stock training's T-shaped support system. The horizontal wire (or wires) of the support system carries the cordon arm, and the (full) weight of the vine stock. The poles of the support system sustain the horizontal wire (wires).

It is preferable to decide on a 160-190 cm height for the trunk. The horizontal expansion of the stock is controlled by the length of the cordon arm, and by the number of the shoots which produce canes on the cordon arm. Therefore, on the cordon arm that was trained as the continuation of the stem, long shoots (canes) are trained in the first years.

When this is accomplished, the vine is turned to "bearing". In the spring of the year when it turns to bearing, the canes of the cordon arm are thinned out about every 10-30-40 cm, and the canes are cut back near the ground. Subsequent to pruning, the number of shoots on the vine and the cluster load are large. The shoot, and cane production will be similar to that of the regularly unpruned vine stock. Through the years, the produced long canes age to producing twigs. The Branch Cordon stock training method (according to the previously mentioned patent) solved the crop regulation by the shortening of the canes and produced long canes, also by cutting them back from the ground at different lengths, and by thinning the clusters of flower off (applying a chemical agent). In practice, however, the mentioned methods did not fulfil the expectations. After their application the difference between the bud, shoot and cluster load of the stocks was significantly different. The producing twigs shortened, and by the cordon arm shoots developed that ripened on a long section, that is typical of vine cultivated by pruning. The parts that were cut off near the ground were not "replaced". The production surface of the vines that were production-controlled in this manner "withdrew" near the cordon arm, and the stem became bushy there. The training method had to be abandoned, and the traditional manual pruning reintroduced.

It was also confirmed that the branch cordon trained stems require growth control along with the reduction of the number of clusters.

With regard to the above detailed problems, the aim of the present invention is to develop a procedure that makes possible to maintain the stem shape formed by pruning, the regulation of shoot growing capacity and yield on the branch cordon cultivated vines.

It is known that on the canes of the vine side buds by the main buds of the winter light buds can be found. At bud pushing the main buds start swelling, but the side buds commonly remain dormant. The growth capacity, ripening and fertility of shoots pushing out of side buds is in general far behind the ones developing from main buds. It is also known that bud differentiation - fertility - is worse with the branch cordon vines than with the vines that were production-controlled by pruning. The growth and yield control method which is the object of the present invention, is based on the knowledge of these facts. According to the invention, the task is solved by thinning out of the swelling buds, short shoots (later main buds) using a specific process.

Summary of the Invention

The solution of the invention is primarily based on the recognition that sustaining the form of the stem that was created by pruning and the yield amount and quality control may be achieved by main bud thinning - mainly in the area specified by the invention.

Therefore, the object of the invention is an agrotechnical method for Branch Cordon trained vine, for the mechanizable control of its growth, and yield; where in the branch cordon plantation a cordon arm is used supporting wire parallel with the direction of the stock row, preferably in 160-190 cm height; preferably long canes are cultivated every 10-30-40 cm from one another into producing twigs; characterised by that sprouting, yield and quality are regulated by the amount (rate) of thinning of the main buds in the upper zone of the foliage wall, thus produces twigs which are cultivated having short shoots and short canes (which require no pruning), that expediently reach near the ground, have off-shoots and sometimes grow higher than the cordon arm.

The growth and yield control method according to the invention fits well the shooting characteristics of the branch cordon vine.

The pushing out of the branch cordon buds is a process extended in time. The buds with more advantageous polarity may push out weeks before the other ones. Consequently the shoots in the stem's upper region - near the cordon arm - will mature fully and long, while the shoots under them, in the overshadowed area, will grow ripe on a short section and not well. At bud pushing - after the thinning out of the early swelling buds near the cordon arm - the habit of the stock changes.

Due to the location with favourable polarity the side buds of the thinned out main buds push out in two to three weeks. Thus, the growth of these shoots is delayed. With this, their counterparts that are near the ground lose their vegetative disadvantage, their shoots grow considerably longer, are more ripe. As a result of these the growing capacity and ripening on the different sections - in agreement with our goals - becomes equalised. (The long shoot - cane growth ceases, or is lessened.) The foliage wall reaches near the ground.

With the thinning out of the swollen main buds the number of growth poles (shoots) does not decrease, but the growing capacity is lessened at the location of the treatment. Depending on the measure of main bud thinning, the cluster yield of the stock decreases, the amount - proportion of the barren shoots increases, the producing shoots' decreases. As a result of the treatment, the quality of crop improves.

The shoots reaching near the ground overshadow the stock row. The overshadowed rows of stock are less inclined to becoming weedy. The shoot growth stops soon. As a result of the short shoots, the number of plant-protection sprayings may be reduced. The branch cordon plantation cultivated in this way may produce an annually balanced yield.

Winter pruning is not necessary for maintaining this cultivation method with vines that already settled in this way. Manual pruning and plant cultivation are limited to the forming and re-forming of the stem shape. Thus the amount of crop, must degree and the ripening of the shoots on the plantation's stems are regulated by the measure of the main bud thinning, by the adjustment of the proportion of the barren-producing shoots. The swelling main buds are thinned manually (by a hand tool) or by power machine (like tractor) powered shaking and/or sliding-turning (rubbing-brushing) and/or high-pressure water or spraying adapter. In this latter case chemicals destroy a portion of the swelling buds. The proportion of the main buds thinned off and remaining on the stem is adjusted in the meanwhile.

The crop controlling adapter is expediently powered by a tractor. The driver, by manipulating the machine can alter the amount - ratio of the main buds rubbed off. The result of the treatment depends on: phenology phase, variety, type, number and output of the adapter, its speed and the treated section's width, the times the bud thinning was repeated, and so on.

Detailed Description of the Invention

The known solutions, and the procedure of the invention are illustrated - for easier understanding - by the figures, where:

  • Fig. 1A shows the basic condition of the branch cordon stem training, the shoot ripening following a full long cane load, while figures 1B-1C display the effects of the known solutions and 1D represents the effect of the load solution of the invention on the shoot length and the shoot ripening on the long cane,
  • Fig. 2 demonstrates the method of the invention for several years, for different seasons.

The arrangement of the hanging long canes on the construction examples shown on Fig. 1A-1D depends on the manner of loading, while their number depends on the measure of loading.

Fig. 1A shows the basic condition of the long cane loading, where in section a there are long canes typical of pruned vine, in section b there are short canes, typical of unpruned vine, and in section c there are unripe shoots. It is foreseeable that the long canes in section a will result in the stem becoming bushy in a few years.

Fig. 1B and 1C show the solution offered by the patent US 4 333 266. The cut back, shortened long cane displayed on Fig. 1B has long canes in section a, short canes in section b, and in section c there are long canes again. In this case, the producing twigs shorten yearly, and in the line of the cordon arm long shoots are produced, which as we saw it before, lead to bushiness of the stems.

Fig. 1C shows the possibility when we carry out flower thinning on the long cane. In this case, the long canes are found in the a section, the short canes in the b section, where the flower thinning took place. The figure shows that the desired effect cannot be achieved this way, since the shoots in the upper section become just as untreatable as with the basic condition shown in Fig. 1A. Though it must be emphasised that on the thinned portion, the shoots become mature, and the long cane is not shortened.

Fig. 1C shows the procedure of the invention. Here, short canes may be found in sections b1 and b2. In the section close to the ground - b3 - a longer portion of the shoots becomes ripe. Bud thinning is done in section b1. It can be observed, that in this case, the length of the shoots will be equally short on the long cane. The appearance of the long canes that are near the ground is not disturbing, because this provides a chance for the plant to extend toward the ground if necessary. It has to be mentioned, that the area of the main bud thinning is the zone where most main buds are wilfully removed, but-depending on the desired method/measure of the regulation - it is inevitable that main buds will fall off even in the sections where the treatment is not being carried out. The emphasis though is always on that the majority of main buds would be broken off in a certain zone, in this case in the upper part of the foliage wall, close to the cordon arm.

Fig. 2. shows the 1 ground level, 2 wire, between them the 4 shoot, 5 cane, 6 long cane, 7 producing twig, and the 3 cordon arm and 8 thinning limit.

The training, growth and yield control of the branch cordon stem are shown in Fig. 2. The 3 cordon arm and on it the training of the 4 long shoots are displayed in the first year's spring and fall. In the second year we show the place and the effect of bud thinning - in section b1 - on the 6 long cane, in the summer and after defoliating, in the winter.

After many years, the 6 long canes become 7 producing twigs. Fig. 2 follows through the different periods of stem development.

It has to be understood that the method of the invention does not exclude that manual (mechanical) pruning, flower thinning, shortening (cutting back) of producing twigs, or chemical growth and/or yield control would be accomplished in the plantation, and further that the stock condition would be controlled by nutrition-water supply regulation.

The procedure according to the invention does not exclude the installation of additional wire(s) for the supporting of producing twigs beside the wire(s) holding the cordon arm.

  1. Agrotechnisches Verfahren für Weinreben nach der senkrechten Spalier-Erziehung zur mechanisierbaren Kontrolle des Wachstums und Ertrags, wobei im Spalier-Weinberg ein Spalier-Arm verwendet wird, der einen Draht parallel zur Richtung der Stockreihe trägt, bevorzugt in 160 - 190 cm Höhe; lange Stöcke vorzugsweise alle 10 - 30 - 40 cm voneinander entfernt zur Produktion von Zweigen kultiviert werden, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Sprösslinge, Ertrag und Qualität reguliert werden durch das Ausdünnen von den Hauptknospen in der oberen Zone der Laubwand und die Maßnahme des Ausdünnens der Hauptknospen zum Entstehen von fruchttragenden Zweigen führt, die kurzen Schösslinge und kurze Stöcke aufweisen, welche kein Ausschneiden benötigen, die geeignet nah an den Boden reichende Ableger haben und manchmal höher wachsen als der Spalier-Arm.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die austreibenden Hauptknospen ausgedünnt werden, manuell oder durch ein Handgerät oder durch ein elektrisch betriebenes Gerät mit einem aufrührend-schüttelnden und/oder durch gleitend-drehenden und/oder reibend-bürstenden und/oder Wasserdampfdruck oder sprühenden Adapter.
  3. Verfahren nach Ansprüche 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verhältnis der Hauptknospen, die ausgedünnt werden zu denen, die auf dem Stamm bleiben, im Laufe des Verfahrens angepasst wird.
  4. Verfahren nach jedem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass während das Ertragskontrollverfahren durch Ausdünnung der Hauptknospen durchgeführt wird, im Weinberg auch manuelles oder mechanisches Sommer-/ Winterausschneiden, Abrunden, Pflanzenausdünnung, Kürzen und/oder Zurückschneiden, um Zweige herzustellen oder chemische Wachstums- und/oder Ertragskontrolle vorgenommen wird.
  5. Verfahren nach jedem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass im Weinberg für den Austrieb und verzweigende Äste stützende Drähte verwendet werden.
  1. Agrotechnical method for Branch Cordon trained vine, for the mechanizable control of its growth, and yield; where in the branch cordon plantation a cordon arm supporting wire parallel with the direction of the stock row, preferably in 160-190 cm height is used; long canes are preferably cultivated every 10-30-40 cm from one another into producing twigs; characterised in that sprouting, yield and quality are regulated by the thinning of the main buds in the upper zone of the foliage wall, and the measure of thinning of the main buds produces twigs which are cultivated and have short shoots and short canes which require no pruning, which appropriately reach near the ground, have off-shoots and sometimes grow higher than the cordon arm.
  2. The procedure according to claim 1, characterised by that the swelling main buds are thinned out manually or by a hand tool or by power machine powered tool, with a boating shaking and/or sliding-turning rubbing-brushing and/or high-pressure water or spraying adapter.
  3. The procedure according to claims 1 or 2, characterised in that the ratio of the main buds thinned off and those remaining on the stem is adjusted in the course of the procedure.
  4. The procedure according to any one of claims 1 to 3,characterised in that while the main bud thinning yield control method is carried out, manual or mechanical summer-winter pruning, topping, flower thinning, shortening or cutting back of producing twigs, or chemical growth and/or yield control is also accomplished in the plantation.
  5. The procedure according to any one of claims 1 to 4,characterised in that shoot and branching twig supporting wires are used in the plantation.
  1. Procédé agrotechnique pour vigne palissée en cordons ramifiés, pour le contrôle mécanisable de sa croissance, et de son rendement ; dans lequel dans la plantation en cordons ramifiés est utilisé un fil support de bras de cordon parallèle à la direction de la rangée de ceps, de préférence à 160-190 cm de hauteur ; de longues tiges sont de préférence cultivées tous les 10-30-40 cm les unes des autres en ramilles productives ;caractérisé en ce que la pousse, le rendement et la qualité sont régulés par l'éclaircissement des bourgeons principaux dans la zone supérieure du mur de feuillage, et par la mesure de l'éclaircissement des bourgeons principaux qui sont cultivés, produisant ainsi des ramilles avec des scions courts et des tiges courtes qui ne nécessitent pas d'émondage, qui arrivent de façon appropriée à proximité du sol, ont des rejetons et quelquefois poussent plus haut que le bras de cordon.
  2. La procédure selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que les bourgeons principaux qui grossissent sont éclaircis à la main ou par un outil à main ou par un outil de puissance alimenté par machine, avec un adaptateur agitateur embarqué et/ou coulissant-tournant, frottant-brossant et/ou à haute pression ou à eau.
  3. La procédure selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisée en ce que le rapport des bourgeons principaux éclaircis à ceux qui restent sur le pied est ajusté en cours de procédure.
  4. La procédure selon l'une des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisée en ce que tandis que l'on met en oeuvre la méthode de contrôle du rendement de l'éclaircissement des bourgeons principaux, on effectue également dans la plantation l'émondage été-hiver manuel ou mécanique, l'étêtage, l'éclaircissement des fleurs, le raccourcissement ou la réduction des ramilles productives, ou la le contrôle chimique de la croissance et/ou du rendement.
  5. La procédure selon l'une des revendications 1 à 4, caractérisée en ce que l'on utilise dans la plantation des fils pour supporter les scions et les ramilles en branches.

A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik



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