PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1562288 15.09.2005
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001562288
Titel Oberflächenwellenvorrichtung
Anmelder Alps Electric Co., Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP
Erfinder Ozaki, Kyosuke, Tokyo 145-8501, JP;
Sasaki, Makoto, Tokyo 145-8501, JP;
Fujimoto, Haruhiko, Tokyo 145-8501, JP;
Waga, Satoshi, Tokyo 145-8501, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LI, LT, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 04.02.2005
EP-Aktenzeichen 050023605
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 10.08.2005
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 15.09.2005
IPC-Hauptklasse H03H 9/02

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a surface acoustic wave device having an electrode structure with high withstand power at high frequencies.

2. Description of the Related Art

Surface acoustic wave devices are electronic components using surface acoustic waves, which are mechanical vibrations propagating along surfaces of solid materials, and they are used for filters, resonators, or duplexers.

Recently, the miniaturization of mobile communication terminals such as cellular phones has been advancing. Therefore, electronic components of such terminals must be reduced in size.

A surface acoustic wave device has a piezoelectric substrate and a pair of interdigital electrodes (interdigital transducer (IDT) electrodes), disposed thereon; made of a conductive material. Each interdigital electrode has electrode fingers that are alternatively arranged. The surface acoustic wave device having such a simple structure is suitable for filters, resonators, and duplexers that must be reduced in size when used for such mobile communication terminals.

A known surface acoustic wave device usually includes interdigital electrodes made of aluminum (Al) or an aluminum alloy having high conductivity and low density.

When such a surface acoustic wave device is used as, for example, an antenna duplexer placed in a radio frequency (RF) section which is placed downstream a transmitting amplifier and to which high voltage is applied, the surface acoustic wave device must have high withstand power. Further, since the mobile communication terminals have recently used higher frequencies, the operating frequency of the surface acoustic wave device must be increased from several hundred MHz to several GHz.

In order to increase the frequency, the electrode fingers of the interdigital electrodes of the surface acoustic wave device must be reduced in size and pitch between the electrode fingers. For example, band pass filters with a center frequency of 2 GHz must have a width of about 0.5 µm and band pass filters with a center frequency of 10 GHz must have a width of about 0.1 µm.

When high-voltage signals are applied to the interdigital electrodes having such fine electrode fingers; the interdigital electrodes suffer from strong stress due to surface acoustic waves. The stress exceeding the critical stress of the interdigital electrodes causes electromigration or stress migration. The electromigration or stress migration is such a phenomenon that metal atoms contained in the interdigital electrodes migrate through grain boundaries or stable faces of crystals and thereby voids are formed in the interdigital electrodes or hillocks are formed thereon. The electromigration or stress migration causes a breakage of the electrodes, electrical breaks, an increase in insertion loss of elements, a decrease in Q-factor of resonators, and the like, and finally causes deterioration in property of the surface acoustic wave device.

The known surface acoustic wave devices, disclosed in Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2002-305425 and US Patent No. 6,630,767, have an Al electrode layer having a twin crystal structure in which a base layer made titanium (Ti) is formed below an interdigital electrode section made of Al or an Al alloy, thereby enhancing withstand power.

When the base layer made of Ti is formed below the interdigital electrode section made of Al or the Al alloy, the orientation in a specific direction of {111} plane of the Al layer or Al alloy layer is weakened and the electromigration or stress migration is apt to occur in the surface acoustic wave device. This causes a breakage of the electrodes, electrical breaks, an increase in insertion loss of elements, a decrease in Q-factor of resonators, and the like, and finally causes deterioration in property of the surface acoustic wave device.

Further, oxygen atoms of the piezoelectric substrate diffuse into the base Ti layer, or the Al layer or Al alloy layer. Therefore, there is a problem in that the electrical resistance of the interdigital electrode section becomes large, thereby increasing the insertion loss of elements.

US Patent No. 6,297,580 discloses a technique in which a layer made of TiN is formed below a layer made of an Al alloy. However, in this prior art, an example of a surface acoustic wave device, in which the layer made of TiN is formed below the layer made of the Al alloy, and the rules for liquid crystal orientation are not disclosed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention has been made in order to solve the problems in the prior arts, and it is an object of the present invention to provide a surface acoustic wave device which can enhance withstand power.

There is provided a surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention which has a piezoelectric substrate and an electrode section having a thin-film structure formed on the piezoelectric substrate. The electrode section has an interdigital electrode section and a junction electrode section connected to the interdigital electrode section. The interdigital electrode section has a base layer and a main electrode layer deposited on the base layer. The base layer has a rock-salt structure crystal structure, a face-centered cubic or a hexagonal closest-packed crystal structure, and the main electrode layer has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. A {111} plane of the main electrode layer has a constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface.

According to the present invention, the main electrode layer of the face-centered cubic structure is deposited on the base layer of the rock-salt structure, the face-centered cubic structure, or the hexagonal closest-packed structure such that the {111} plane as a closest-packed plane of the main electrode layer has the constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface. Thus, the electromigration or stress migration can be suppressed. As a result, an electrode breakage and electrical breaks can be prevented, an insertion loss of elements can be decreased, and a Q-factor of resonators can be increased. Therefore, properties of the surface acoustic wave device can be enhanced.

Further, when the {111} plane of the main electrode layer is parallel to an X-axis of crystals of the piezoelectric substrate, the {111} plane as the closest-packed plane crosses an amplitude direction of shear horizontal (SH) waves. Thus, resistance to electromigration or stress migration can be enhanced.

Further, a {111} plane of the base layer preferably has a constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface.

Further, in the present invention, preferably, crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on crystals of the base layer. At this time, a spot position of the {111} plane in an X-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figure of the crystals of the main electrode layer is aligned with a spot position of the {111} plane in a XRD pole figure of the crystals of the base layer.

In the present invention, the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the base layer is preferably in a range of from 2.40 Å to 3.30 Å.

Further, the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer is preferably in a range of from 2.50 Å to 3.00 Å.

Further, a mismatch ratio between the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the base layer and the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer is preferably in a range of from -20% to 20%. More preferably, the mismatch ratio is in a range of from -15% to 15%.

As for the mismatch ratio, an expression of the mismatch ratio = (pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the base layer - pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer) × 100 / (pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer) should be satisfied.

The base layer is formed with one or more of, for example, TiN (titanium nitride), TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), cobalt (Co), or osmium (Os).

Further, the main electrode layer is formed with one or more selected from the group consisting of copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), and silver (Ag).

Alternatively, the main electrode layer may be formed with an alloy of one or more selected from the group consisting of Cu, Al, Pt, Au, and Ag and one or more selected from the group consisting of Ag, tin (Sn), carbon (C), scandium (Sc), and Cu.

In the present invention, the piezoelectric substrate may use one having a trigonal crystal structure. As a preferable material for the piezoelectric substrate, LiTaO3 or LiNbO3 may be used.

Further, when the piezoelectric substrate is made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle ranging from 36° to 60°, resonance property of the surface acoustic wave device is enhanced.

When the main electrode layer is formed with Al or an Al alloy, or Cu or a Cu alloy and the piezoelectric substrate is made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle ranging from 36° to 48°, an angle from a substrate normal direction in a [111] direction of the crystals of the main electrode layer becomes large than an angle from the substrate normal direction in a Z-axis of the piezoelectric substrate.

Further, when a protective layer made of TiN (titanium nitride) or TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1) is deposited on the main electrode layer, the crystal structure of the main electrode layer can be stabilized and resistance to electromigration or stress migration can be enhanced.

The film thickness of the base layer is preferably in a range of from 5 nm to 20 nm.

According to the present invention, the main electrode layer of the face-centered cubic structure is deposited on the base layer of the rock-salt structure, the face-centered cubic structure, or the hexagonal closest-packed structure such that the {111} plane as the closest-packed plane of the main electrode layer has the constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface. Thus, the electromigration or stress migration can be suppressed. As a result, even if the operating frequency of the surface acoustic wave device increases from several hundred MHz to several GHz, the electrode breakage and the electrical breaks can be prevented, the insertion loss of elements can be decreased, and the Q-factor of resonators can be enhanced. Therefore, the properties of the surface acoustic wave device can be enhanced.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • Fig. 1 is a plan view of a surface acoustic wave device according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 2 is a schematic view illustrating a cut angle of a monocrystal piezoelectric substrate;
  • Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the surface acoustic wave device taken along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
  • Fig. 4 is a side view of an interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 5 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 6 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 5.
  • Fig. 7 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 8 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 9 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 7;
  • Fig. 10 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 8;
  • Fig. 11 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 12 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 11;
  • Fig. 13 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 14 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 15 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 16 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 17 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example;
  • Fig. 18 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 13;
  • Fig. 19 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 14;
  • Fig. 20 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 15;
  • Fig. 21 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 16;
  • Fig. 22 is an expanded partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section in Fig. 17;
  • Fig. 23 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 24 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 25 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 26 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 27 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 28 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 29 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 30 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 31 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 32 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 33 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 34 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 35 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 36 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 37 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 38 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 39 is a photograph showing an expanded partial side surface of an interdigital electrode section of another surface acoustic wave device according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 40 is a graph showing a relationship between a Y-cut angle of a piezoelectric substrate and an angle to a substrate normal surface in a [111] axis direction of a main electrode layer (an Al alloy) of an interdigital electrode section;
  • Fig. 41 is a graph showing a relationship between a Y-cut angle of a piezoelectric substrate and an angle to a substrate normal surface in a [111] axis direction of a main electrode layer (a Cu alloy) of an interdigital electrode section;
  • Fig. 42 is a graph showing a relationship between a Y-cut angle of a piezoelectric substrate and an angle to a substrate normal surface in a [111] axis direction of a main electrode layer (a Cu alloy and an Al alloy) of an interdigital electrode section;
  • Fig. 43 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of an AlScCu alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 42° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 44 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 45 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of an AlScCu alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 44° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 46 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 47 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of an AlScCu alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 46° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 48 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 49 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of an AlScCu alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 48° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 50 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 51 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of an AlScCu alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 50° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 52 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 53 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of an AlScCu alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 52° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 54 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 55 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of a CuAg alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 36° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 56 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 57 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of a CuAg alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 44° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 58 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 59 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of a CuAg alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 48° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 60 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 61 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of a CuAg alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 54° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 62 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 63 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of a main electrode layer which is made of a CuAg alloy and which is film-formed on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle of 60° via a base layer made of TiN by sputtering;
  • Fig. 64 is an XRD pole figure of a (111) plane of the base layer;
  • Fig. 65 is a graph showing a relationship between a material of a base layer of an electrode and resistance to electromigration of the electrode;
  • Fig. 66 is a graph showing a relationship between a material of a protective layer of an interdigital electrode section and withstand power of the interdigital electrode section;
  • Fig. 67 is a graph showing a relationship between a material of a base layer of an interdigital electrode section and withstand power of the interdigital electrode section;
  • Fig. 68 is a graph showing a composition distribution in a depth direction which is measured by an AES (auger electron spectroscopy) analysis device in an example 1 in which a base layer is formed with TiN;
  • Fig. 69 is a graph showing a composition distribution in a depth direction which is measured by an AES analysis device in a comparative example 1 in which a base layer is formed with Ti;
  • Fig. 70 is a graph showing a composition and a film-forming condition of a TiN film which is film-formed by means of a sputter method;
  • Fig. 71 is a graph showing withstand power of a resonator in which a surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming an Al alloy layer (film thickness of 165 nm) made of an AlScCu alloy on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through a base layer TiN (film thickness of 20 nm) by means of a sputter method and by depositing a protective film TiN (film thickness of 10 nm) thereon;
  • Fig. 72 is a graph showing a bandwidth Δf of a resonator in which a surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming an Al alloy layer (film thickness of 165 nm) made of an AlScCu alloy on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through a base layer TiN (film thickness of 20 nm) by means of a sputter method and by depositing a protective film TiN (film thickness of 10 nm) thereon;
  • Fig. 73 is a graph showing a reflection coefficient S11 of a resonator in which a surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming a main electrode layer made of a CuAg alloy on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through a base layer TiN by means of a sputter method and by depositing a protective film Cr thereon;
  • Fig. 74 is a graph showing a bandwidth Δf of a resonator in which a surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming a main electrode layer made of a CuAg alloy on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through a base layer TiN by means of a sputter method and by depositing a protective film Cr thereon; and
  • Fig. 75 is a graph showing an Rm of a resonator in which a surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming a main electrode layer made of a CuAg alloy on a piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through a base layer TiN by means of a sputter method and by depositing a protective film Cr thereon.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Fig. 1 is a plan view showing a surface acoustic wave device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Reference numeral 11 represents the surface acoustic wave device, which functions as a branching filter. Reference numeral 12 represents a piezoelectric substrate. In the present embodiment, the piezoelectric substrate 12 is formed with a piezoelectric ceramic material such as LiTaO3 or LiNbO3 having a trigonal crystal structure.

On the piezoelectric substrate 12, an interdigital electrode section 13 and an interdigital electrode section 14 are formed. In the interdigital electrode sections 13 and 14, electrode fingers 13a extending in reverse to an X3 direction shown in Fig. 1 and electrode fingers 14a extending in the X3 direction are formed, respectively. The electrode fingers 13a of the interdigital electrode section 13 and the electrode fingers 14a of the interdigital electrode section 14 are alternately arranged at predetermined intervals in an X direction shown in Fig. 1.

Further, to the interdigital electrode section 13 and the interdigital electrode section 14, junction electrode sections 15 and 16, which are used for connecting the surface acoustic wave device to an external circuit, are electrically connected. The interdigital electrode section 13 and the junction electrode section 15 form an electrode section 17, and the interdigital electrode section 14 and the junction electrode section 16 form an electrode section 18.

Further, reflective electrodes 19 and 19 are arranged adjacent to and in the X direction and in reverse to the X direction with the interdigital electrode section 13 and the interdigital electrode section 14, respectively.

Fig. 2 shows a LiTaO3 monocrystal having crystal axes X, Y, and Z cut in the state which the Y-axis tilts toward the Z-axis by the rotational angle &thetas; around the crystal axis X. Such a piezoelectric substrate is referred to as a &thetas;-rotated Y-cut LiTaO3 substrate. The angle &thetas; is referred to as a rotational cut angle or cut angle.

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the interdigital electrode section 13 and the interdigital electrode section 14 taken along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1 as viewed in a direction by arrows.

In the present embodiment, the interdigital electrode section 13 has a laminate structure of a base layer 21, a main electrode layer 22 deposited to come in contact with an upper surface of the base layer 21, and a protective layer 23 deposited on the main electrode layer 22. Similarly, the interdigital electrode section 14 has a laminated structure of a base layer 25, a main electrode layer 26 deposited to come in contact with the base layer 25, and a protective layer 27 deposited on the main electrode layer 26. The protective layer 23 and the protective layer 27 are formed with TiN (titanium nitride) or TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1). The base layers 21 and 25 are formed with, for example, one or more selected from the group consisting of TiN (titanium nitride), TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), cobalt (Co), and osmium (Os). A pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of crystals of such a material is in a range of from 2.40 Å to 3.30 Å.

TiN (titanium nitride), TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1), Ni, or Fe has a rock-salt crystal structure or a face-centered cubic crystal structure, and Mg, Co, or Os has a hexagonal closest-packed crystal structure. Among such materials, in particular, TiN or TiOxNy is preferably used.

As a material for the main electrode layers 22 and 26, one or more selected from the group consisting of copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) are used. Alternatively, as the material for the main electrode layers 22 and 26, an alloy of one or more selected from the group consisting of Cu, Al, Pt, Au, and Ag and one or more selected from the group consisting of Ag, tin (Sn), carbon (C), scandium (Sc), and Cu may be used. More specifically, an AlScCu alloy, a CuAg alloy, or a CuScAg alloy may be used. A pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of crystals of such a material is in range of from 2.50 Å to 3.00 Å. Cu, Al, Pt, Au, Ag, and the above-mentioned alloys all have a face-centered cubic crystal structure.

When the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 are formed with the above-mentioned materials, a mismatch ratio between the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the base layers 21 and 25 and the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 is preferably in a range of from -20% to 20%. More preferably, the mismatch ratio is in a range of from -15% to 15%.

Moreover, it is defined that the mismatch ratio = (pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the base layer - pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer) × 100 / (pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer).

If the base layer is formed with TiN, there is a case in which oxygen of LiTaO3 of the piezoelectric substrate combine with unnitrogenized Ti and oxygen of LiTaO3 is deprived. On the other hand, when the base layer is formed with TiOxNy, Ti is stabilized, and thus oxygen of LiTaO3 is not deprived. Here, if the oxygen content of the TiOxNy becomes high, electrical conductivity is lowered. Thus, the optimal oxygen content satisfying the 0 < x < 0.2 and x + y = 1 must be selected.

In the embodiment shown in Figs. 1 and 3, the interdigital electrode section 13 and the interdigital electrode section 14 have the same width W. The pitch P of the electrode fingers is constant. The width W of each of the interdigital electrode section 13 and the interdigital electrode section 14 is in a range of from 0.3 µm to 0.7 µm. The pitch P of the electrode fingers is in a range of from 0.3 µm to 0.7 µm.

Further, the film thickness t1 of each of the base layers 21 and 25 is in a range of from 5 nm to 20 nm. The film thickness t2 of each of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 is in a range of from 80 nm to 180 nm. The film thickness t3 of each of the protective layers 23 and 27 is in a range of from 5 nm to 20 nm. When the film thickness t1 of each of the base layers 21 and 25 is equal to or more than 5 nm, a {111} plane of each of the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 has a constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface clearly.

Fig. 4 is a side view of the electrode finger 13a of the interdigital electrode section 13. As shown in Fig. 4, the crystal of the main electrode layer 22 has a face-centered cubic structure and the {111} plane thereof has a constant gradient of an acute angle with respect to the substrate surface. The constant gradient is, for example, 51° and is equal to a value of an angle &phis; from a substrate normal direction in a [111] direction of the main electrode layer 22. The interdigital electrode section 14 also has the same structure.

In such a manner, if the main electrode layer is deposited such that the {111} plane as the closest-packed plane has the constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface, the electromigration or stress migration of the interdigital electrode sections 13 and 14 can be suppressed. As a result, a breakage of electrodes and electrical breaks can be prevented, an insertion loss of elements can be decreased, and a Q-factor of resonators can be increased. Therefore, properties of the surface acoustic wave device can be enhanced.

Further, as shown in Fig. 4, if the {111} plane of each of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 is parallel to an X-axis of crystals of the piezoelectric substrate, the {111} plane as the closest-packed plane crosses an amplitude direction of shear horizontal (SH) waves. Thus, resistance to electromigration or stress migration can be enhanced.

Further, the closest-packed plane of the base layer 21 (the {111} plane in the face-centered cubic crystal) has a constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface. In Fig. 4, the gradient of the {111} plane of the base layer 21 and the gradient of the {111} plane of the main electrode layer 22 are equal to each other, both of which are the face-centered cubic crystal. The crystals of the main electrode layer 22 are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer 21. At this time, a spot position of the {111} plane in a XRD (X-ray diffraction) pole figure of the crystals of the main electrode layer 22 and a spot position of the {111} plane in a XRD pole figure of the crystals of the base layer are aligned with each other. The same is applied to the interdigital electrode section 14.

Moreover, if the piezoelectric substrate 12 is made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle ranging from 36° to 60°, resonance property of the surface acoustic wave device can be enhanced.

Further, since the protective layers 23 and 27 made of TiN (titanium nitride) or TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1) are deposited on the main electrode layers 22 and 26 (or Al layers), the crystal structure of each of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 is stabilized, and thus resistance to electromigration or stress migration can be enhanced. Alternatively, the protective layers 23 and 27 may be not formed.

The interdigital electrode sections 13 and 14 of the surface acoustic wave device according to the present embodiment are preferably formed by means of a sputter method or a deposition method.

To begin with, a surface of the piezoelectric substrate 12 is pre-processed by means of ion etching or the like, and a crystal plane to be epitaxially grown in the surface of the piezoelectric substrate 12 is exposed. On the crystal plane of the piezoelectric substrate 12, the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 are film-formed by means of the sputter method or the deposition method, such that the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 may be formed as a layer having crystals which are predominantly oriented in the {111} direction. Further, the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 may be formed such that the {111} plane has the constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface. By using the sputter method or the deposition method, the crystals of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 are easily epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layers 21 and 25 respectively.

In order to epitaxially or heteroepitaxially deposit the main electrode layers 22 and 26 on the base layers 21 and 25 respectively, when atoms of the material of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 which are struck from a target substrate reach the base layer 21 and 25 respectively, it is necessary for energy to an extent that the atoms of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 moderately move on the base layers 21 and 25 respectively. As a result, the atoms of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 can be rearranged according to the atomic arrangement of the base layers 21 and 25 respectively.

In order to increase the energy of the atoms of the main electrode layers 22 and 26, it is important to adjust a pressure of a sputter gas for striking the target. If the pressure of the sputter gas becomes excessively large, collision frequency of the atoms of the material of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 and sputter gas molecules increases, energy is lost until the atoms of the material of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 reach the base layers 21 and 25. For this reason, the pressure of the sputter gas is preferably low. Here, if the pressure is too low, a stable discharge can not be maintained.

Therefore, the pressure of the sputter gas for striking the target is preferably in a range of from 5 × 10-4 Torr (6.7 × 10-2 Pa) to 3 × 10-2 Torr (4 Pa). In the present embodiment, argon (Ar) is used as the sputter gas and the pressure of the sputter gas is 1.5 × 10-3 Torr (0.2 Pa).

Further, if the temperature of the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 are formed becomes high, the atoms of the material of the main electrode layers 22 and 26, which reach the base layers 21 and 25 from the target, can easily move on the base layers 21 and 25 and can rearranged according to the atomic arrangement of the base layers 21 and 25. However, if the temperature of the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 5 becomes excessively large, interdiffusion of the atoms in interfaces of the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 is drastically appeared, and it is not preferable.

Therefore, the temperature of the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 is preferably in a range of from 0°C to 100°C.

In order to increase the energy when the atoms of the material of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 reach the base layers 21 and 25, the distance between the target and the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 are formed is set to be short, such that the collision frequency of the atoms of the material of the main electrode layers 22 and 26 and the sputter gas molecules may be decreased. However, if the distance between the target and the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 are formed is excessively short, the temperature of the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 are formed becomes excessively high due to secondary electrons from the target or heat of radiation. Accordingly, the interdiffusion of the atoms in the interfaces of the base layers 21 and 25 and the main electrode layers 22 and 26 is drastically appeared, and thus it is not preferable. Further, if the distance between the target and the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 becomes short, it is difficult to film-form the main electrode layers 22 and 26 having a uniform film thickness.

Therefore, the distance between the target and the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 are formed is preferably in a range of from 50 mm to 300 mm. In the present embodiment, the distance between the target and the substrate on which the base layers 21 and 25 are formed is set to 89 mm.

[Example 1]

The Al alloy layer (the main electrode layer) made of an AlScCu alloy is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 46° through the base layer by means of the sputter method. Fig. 5 is an expanded photograph of the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device according to an example 1 in which the base layer is formed with TiN, as viewed from a cross-section orthogonal to the X-axis of the LiTaO3 substrate. Fig. 6 is a partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 1 in which the base layer is formed with Ti, and Fig. 8 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 2 in which the base layer is formed with Mo. Figs. 9 and 10 are partial side views schematically showing the interdigital electrode sections shown in Figs. 7 and 8 respectively.

As shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the crystal of the Al alloy layer has the face-centered cubic structure and the {111} plane thereof has the constant gradient of an acute angle with respect to the substrate surface. The constant gradient is 51° and is equal to a value of an angle &phis; from the surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the Al alloy layer. Moreover, the {111} plane of the Al alloy layer is parallel to the X-axis of the crystal of the piezoelectric substrate, and the {111} plane as the closest-packed plane crosses the amplitude direction of the SH waves.

Further, the inclination angle of the {111} plane of the base layer and the inclination angle of the {111} plane of the Al alloy layer are equal to each other. Moreover, the base layer formed with TiN (titanium nitride) or TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + Y = 1) has the rock-salt structure or the face-centered cubic structure. The crystals of the Al alloy layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer. At this time, the spot position of the {111} plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystals of the Al alloy layer and the spot position of the {111} plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystals of the base layer are aligned with each other.

Further, the Al alloy layer has a twin crystal structure of which a crystal grain boundary is linear. Accordingly, withstand power of the surface acoustic wave device can be enhanced.

On the other hand, the orientation of the {111} direction of each of the base layer and the Al alloy layer of the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device according to the comparative examples 1 and 2 is weak as compared to the example 1. A table 1 shows peak intensity of the {111} plane according to X-ray diffraction of the Al alloy layer in each of the example 1, the comparative example 1, and the comparative example 2. The Al (111) peak intensity axially arranged by the XRD pole figure [Unit: cps] Base TiN 5 nm 45068 Base Ti 5 nm 8357 Base Mo 5 nm 597
AlScCu Film Thickness 150 nm / Protective layer Mo 5 nm

The {111} plane of each of the base layer and the Al alloy layer in each of the comparative examples 1 and 2 is parallel to the substrate surface. Further, the crystal grain boundary of the Al alloy layer in each of the comparative examples 1 and 2 is linear, unlike the example 1.

Next, the main electrode layer made of a CuAg alloy is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 48° through the base layer by means of a sputter method. Fig. 11 is an expanded photograph showing the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device according to another example in which the base layer is formed with TiN, as viewed from a cross-section orthogonal to the X-axis of the LiTaO3 substrate. Fig. 12 is a partial side view schematically showing the interdigital electrode section shown in Fig. 11. Fig. 13 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 3 in which a main electrode layer is made of a CuAg alloy and a base layer is formed with Ti. Fig. 14 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 4 in which a main electrode layer is made of a CuAg alloy and a base layer is formed with Cr. Fig. 15 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 5 in which a main electrode layer is made of a CuAg alloy and a base layer is formed with Ta. Fig. 16 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 6 in which a main electrode layer is made of a CuAg alloy and a base layer is formed with TaN. Fig. 17 is an expanded photograph showing an interdigital electrode section of a surface acoustic wave device according to a comparative example 7 in which a main electrode layer is made of a CuAg alloy and a base layer is formed with a Ti/Ta laminated film. Figs. 18 to 22 are partial side views schematically showing the interdigital electrode sections shown in Figs. 13 to 17.

As shown in Figs. 11 and 12, the crystal of the main electrode layer in the example has the face-centered cubic structure and the {111} plane thereof has the constant gradient of the acute angle with respect to the substrate surface. The constant gradient is 48° and is equal to the value of the angle &phis; from the substrate normal direction in the [111] direction of the main electrode layer. Moreover, the {111} plane of the main electrode layer is parallel to the X-axis of the crystal of the piezoelectric substrate and the {111} plane as the closest-packed plane crosses the amplitude direction of the SH waves.

Further, the inclination angle of the {111} plane of the base layer and the inclination angle of the {111} plane of the main electrode layer are equal to each other. Moreover, the base layer formed with TiN (titanium nitride) or TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + Y = 1) has the rock-salt structure or the face-centered cubic structure. The crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer. At this time, the spot position of the {111} plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystals of the main electrode layer and the spot position of the {111} plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystals of the base layer are aligned with each other.

Further, the main electrode layer has the twin crystal structure of which the crystal grain boundary is linear. Accordingly, withstand power of the surface acoustic wave device can be enhanced.

On the other hand, the orientation of the {111} direction of each of the base layer and the main electrode layer of the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device according to the comparative examples 3 to 7 are weak as compared to the example. A table 2 shows peak intensity of the {111} plane according to X-ray diffraction in each of the example and the comparative examples 3 to 7. The Cu (111) peak intensity axially arranged by the XRD pole figure [Unit: cps] Base TiN 10 nm 43424 Base Ti 10 nm 5337 Base Cr 10 nm 802 Base Ta 10 nm 4334 Base TaN 10 nm 219 Base Ti 5 nm / Ta 5 nm 8098
Base Layer / CuAg Film Thickness 80 nm / Protective layer Cr 5 nm

The {111} plane of each of the base layer and the main electrode layer in each of the comparative examples 3 to 7 is parallel to the substrate surface. Further, the crystal grain boundary of the main electrode layer in each of the comparative examples 3 to 7 is not linear, unlike the example.

Figs. 23 to 28 are expanded photographs respectively showing the interdigital electrode sections in which the Al alloy layer made of an AlScCu alloy is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angles of 42°, 44°, 46°, 48°, 50°, and 52° through the base layer made of TiN by means of the sputter method, as viewed from a cross-section orthogonal to the X-axis of the LiTaO3 substrate.

As shown in Figs. 23 to 28, even though the Y-cut angle of the piezoelectric substrate varies in a range of from 42° to 52°, the crystal of the Al alloy layer has the face-centered cubic structure and the {111} plane thereof has the constant gradient of the acute angle with respect to the substrate surface. Besides, the crystal grain boundary is close to a monocrystal and is linear. Further, the Al alloy layer has the twin crystal structure having only two kinds of crystals which rotate around the [111] direction. Therefore, the growth of hillocks or voids due to diffusion of atoms which constitute the Al alloy and pass through the crystal grain boundary can be suppressed and thus electromigration and stress migration can be reduced.

Figs. 29 to 39 are expanded photographs respectively showing the interdigital electrode sections in which the main electrode layer made of a CuAg alloy is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angles of 36°, 42°, 44°, 46°, 48°, 50°, 52°, 54°, 56°, 58°, and 60° through the base layer made of TiN by means of the sputter method, as viewed from a cross-section orthogonal to the X-axis of the LiTaO3 substrate.

As shown in Figs. 29 to 39, even though the Y-cut angle of the piezoelectric substrate varies in a range of from 36° to 60°, the crystal of the main electrode layer has the face-centered cubic structure and the {111} plane thereof has the constant gradient of the acute angle with respect to the substrate surface. Besides, the crystal grain boundary does not exist and is close to a monocrystal, or the crystal grain boundary is linear. Further, the main electrode layer has the twin crystal structure having only two kinds of crystals which rotate around the [111] direction. Therefore, the growth of hillocks or voids due to diffusion of atoms which constitute the CuAg alloy and pass through the crystal grain boundary can be suppressed and thus electromigration and stress migration can be reduced.

Moreover, in Figs. 29 to 31, a region where the crystal grain boundary is not clear is observed. However, by referring to an XRD pole figure described below, it can be seen that even when the Y-cut angles of the piezoelectric substrates are 36°, 42°, and 44°, the crystal of the main electrode layer has the face-centered cubic structure and the {111} plane thereof has the constant gradient of the acute angle with respect to the substrate surface.

Fig. 40 is a graph showing relationships between the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 which forms the piezoelectric substrate, and an angle in the Z-axis direction ([006] direction) of the LiTaO3 crystal with respect to a substrate surface normal direction and an angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer, made of an AlScCu alloy, which is formed through the base layer made of TiN.

As shown in Fig. 40, as the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 increases, the angle in the Z-axis direction of the LiTaO3 crystal with respect to the substrate surface normal direction and the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer which is formed through the base layer made of TiN decrease.

When the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 is the same, the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer which is formed through the base layer made of TiN is constantly larger than the angle in the Z-axis direction of the LiTaO3 crystal with respect to the substrate surface normal direction by from 5° to 8°.

Moreover, when the substrate is made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle ranging from 42° to 48°, the angle from the substrate normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer is larger than the cut angle of the piezoelectric substrate.

Fig. 41 is a graph showing relationships between the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 which forms the piezoelectric substrate, and an angle in the Z-axis direction ([006] direction) of the LiTaO3 crystal with respect to a substrate surface normal direction and an angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer, made of a CuAg alloy, which is formed through the base layer made of TiN.

As shown in Fig. 41, as the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 increases, the angle in the Z-axis direction of the LiTaO3 crystal with respect to the substrate surface normal direction and the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer which is formed through the base layer made of TiN decrease.

When the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 is the same, the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer which is formed through the base layer made of TiN is constantly larger than the angle in the Z-axis direction of the LiTaO3 crystal with respect to the substrate surface normal direction.

Moreover, when the substrate is made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle ranging from 36° to 48°, the angle from the substrate normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer is larger than the cut angle of the piezoelectric substrate.

Fig. 42 is a graph showing relationships between the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer made of the AlScCu alloy shown in Fig. 40 and the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer made of the CuAg alloy shown in Fig. 41, and the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3.

Referring to Fig. 42, it can be seen that, even when the Y-cut angle of LiTaO3 varies, the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer made of the AlScCu alloy and the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer made of the CuAg alloy are approximately equal to each other.

Fig. 43 is an XRD pole figure of the (111) plane of the main electrode layer, made of the AlScCu alloy, which is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 42°, through the base layer made of TiN by the sputter method. Fig. 44 is an XRD pole figure of the (111) plane of the base layer.

A spot of the XRD pole figure of Fig. 43 indicates that the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer is 56°. Further, a spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the main electrode layer of Fig. 43 and a spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the base layer shown in Fig. 44 are aligned with each other. That is, the crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer.

Figs. 45, 47, 49, 51, and 53 are XRD pole figures of the (111) planes of the main electrode layers, made of the AlScCu alloy, which are film-formed on the piezoelectric substrates made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angles of 44°, 46°, 48°, 50°, and 52°, through the base layers made of TiN by the sputter method respectively. Figs. 46, 48, 50, 52, and 54 are XRD pole figures the (111) planes of the base layers respectively.

Referring to Figs. 45 to 54, it can be seen that the spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the main electrode layer and the spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the base layer are aligned with each other. That is, the crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer.

Fig. 55 is an XRD pole figure of the (111) plane of the main electrode layer, made of the CuAg alloy, which is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 36°, through the base layer, made of TiN, which has the film thickness of 5 nm, by the sputter method. Fig. 56 is an XRD pole figure of the (111) plane of the base layer. The film thickness of the main electrode layer is 80 nm.

Referring to Fig. 55, the spot of the XRD pole figure indicates that the angle from the substrate surface normal direction in the [111] direction of the crystal of the main electrode layer is 65°. Further, the spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the main electrode layer of Fig. 55 and the spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the base layer shown in Fig. 56 are aligned with each other. That is, the crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer.

Figs. 57, 59, 61, and 63 are XRD pole figures of the (111) planes of the main electrode layers, made of the CuAg alloy, which are film-formed on the piezoelectric substrates made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angles of 44°, 48°, 54°, and 60°, through the base layers made of TiN by the sputter method respectively. Figs. 58, 60, 62, and 64 are XRD pole figures of the (111) planes of the base layers respectively.

Referring to Figs. 57 to 64, it can be seen that the spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the main electrode layer and the spot position of the (111) plane in the XRD pole figure of the crystal of the base layer are aligned with each other. That is, the crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on the crystals of the base layer.

Next, resistance to electromigration of the electrode of which the main electrode layer made of the AlScCu alloy is film-formed on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 46° through the base layer by means of the sputter method is examined.

The measurement of resistance to electromigration is performed by measuring a resistance, when input current is applied to both ends of an electrode pattern from a direct current (DC) power supply such as the 6612C from Agilent Technologies, with a multimeter such as the 34401A from Agilent Technologies. And then, resistance to electromigration is evaluated according to the time when the resistance variation exceeds 10 percent of its initial value.

Dimensions of the electrode pattern used for the measurement are described below.

  • Width of electrode: 30 µm
  • Length of electrode: 300 µm
  • Film thickness of Al alloy layer of electrode: 150 nm

In the electrode pattern of the example, the base layer is formed with TiN (the film thickness of 10 nm). In the electrode pattern of the comparative example, the base layer is formed with Ti (the film thickness of 10 nm; the comparative example 1) or Mo (the film thickness of 10 nm; the comparative example 2).

The result is shown in Fig. 65. Resistance to electromigration is enhanced in an order of the comparative example 1, the comparative example 2, and the example. In the electrode pattern of the example, the electrode breakage is not observed even when the input current is 240 mA. To the contrary, in the electrode patterns of the comparative examples 1 and 2, when the input current is 240 mA, the electrodes are completely damaged.

Fig. 66 is a graph showing withstand power when the surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming the main electrode layer made of the AlScCu alloy on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 46° through the base layer TiN (the film thickness of 10 nm) by means of the sputter method and by depositing the protective film thereon. The horizontal axis of the graph represents a product of the crossed width (mm) of the pair of the interdigital electrodes and the number of pieces (pairs), and the vertical axis thereof represents withstand power.

As for the measurement of withstand power, a predetermined input frequency generated with a signal generator such as the 2041 from MARCONI Ins. is amplified with a RF power amplifier such as the A250HP-R from R&B to generate an input signal and the input signal is applied via the terminal portion of the surface acoustic wave device. And then, the input signal and the output signal are measured with a power meter such as the E4419B from Agilent Technologies. The withstand power is evaluated according to the power of the input signal at the time when the surface acoustic wave device is broken.

Dimensions of the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device used for the examination are described below.

  • Width of electrode fingers of interdigital electrode section: 0.5 µm
  • Pitch of electrode fingers of interdigital electrode section: 0.5 µm
  • Length of electrode fingers of interdigital electrode section: 33 µm or 50 µm
  • Film thickness of Al alloy layer of interdigital electrode section: 120 nm

Moreover, the input frequency f0 to the surface acoustic wave device satisfies an expression of f0 = (resonant frequency fr + antiresonant frequency far) / 2.

Referring to Fig. 66, the surface acoustic wave device in which the protective layer made of TiN is deposited to have a film thickness of 5 nm has the highest withstand power.

If the protective layer made of TiN is deposited to have the film thickness of 5 nm, even when the product of the crossed width (mm) of the interdigital electrode sections and the number of pieces (pairs) becomes small, that is, even when the electrical capacitance between the interdigital electrode sections becomes small, withstand power is maintained. TiN has a high melting point and the crystal structure thereof is not likely to be disturbed as compared to Al. Further, TiN is lighter in weight than Mo and is not likely to be diffused into Al as compared to Ti. If the protective layer made of TiN is deposited on the Al alloy layer, the crystal structure of the Al alloy layer is stabilized, and thus electromigration or stress migration is prevented from occurring. Further, chemical resistance of the Al alloy layer also is enhanced.

Fig. 67 is a graph showing withstand power when the surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming the main electrode layer (the film thickness of 80 nm) made of the CuAg alloy on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3 having the Y-cut angle of 48° through the base layer by means of the sputter method. The comparative example 1 in which the base layer is made of a Ti/Ta laminated film, the example 1 in which the base layer is made of the TiN film, the comparative example 2 in which the base layer is made of the Ti/Ta laminated film, and the piezoelectric substrate and the interdigital electrode section are covered with SiO2, and the example 2 in which the base layer is made of the TiN film, and the piezoelectric substrate and the interdigital electrode section are covered with SiO2 are examined.

The horizontal axis of the graph represents the product of the crossed width (mm) of the pair of the interdigital electrodes and the number of pieces (pairs), and the vertical axis thereof represents withstand power.

As for the measurement of withstand power, a predetermined input frequency generated with the signal generator such as the 2041 from MARCONI Ins. is amplified with the RF power amplifier such as the A250HP-R from R&K to generate the input signal and the input signal is applied via the terminal portion of the surface acoustic wave device. And then, the input signal and the output signal are measured with the power meter such as the E4419B from Agilent Technologies. The withstand power is evaluated according to the power of the input signal at the time when the surface acoustic wave device is broken. A maximum power of the input signal is 4W.

Dimensions of the interdigital electrode section of the surface acoustic wave device used for the examination are described below.

  • Width of electrode fingers of interdigital electrode section: 0.5 µm
  • Pitch of electrode fingers of interdigital electrode section: 0.5 µm
  • Length of electrode fingers of interdigital electrode section: 33 µm or 50 µm
  • Film thickness of Al alloy layer of interdigital electrode section: 120 nm

Moreover, the input frequency f0 to the surface acoustic wave device satisfies an expression of f0 = (resonant frequency fr + antiresonant frequency far) / 2.

Referring to Fig. 67, it can be seen that, when the product of the crossed width (mm) of the interdigital electrode sections and the number of pieces (pairs) is the same, the surface acoustic wave device according to the example 1 in which the base layer is made of the TiN film has breakdown power larger than that of the surface acoustic wave device according to the comparative example 1 by about 1 W. Further, it can be seen that, when the product of the crossed width (mm) of the interdigital electrode sections and the number of pieces (pairs) is the same, the surface acoustic wave device according to the example 2 in which the base layer is made of the TiN film has breakdown power larger than that of the surface acoustic wave device according to the comparative example 2 by about 1 W. Moreover, in the surface acoustic wave device according to the example 2, the electrode breakage is not observed even when the input signal having the maximum power of 4 W is applied thereto.

As being apparent from the result of Fig. 67, even when the product of the crossed width (mm) of the interdigital electrode sections and the number of pieces (pairs) becomes small, that is, even when the electrical capacitance between the interdigital electrode sections becomes small, the surface acoustic wave devices in the examples 1 and 2 have withstand power larger than that of the surface acoustic wave device of the comparative example.

Figs. 68 and 69 show composition distribution in a depth direction measured with an AES (auger electron spectroscopy) analysis device to the example 1 in which the base layer is formed with TiN and the comparative example 1 in which the base layer is formed with Ti respectively.

In Fig. 69, the base layer Ti and a portion of the main electrode layer (the Al alloy layer) which contacts the base layer combines with oxygen of LiTaO3 of the piezoelectric substrate, and LiTaO3 of the piezoelectric substrate is deprived of oxygen. If the Al alloy layer is oxidized, the resistance of the electrode increases, and if LiTaO3 of the piezoelectric substrate losses oxygen, it is not preferable for surface acoustic waves to propagate.

In Fig. 68, oxygen of LiTaO3 of the piezoelectric substrate is blocked by the base layer TiN and does not combine with the Al alloy layer. Thus, there is no case in which oxygen of LiTaO3 of the piezoelectric substrate is deprived. Therefore, a favorable interface can be formed.

Fig. 70 shows a composition and a film-forming condition of the TiN film which is film-formed by means of the sputter method.

If a N2 flow ratio (= N2 flow / (Ar flow + N2 flow)) changes, the composition ratio of Ti and N and the oxygen content of the TiN film changes, but all are favorably used as the TiN film for the base layer and the protective layer.

Figs. 71 and 72 are graphs respectively showing withstand power and bandwidth Δf of a resonator in which the surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming the main electrode layer (the film thickness of 165 nm) made of the AlScCu alloy on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through the base layer TiN (the film thickness of 20 nm) by means of the sputter method and by depositing the protective film TiN (the film thickness of 10 nm) thereon.

The vertical axis of Fig. 71 represents withstand power measured at the antiresonant frequency far when the resonator having the pair of interdigital electrodes (the crossed width 66 µm and 100 pairs) is broken.

The vertical axis of Fig. 72 represents the bandwidth Δf = (far - fr) / fr. The resonant frequency fr and the antiresonant frequency far of the surface acoustic wave device resonator are measured by a network analyzer such as the MS4662A from Anritsu Company.

Withstand power of the resonator is sufficiently as large as 2.5 W. In particular, as the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3 substrate becomes large, withstand power is enhanced (the measurement limit of 3. 8 W). However, if the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3 substrate is excessively large, the bandwidth Δf of the resonator narrows. Thus, the property of the resonator deteriorates.

In order to obtain a desirable property from a high frequency filter into which the resonator is incorporated, the bandwidth Δf of the resonator is preferably more than 3 percent. Specifically, when the main electrode layer is made of the AlScCu alloy, the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3 substrate is preferably in a range of from 42° to 52°.

Figs. 73 to 75 are graphs respectively showing a reflection coefficient S11, a bandwidth Δf, and an Rm of a resonator in which the surface acoustic wave device is formed by film-forming the main electrode layer (the film thickness of 80 nm) made of the CuAg alloy on the piezoelectric substrate made of LiTaO3, having a Y-cut angle changed, through the base layer TiN (the film thickness of 5 nm) by means of the sputter method and by depositing the protective film Cr (the film thickness of 5 nm) thereon. Here, an expression of Rm = Rs - Re is satisfied, where Rs is an electrical resistance of the interdigital electrode section and the junction electrode section at 500 Hz and Re is a sum of the electrical resistance of the interdigital electrode section and a mechanical vibration loss at the resonant frequency fr.

The vertical axis of Fig. 73 represents the reflection coefficient S11 measured at the antiresonant far in the resonator having the pair of interdigital electrodes (the crossed width 66 µm and 100 pairs).

The reflection coefficient S11 is a parameter which defines the reflection of incident waves when a signal is applied between a signal input electrode and a ground electrode of the surface acoustic wave device resonator. In a case of an ideal resonator, the reflection coefficient S11 is 1 at the resonant frequency. This means that, at the resonant frequency, the impedance is infinite and the Q-factor of the resonator is infinite. Thus, as the reflection coefficient S11 is close to 1, the resonator has excellent property.

The vertical axis of Fig. 74 represents the bandwidth Δf = (far - fr) / fr. The resonant frequency fr and the antiresonant frequency far of the surface acoustic wave device are measured by the network analyzer such as the MS4662A from Anritsu Company.

The reflection coefficient S11 has the maximum value when the Y-cut angle is about 48°.

On the other hand, if the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3 substrate becomes large, the bandwidth Δf of the resonator narrows. Thus, the property of the resonator deteriorates.

In order to obtain a desirable property from a high frequency filter into which the resonator is incorporated, the bandwidth Δf of the resonator is preferably more than 3 percent. Specifically, the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3 substrate is preferably in a range of from 36° to 56°.

Further, as being apparent from the measurement result of the Rm, the Y-cut angle of the LiTaO3 substrate is preferably in a range of from 40° to 50°.

A table 3 shows physical property data of metallic materials Cu, Al, Pt, Au, and Ag which can be used for the main electrode layer of the present invention, and physical property data of TiN (titanium nitride), Ni, Fe, Mg, Co, and Os which can be used for the base layer of the present invention and Ti, Ta, Mo, and Cr which can be used for the base layer of the present invention.

In the present invention, it is important that materials having the face-centered cubic crystal structure are used for the main electrode layer and materials having the face-centered cubic crystal structure or the hexagonal closest-packed crystal structure are used for the base layer.


Anspruch[en]
  1. A surface acoustic wave device comprising a piezoelectric substrate and an electrode section having a thin-film structure formed on the piezoelectric substrate,

       wherein the electrode section has an interdigital electrode section and a junction electrode section connected to the interdigital electrode section,

       the interdigital electrode section has a base layer and a main electrode layer deposited on the base layer,

       the base layer has a sodium-chloride structure crystal structure, a face-centered cubic or a hexagonal closest-packed crystal structure and the main electrode layer has a face-centered cubic crystal structure, and

       a {111} plane of the main electrode layer has a constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface.
  2. The surface acoustic wave device according to claim 1,

       wherein the {111} plane of the main electrode layer is parallel to an X-axis of crystals of the piezoelectric substrate.
  3. The surface acoustic wave device according to claim 1 or 2,

       wherein a {111} plane of the base layer has a constant gradient with respect to the substrate surface.
  4. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 3,

       wherein crystals of the main electrode layer are epitaxially or heteroepitaxially grown on crystals of the base layer.
  5. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 4,

       wherein a spot position of a {111} plane in an X-ray diffraction (XRD) pole figure of crystals of the main electrode layer is aligned with a spot position of a {111} plane in an XRD pole figure of crystals of the base layer.
  6. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 5,

       wherein a pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of crystals of the base layer is in a range of from 2.40 Å to 3.30 Å.
  7. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 6,

       wherein a pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of crystals of the main electrode layer is in a range of from 2.50 Å to 3.00 Å.
  8. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 7,

       wherein a mismatch ratio between a pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of crystals of the base layer and a pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of crystals of the main electrode layer is in a range of from -20% to 20%,

       while satisfying an expression of the mismatch ratio = (pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the base layer - pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer) × 100 / (pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer).
  9. The surface acoustic wave device according to claim 8,

       wherein the mismatch ratio between the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the base layer and the pitch of the nearest neighbor atoms of the crystals of the main electrode layer is in a range of from -15% to 15%.
  10. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 9,

       wherein the base layer is formed with one or more selected from the group consisting of TiN (titanium nitride), TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + Y = 1), Ni, Fe, Mg, Co, and Os.
  11. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 10,

       wherein the main electrode layer is formed with one or more selected from the group consisting of Cu, Al, Pt, Au, and Ag.
  12. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 10,

       wherein the main electrode layer is formed with an alloy of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Cu, Al, Pt, Au, and Ag and one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Ag, Sn, C, Sc, and Cu.
  13. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 12,

       wherein the piezoelectric substrate has a trigonal crystal structure.
  14. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 13,

       wherein the piezoelectric substrate is made of LiTaO3 or LiNbO3.
  15. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 14,

       wherein the piezoelectric substrate is made of LiTaO3 having a Y-cut angle ranging from 36° to 60°.
  16. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 15,

       wherein an angle from a substrate normal direction in a [111] direction of crystals of the main electrode layer is larger than an angle from the substrate normal direction in a Z-axis of the piezoelectric substrate.
  17. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 16,

       wherein a protective layer made of TiN (titanium nitride) or TiOxNy (where 0 < x < 0.2, x + y = 1) is deposited on the main electrode layer.
  18. The surface acoustic wave device according to any one of claims 1 to 17,

       wherein a film thickness of the base layer is in a range of from 5 nm to 20 nm.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

Anmelder
Datum

Patentrecherche

Patent Zeichnungen (PDF)

Copyright © 2008 Patent-De Alle Rechte vorbehalten. eMail: info@patent-de.com