PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1104951 06.04.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001104951
Titel Gunndiodeoszillator
Anmelder Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto, JP
Erfinder Haruta, (A170) Intellectual Prop. Dept., Kazumasa, Nagaokakyo-shi, Kyoto-fu 617-8555, JP;
Yamashita, (A170) Intellectual Prop. Dept., Sadao, Nagaokakyo-shi, Kyoto-fu 617-8555, JP;
Sakamoto, (A170) Intellectual Prop. Dept., Koichi, Nagaokakyo-shi, Kyoto-fu 617-8555, JP;
Tanizaki, (A170) Intellectual Property Dept., Toru, Nagaokakyo-shi, Kyoto-fu 617-8555, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60025563
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 28.09.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 001211127
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 06.06.2001
EP date of grant 18.01.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 06.04.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse H03B 9/14(2006.01)A, F, I, 20060131, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse H03B 5/04(2006.01)A, L, I, 20060131, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to an microwave band or millimeter wave band oscillator having an oscillation circuit using a Gunn diode and others, and an output transmission line for outputting oscillation signals, and to a radio equipment using this oscillator.

2. Description of the Related Art

Among microwave band or millimeter wave band oscillators each using a negative resistance element such as a Gunn diode, oscillators intended for multiple oscillation are disclosed in Japanese Examined Patent Application Publications 6-105851 and 6-22289.

Use of such an oscillation circuit intended for multiple oscillation can construct even an oscillator having a, e.g. millimetric band over 60 GHz band which Gunn diode cannot directly oscillate.

The oscillator disclosed in the above-mentioned Japanese Examined Patent Application Publications 6-105851 is characterized in that an oscillation is obtained by a cavity resonance using a waveguide, and that the resonance frequency thereof is determined by a spatial volume. This raises problems, however, that, since this oscillator has difficulty in adjusting frequency, it is unsuitable for mass production so as to incur a high cost, and that it inevitably has a large size.

The oscillator disclosed in the above-mentioned Japanese Examined Patent Application Publications 6-22289, has a feature such that the occurrence of a fundamental wave is inhibited only by microstrip patterns. This creates a problem, however, that it is difficult to sufficiently suppress the occurrence of a fundamental wave, and that the microstrip patterns for inhibiting the fundamental waves attenuate even the signals of the higher harmonic to be used, resulting in an increased loss.

A Gunn diode in a nonradiative dielectric waveguide are shown in a contribution to the International Microwave Symposium Digest - 1989 IEEE MTT-S Digest.

US 3, 919, 666 also shows an oscillator based in some embodiments on the use of a Gunn diode. This oscillator is also making use of a transmission operating as a high pass filter.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to solve the above-described problems and to provide an small-sized oscillator facilitating the adjustment of a resonance frequency, suitable for mass production and permitting a cost reduction, and to provide radio equipment using it.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an oscillator sufficiently suppressing the occurrence of a fundamental wave, and permitting a low loss, and to provide radio equipment using it.

These objects are achieved by an oscillator according to claim 1 or 6.

In order to achieve these objects, the oscillator in accordance with the present invention comprises an oscillation circuit formed on a dielectric substrate, and an output transmission line for transmitting the oscillation output signals of the oscillation circuit. In this oscillator, the output transmission line is a transmission line having cut-off characteristics, the output transmission line including a dielectric portion between two conductor plates substantially parallel to each other; and the cut-off frequency of the transmission line is determined so that the fundamental wave component, or the fundamental wave component and lower order harmonic components of an oscillation signal by the oscillation circuit are cut off, and that the higher harmonic components having higher frequencies than them are propagated.

Thereby, a fundamental component or lower order harmonics are cut off, and only higher harmonics are outputted to the output transmission line. Also by forming the oscillation circuit on the dielectric substrate, the formation of a circuit pattern is facilitated, and a reduction in the size is achieved.

The output transmission line may be a planar dielectric line formed by providing conductor patterns constituting the slots opposed to each other via a dielectric plate on the top and bottom surfaces.

In the oscillator in accordance with the present invention, the oscillation circuit is formed by mounting a negative resistance element in the vicinity of the short circuit position of the line of which at least one end is opened, the line having a length of integral multiples of a half wavelength; and the line and the output transmission line are coupled.

In the oscillator in accordance with the present invention, stubs are provided on a bias line supplying the bias voltage with respect to the negative resistance element so that the impedance when viewing the bias power source from the connection point of the negative resistance element exhibits a high impedance under the frequency of the fundamental wave and the frequencies of the higher harmonics.

In the oscillator in accordance with the present invention, a variable reactance element is connected to the line of the oscillation, and the line for supplying the control voltage to the variable reactance element is provided, which permits an adjustment or modulation of an oscillation frequency.

In the oscillator in accordance with the present invention, a weak-coupled terminal is provided to the oscillating circuit, so that this terminal can monitor an oscillation signals.

In the oscillator in accordance with the present invention, the output transmission line may be a dielectric line formed by disposing a dielectric strip between two conductor plates substantially parallel to each other; a slot is formed in one of the conductor plates; the dielectric substrate is disposed on the outside of the one of the conductor plates; and the line of the oscillator and the dielectric line are coupled.

Also, in the oscillator in accordance with the present invention, the dielectric substrate is accommodated in a case; the bias line comprises portions each having a wider widths and portions each having narrower widths; and a spring for fixing the dielectric substrate at the inner surface of the case is provided in the vicinity of the narrower portion of the bias line.

The radio equipment in accordance with the present invention is formed as a transmitter/receiver such as millimeter wave radar, by using an oscillator having any one of these structures.

The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • Fig. 1 is a diagram showing the construction of an oscillator as a first comparative embodiment of the present invention,
  • Fig. 2 is a diagram showing the relationship between a line of oscillation circuit and the connection positions for Gunn diode and others in the oscillator in Fig. 1,
  • Fig. 3 is a diagram showing the construction of a bias line of the oscillation circuit of the oscillator in Fig. 1,
  • Fig. 4 is a diagram showing the construction of an oscillator as a second comparative embodiment of the present invention,
  • Fig. 5 is a diagram showing the construction of an oscillator as a third embodiment in accordance with the present invention,
  • Fig. 6 is a diagram showing the construction of an oscillator as a fourth comparative embodiment of the present invention,
  • Fig. 7 is a diagram showing the construction of an oscillator as a fifth embodiment in accordance with the present invention, and
  • Fig. 8 is a block diagram showing the construction of a millimeter wave radar in accordance with a sixth embodiment of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The constructions of an oscillator in accordance with a first comparative embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to Figs. 1 through 3.

Fig. 1A is a plan view showing an oscillator having two upper and lower conductor plates in the state without the upper conductor plate. Figs. 1B and 1C are cross-sectional views taken along the lines B-B and C-C, respectively. In Fig. 1, reference numerals 1 and 2 denote a lower conductor plate and an upper conductor plate, respectively. These two conductor plates form an oscillator in the space sandwiched therebetween. Reference numerals 3 and 4 each denote dielectric substrates. A line 7 for the oscillation circuit is provided on the top surface of the dielectric substrate 3, and on the predetermined position thereof, a Gunn diode 6 is connected. The Gunn diode 6 is of a pill package type, and is mounted on the lower conductor plate 1. The protruded electrode of the Gunn diode is inserted through a hole formed in the dielectric substrate 3, and the electrode thereof is electrically connected to the line 7 by soldering or the like.

A bias line 8 for supplying the bias voltage with respect to the Gunn diode 6 is formed on the top surface of the dielectric substrate 3, and stubs 9 and 10 are disposed on the predetermined positions thereof. A variable reactance element 12 is mounted on the dielectric substrate 3, and between the line 7 and a stub 11 for the variable reactance element.

A line 13 for supplying the control voltage with respect to the variable reactance element 12 is formed on the top surface of the dielectric substrate 4, and stub 14 and 15 are formed on the predetermined positions thereof.

In Fig. 1, reference numeral 5 denotes a dielectric strip. The dielectric strip 5 forms a groove having the same width as that of the dielectric strip 5 at the predetermined position of the upper and lower conductor plates 1 and 2, and the dielectric strip 5 is disposed along the groove. The dielectric strip 5 and the upper and lower conductive plates 1 and 2 construct a non-radioactive dielectric line (hereinbelow referred to as "a NRD guide"). In particular, in this example, the distance between the upper and lower conductor plates in the space portions on the both sides of the dielectric strip 5 is set to be narrower than the distance between the upper and lower conductor plates in the dielectric strip 5 portion, whereby a non-radioactive dielectric line inhibiting the propagation of the LSE01 mode and propagating the LSM01 which is a single mode, is achieved.

The dielectric substrate 3 is disposed so that the vicinity of the end portion of the line 7 provided on the top surface thereof extends in the direction orthogonal to the axial direction of the dielectric strip 5, and in the direction parallel with the upper and lower conductor plates, and that the open end thereof is situated at the center in the width direction of the dielectric strip 5. Thereby, the mode of the suspended line by the line 7 and the upper and lower conductor plates, and the LSM01 mode of the dielectric line are magnetic-field coupled.

In Fig. 2, the construction of the oscillation circuit shown in Fig. 1 is illustrated. In this example, the length of the line 7 is set to N x &lgr;g /2, where &lgr;g is one wavelength on the line 7, and N is an integer larger not less than 1. The line 7 is also set to be opened at both ends. Since the impedance of the Gunn diode 6 is as low as several ohms, an impedance matching is made by connecting the Gunn diode 6 at the position at a distance of &lgr;g /4 from one of the open ends of the line, that is, at the position which is equivalently the approximate short-circuit point. A variable reactance element 12 is connected at a predetermined position between the connection position and the other open end. Since the stub 11 for the variable reactance element 12 has a length of &lgr;g /4, and the ends thereof are opened, there is provided the construction wherein the variable reactance element 12 is connected between the connection point thereof with respect to the line 7 and a equivalent ground.

By the above-described construction, an oscillation signal by the Gunn diode 6 is coupled with the dielectric line via the line 7, and is transmitted via the dielectric line.

The above-mentioned NRD guide has cut-off characteristics, and the dielectric constant and the dimension of the dielectric strip 5 and the dimension of the space between the upper and lower conductor plates are determined so that the cut-off frequency of the NRD guide is higher than a fundamental wave oscillation frequency by the Gunn diode 6 and lower than the frequency of a second harmonic (double wave). Therefore, only the higher harmonic components of the oscillation signal is transmitted to the NRD guide. For example, when letting the fundamental oscillation frequency of the Gunn diode 6 be 38 GHz, 76 GHz which is a second harmonic thereof is transmitted to the NRD guide.

The technique of making the cut-off frequency of a NRD guide a desired value, is described in the article by Kuroki et al: "a millimeter wave band cut-off filter using a NRD guide", IEICE, '87/1 Vol.J70-C No.1 P117-119.

For example, when w, h1, h2, and h3 shown in Fig. 2B, and the dielectric constant of the dielectric strip 5 are 1.2 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 0.5 mm and 2.04, respectively, the value of the cut-off frequency becomes 67.06 GHz. This means that the signal of a frequency not more than 67.06 GHz does not propagate through the dielectric strip 5. Here, w is the width of the dielectric strip 5, h1 is the distance between the top surface of the dielectric strip 5 and the bottom surface of the upper conductor plate 2, h2 is the distance between the bottom surface of the upper conductor plate 2 and the top surface of the lower conductor plate 1, and h3 is the bottom surface of the dielectric strip 5 and the top surface of the lower conductor plate 1.

Meanwhile, harmonics of a order not less than a third order is also transmitted, but since the power output thereof decreases as the harmonic becomes a higher order one, the influence thereof is negligible as compared with that of the fundamental wave.

Since the oscillation frequency by the Gunn diode 6 is varied depending on the reactance of the variable reactance element 12 loaded on the line 7, the oscillation frequency can be adjusted or modulated by the control voltage with respect to the variable reactance element 12. Also, since the ratio of the oscillation frequency change with respect to the control voltage change is varied depending on the connection position of the variable reactance element 12 with respect to the line 7, the adjustment width or the modulation width for the frequency is determined by this connection position of the variable reactance element 12.

In Fig. 3, the construction of the bias line portion shown in Fig. 1 is illustrated. A stub 9 is disposed at a distance of (1) from the position of the Gunn diode 6, and the distance from the connection point thereof with respect to the bias line 8 to the open end is set to (2). On the other hand, a stub 10 is disposed at a distance of (3) from the position of the Gunn diode 6, and the distance from the connection point thereof with respect to the bias line 8 to the open end is set to (4). Here, (1) is the length from the connection position of the Gunn diode, that is, from the position which is equivalently the approximate short-circuit point, and is set to be about 1/4 wavelength long in the wavelength of the second harmonic on the bias line. (2) is set to be about 1/4 wavelength long in the wavelength of the second harmonic. (3) is the length from the connection position of the Gunn diode, that is, from the position which is equivalently the approximate short-circuit point, and is set to be about 1/4 wavelength long in the wavelength of the fundamental wave on the bias line. (4) is set to be about 1/4 wavelength long in the wavelength of the fundamental wave. Here, the length (3) from the above-described approximate short-circuit point to the connection point of the stub 10, has been determined in consideration of the effect of the stub 9 (the lengths of (1) and (2)).

Therefore, the impedance Z when viewing the power source side from A is a high impedance (ideally, the impedance maximum point on the Smith chart) in the fundamental wave frequency and the second harmonic frequency. The stub 9 works as the trap for the second harmonic component, and the stub 10 works as the trap for the fundamental wave component. Thereby, there is no risk that an oscillation signal leaks to the bias power source side via the bias line, which leads to an improvement in modulation characteristics and an oscillation efficiency.

Similar stubs to the above-mentioned two stubs is provided on a line 13 for control voltage supply as shown in Fig. 1. A stub 14 is connected at the position at a distance of 1/4 wavelength in a second harmonic wavelength from the equivalent short-circuit point of the stub 11 for the variable reactance element, and the length from the connection point thereof to the open end is set to 1/4 wavelength in the second harmonic wavelength. On the other hand, a stub 15 is connected at the position at a distance of 1/4 wavelength in the fundamental wave wavelength from the equivalent short-circuit point of the stub 11 for the variable reactance element, and the length from the connection point thereof to the open end is set to 1/4 wavelength in the fundamental wave wavelength. Therefore, there is no risk that an oscillation signal leaks to the side of the line 13 for control voltage supply, which leads to an improvement in modulation characteristics and an oscillation efficiency.

Next, the construction of an oscillator in accordance with the second comparative embodiment of the present invention in Fig. 4. Fig. 4 is a plan view showing the oscillator in the state without the upper conductor plate. Unlike the example shown in Fig. 1, an electrode 21 and an adjustment terminal 20 connected thereto are provided on the dielectric substrate 3. In this example, a structure for making frequency variable by voltage control is not provided.

In Fig. 4, the electrode 21 is weak-coupled with the line 7, and is arranged so as to monitor oscillation signals by connecting a spectrum analyzer or the like to the adjustment terminal 20. For example, when adjusting an oscillating frequency, trimming is performed with respect to one open end T portion of the line 7 so that the fundamental frequency thereof becomes a half value of the second harmonic frequency to be actually used.

Since the electrode 21 is, thus, merely weak-coupled with the line 7, it exerts no adverse effect. In addition, since the electrode 21 is weak-coupled with the line 7 where the fundamental wave component has not been removed, and monitors oscillation signals, it can measure a fundamental wave frequency which is a frequency lower than the oscillation frequency to be outputted to the NRD guide. This permits use of a low cost spectrum analyzer.

Also, as shown in the first embodiment, the stabilization of the oscillation frequency can be achieved by providing a variable reactance element to permit the oscillation frequency to be controlled by voltage, and by executing a feedback with respect to the control voltage so as to be a predetermined frequency, after detecting the oscillation frequency from the signal taken out from the above-mentioned adjustment terminal.

Then, the construction of an oscillator in accordance with the third embodiment in accordance with the present invention will be described with reference to Fig. 5.

In the first and second embodiments, the dielectric substrate 3 is disposed in the space sandwiched between the upper and lower conductor plates, but in this third embodiment, a dielectric substrate 3 is disposed on the outside of the upper and lower conductor plates. Specifically, a slot 22 is formed along the longitude of the dielectric strip 5 on the upper conductor plate 2, and the dielectric substrate 3 is disposed so that the line 7 of an oscillation circuit is orthogonal to the slot 22. The construction of this dielectric substrate 3 is basically the same as one shown in Fig. 1 or 4. However, the mode (TEM mode) of microstrip line propagating through the line 7 of the oscillating circuit, and the LSM mode of the dielectric line are magnetic-field coupled via the slot 22. At this time, The magnetic field of the TEM mode spreads via the slot 22, whereas that of the LSM mode hardly leaks from the slot 22 to the dielectric substrate 3 side. Consequently, the LSM mode makes a unidirectional coupling from line 7 to the NRD guide. With such a construction, even if a reflected wave on the discontinuous portion of the NRD guide returns to the Gunn diode side, the signal returned to the Gunn diode 6 side would include no fundamental wave component, since the signal level thereof is suppressed, and the NRD guide propagates no fundamental wave component. The influence of the reflected wave on the oscillation characteristics is therefore very little.

Next, the construction of an oscillator in accordance with the fourth comparative embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to Fig. 6.

Fig. 6A is a plan view showing an oscillation portion in the state without the upper conductor plate. Fig. 6B is a view of a cross-section orthogonal to the bias line, in the state with the upper conductor plate provided. In this example, on the bias line 8, repeated patterns wherein portions w each having wider widths and portions n each having narrower widths, are alternately formed, which provides characteristics of a low pass filter cutting off an oscillation signal component. Also, a concave spring 23 is disposed on a narrower path portion indicated by n. The concave spring 23 presses the dielectric substrate 3 against the lower conductor plate 1 side in the space between the dielectric substrate 3 and the upper conductor plate 2, in the state wherein the dielectric substrate 3 is disposed in the space formed between the upper and lower conductor plates 1 and 2. Therefore, even if the dielectric substrate 3 has a somewhat warp, the dielectric substrate 3 would be surely fixed in the space created by the upper and lower conductor plates, and would provide a stable frequency characteristics.

Since the concave spring is provided on the narrower path of the bias line, there is no risk that the concave spring has an electric continuity with the bias line, and since this portion is a portion where the bias line works equivalently as an inductor, it hardly exerts effect on the bias line.

Then, an example in which a planar dielectric line is used as an output transmission line will be described with reference to Fig. 7.

Fig. 7 is a perspective view showing the construction of the main section of an oscillator including an oscillation circuit and an output transmission line. In Fig. 7, reference numeral 30 denotes a dielectric substrate. The dielectric substrate 30 has electrodes 31a and 31b disposed on the top surface thereof, and forms a slot at the area sandwiched between the two electrodes 31a and 31b. The dielectric substrate 30 has also electrodes 32a and 32b disposed on the bottom surface thereof, and forms a slot at the area sandwiched between the two electrodes 32a and 32b. With this structure, a planar dielectric line (PDTL) is formed which uses the area sandwiched between the upper and lower slots in the dielectric substrate, as a propagation path. The broken line arrow and the solid line arrow in the Fig. 7 represent magnetic field vector and electric field vector, respectively. In this figure, reference numeral 3 denotes a dielectric substrate. The dielectric substrate 3 constructs a microstrip line by forming a line 7. The line 7 and the above-mentioned planar dielectric line are disposed so that the surface of the line 7 is flush with the surface at the central portion of the planar dielectric line, and that the line 7 becomes orthogonal to the electromagnetic wave propagation direction of the planar dielectric line. The constructions of other portions are similar to one shown in Fig. 1.

By such a construction, the planar dielectric line and microstrip line are magnetic-field coupled, and achieve an oscillator using a planar dielectric line as an output transmission line.

Next, as a embodiment of radio equipment, the construction example of a millimeter wave radar will be described with reference to Fig. 8.

In Fig. 8, VCO is an oscillator shown in the first embodiment. This VCO performs frequency modulation by a signal, such as a triangular signal, given by a signal processing circuit, and outputs an oscillation output signal. This oscillation output signal is transmitted to a primary radiator via an isolator, a coupler, and a circulator in this sequence. Thereby, the primary radiator transmits a millimeter wave with a predetermined beam width via a dielectric lens or the like. The coupler gives one portion of the transmission signal to a mixer as a local signal. When the reflected wave from an object enters into the primary radiator, a reception signal is given to the mixer via the circulator. The mixer creates an intermediate frequency signal by mixing the reception signal from the circulator and the local signal. IF (intermediate frequency) amplifier amplifies this intermediate frequency signal and gives it to the signal processing circuit. The signal processing circuit detects the distance therefrom to the object and the relative speed of the object, from the modulation signal and the intermediate frequency signal given to the VCO.

In each of the embodiments, although a pill type Gunn diode were used, a surface mount type Gunn diode may be mounted on a dielectric substrate. Also, as a negative resistance element, a three terminal type element such as a FET may also be employed, apart from a Gunn diode. For example, when using a MOS-FET, a line for connection with a NRD guide is connected to the drain thereof, a resonance line is connected to the source thereof, and a bias line is connected to the gate thereof.

Furthermore, in each of the embodiments, the Gunn diode of which fundamental wave is 38 GHz was used so as to obtain an 76 GHz band oscillation signal which is the second harmonic thereof, but depending on the purpose, a cut-off frequency may be set between a second harmonic and a third harmonic so as to transmit the harmonic component of an order not less than a third order to an output transmission line.

Moreover, in each of the embodiments, although the coupling between lines was executed by approaching the line 7 provided on the dielectric substrate 3 to the end portion of a dielectric strip 5, the line of an oscillation circuit and a NRD guide may be coupled by dividing the dielectric strip by a surface parallel to upper and lower conductor plates into upper and lower portions and by disposing a dielectric substrate between the upper and lower dielectric strips.

As described hereinabove, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, high frequency signals which is difficult to be directly oscillated, can be easily obtained. In this oscillator, since the oscillation circuit is formed using a dielectric substrate, and an output transmission line including a dielectric material portion is used between the two conductor surfaces parallel to each other, a size reduction is achieved, the adjustment of a resonance frequency is facilitated, and a suitability for mass production is provided, leading to a reduction in cost, unlike the case where a cavity waveguide is used. Also since a fundamental wave component or lower order harmonics are surly cut off on the output transmission line, and only the higher harmonic component to be used is transmitted, there is no risk that the higher harmonic signal to be used attenuates, resulting in no loss.

Furthermore, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since the coupling structure of the line formed on the dielectric substrate with the output transmission line is simplified, a reduction in an overall size can be attained.

Moreover, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since the impedance matching between the negative resistance element, such as the Gunn diode, having a low impedance and the line can be easily obtained, and power output can be enhanced.

Also, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since there is no risk that an oscillation signal leaks to the bias line, the modulation characteristics and the oscillation efficiency are improved.

In addition, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since an oscillation frequency can be made variable by the control voltage, it is possible to use the present oscillator as a voltage controlling oscillator.

Besides, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since a fundamental frequency signal having a lower frequency than the frequency to be used can be monitored without exerting an adverse effect to the oscillation circuit, a low price measurement equipment may be used.

Furthermore, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since the occurrence of the return signal from the dielectric line to the oscillation circuit is suppressed, and the fundamental frequency signal does not return, a stable oscillation characteristics can be achieved.

Moreover, in the oscillator in accordance with the first aspect of the present invention, since the occurrence of the variations in characteristics due to the deformation of the dielectric substrate, stable characteristics can be attained.

By the radio equipment in accordance with the second aspect of the present invention, a low-loss and high-gain millimeter wave radar which is small in an overall size, can be obtained.

While the invention has been described in its preferred embodiments, obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.


Anspruch[de]
Ein Oszillator, der folgende Merkmale umfasst: eine Oszillationsschaltung, die auf einem dielektrischen Substrat (3) gebildet ist; und eine Ausgangsübertragungsleitung zum Übertragen der Oszillationsausgangssignale der Oszillationsschaltung, wobei: die Ausgangsübertragungsleitung eine Übertragungsleitung mit Grenzcharakteristika ist, wobei die Ausgangsübertragungsleitung einen dielektrischen Materialabschnitt zwischen zwei Leiterplatten umfasst, die im Wesentlichen parallel zueinander sind, wobei der dielektrische Materialabschnitt eine dielektrische Platte (30) ist, und die Ausgangsübertragungsleitung eine planare dielektrische Leitung ist, wobei die Leiterplatten in Form von Leiterstrukturen (31a, 31b, 32a, 32b) angeordnet sind, die Schlitze bilden, die einander über der dielektrischen Platte (30) auf der oberen und unteren Oberfläche gegenüberliegen; und die Grenzfrequenz der Übertragungsleitung bestimmt ist, so dass die Grundwellenkomponente oder die Grundwellenkomponente und die harmonischen Komponenten niedriger Ordnung eines Oszillationssignals durch die Oszillationsschaltung gesperrt sind, und dass die höheren harmonischen Komponenten, die höhere Frequenzen aufweisen als dieselben, ausgebreitet werden. Ein Oszillator gemäß Anspruch 1, bei dem die Oszillationsschaltung durch Befestigen eines Negativwiderstandselements (6) in der Nähe der Kurzschlussposition einer Leitung (7) gebildet wird, von der zumindest ein Ende offen ist, wobei die Leitung (7) eine Länge von ganzzahligen Mehrfachen einer halben Wellenlänge (&lgr;g) aufweist; und die Leitung (7) und die Ausgangsübertragungsleitung gekoppelt sind. Ein Oszillator gemäß Anspruch 2, der ferner folgende Merkmale umfasst: Stichleitungen (9, 10), die auf einer Vorspannungsleitung (8) vorgesehen sind, zum Liefern der Vorspannungsspannung bezüglich des Negativwiderstandselements (6), so dass die Impedanz, wenn eine Vorspannungsleistungsquelle von dem Verbindungspunkt des Negativwiderstandselements (6) betrachtet wird, unter der Frequenz der Grundwelle und den Frequenzen der höheren Harmonischen eine hohe Impedanz zeigt. Ein Oszillator gemäß Anspruch 2 oder 3. der ferner folgende Merkmale umfasst: ein Element mit variabler Reaktanz (12), das mit der Leitung (7) der Oszillation verbunden ist; und eine Leitung (13) zum Liefern der Steuerspannung bezüglich des Elements mit variabler Reaktanz (12). Ein Oszillator gemäß Anspruch 2, 3 oder 4, der ferner folgendes Merkmal umfasst: einen schwach gekoppelten Anschluss (21), der an der Oszillationsschaltung vorgesehen ist. Ein Oszillator, der folgende Merkmale umfasst: eine Oszillationsschaltung, die auf einem dielektrischen Substrat (3) gebildet ist; und eine Ausgangsübertragungsleitung zum Übertragen der Oszillationsausgangssignale der Oszillationsschaltung, wobei: die Ausgangsübertragungsleitung eine Übertragungsleitung mit Grenzcharakteristika ist und eine dielektrische Leitung ist, die durch Anordnen eines dielektrischen Streifens zwischen zwei Leiterplatten (1, 2) gebildet wird, die im Wesentlichen parallel zueinander sind; die Oszillationsschaltung gebildet wird durch Befestigen eines Negativwiderstandselements (6) in der Nähe der Kurzschlussposition einer Leitung (7), von der zumindest ein Ende geöffnet ist, wobei die Leitung eine Länge von ganzzahligen Mehrfachen einer halben Wellenlänge (&lgr;g) aufweist; die Leitung (7) und die Ausgangsübertragungsleitung gekoppelt sind; ein Schlitz (22) in einer (2) der Leiterplatten (1, 2) gebildet ist; das dielektrische Substrat (3) auf der Außenseite der einen (2) der Leiterplatten (1, 2) gebildet ist; die Leitung (7) des Oszillators und die dielektrische Leitung gekoppelt sind; und die Grenzfrequenz der Übertragungsleitung bestimmt ist, so dass die Grenzwellenkomponente oder die Grenzwellenkomponente und die harmonischen Komponente niedrigerer Ordnung eines Oszillationssignals durch die Oszillationsschaltung gesperrt sind, und dass die harmonischen Komponenten, die höhere Frequenzen als dieselben aufweisen, ausgebreitet werden. Ein Oszillator gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, der ferner folgende Merkmale umfasst: ein Gehäuse zum Unterbringen des dielektrischen Substrats (3); wobei die Vorspannungsleitung (8) Abschnitte mit jeweils breiteren Breiten und Abschnitte mit jeweils schmaleren Breiten umfasst; und eine Feder (23) zum Befestigen des dielektrischen Substrats (3) an der Innenoberfläche des Gehäuses, wobei die Feder (23) in der Nähe des schmaleren Abschnitts der Vorspannungsleitung (8) vorgesehen ist. Funkausrüstung, die einen Oszillator gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7 verwendet.
Anspruch[en]
An oscillator comprising: an oscillation circuit formed on a dielectric substrate (3); and an output transmission line for transmitting the oscillation output signals of said oscillation circuit, wherein: said output transmission line is a transmission line having cut-off characteristics, said output transmission line including a dielectric material portion between two conductor plates substantially parallel to each other, said dielectric material portion being a dielectric plate (30), and said output transmission line being a planar dielectric line wherein the conductor plates are arranged in form of conductor patterns (31a, 31b, 32a, 32b) constituting slots opposed to each other via the dielectric plate (30) on the top and bottom surfaces; and the cut-off frequency of said transmission line is determined so that the fundamental wave component, or the fundamental wave component and lower order harmonic components of an oscillation signal by said oscillation circuit are cut off, and that the higher harmonic components having higher frequencies than them are propagated. An oscillator as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said oscillation circuit is formed by mounting a negative resistance element (6) in the vicinity of the short-circuit position of a line (7) of which at least one end is opened, the line (7) having a length of integral multiples of a half wavelength (&lgr;g); and said line (7) and said output transmission line are coupled. An oscillator as claimed in claim 2, further comprising: stubs (9, 10) provided on a bias line (8) for supplying the bias voltage with respect to said negative resistance element (6) so that the impedance when viewing a bias power source from the connection point of said negative resistance element (6) exhibits a high impedance under the frequency of said fundamental wave and the frequencies of said higher harmonics. An oscillator as claimed in claim 2 or 3, further comprising: a variable reactance element (12) connected to the line (7) of said oscillation; and a line (13) for supplying the control voltage with respect to said variable reactance element (12). An oscillator as claimed in claim 2, 3, or 4 further comprising: a weak-coupled terminal (21) provided to said oscillating circuit. An oscillator comprising

an oscillation circuit formed on a dielectric substrate (3); and an output transmission line for transmitting the oscillation output signals of said oscillation circuit, wherein: said output transmission line is a transmission line having cut-off characteristics and is a dielectric line formed by disposing a dielectric strip (5) between two conductor plates (1,2) substantially parallel to each other; said oscillation circuit is formed by mounting a negative.resistance element (6) in the vicinity of the short-circuit position of a line (7) of which at least one end is opened, the line (7) having a length of integral multiples of a half wavelength (&lgr;g) ; said line (7) and said output transmission line are coupled; a slot (22) is formed in one (2) of said conductor plates (1,2); said dielectric substrate (3) is disposed on the outside of said one (2) of said conductor plates (1,2); said line (7) of said oscillator and said dielectric line are coupled; and the cut-off frequency of said transmission line is determined so that the fundamental wave component, or the fundamental wave component and lower order harmonic components of an oscillation signal by said oscillation circuit are cut off, and that the higher harmonic components having higher frequencies than them are propagated.
An oscillator as claimed in any one of claims 1 through 6, further comprising: a case for accommodating said dielectric substrate (3); said bias line (8) comprising portions each having wider widths and portions each having narrower widths; and a spring (23) for fixing said dielectric substrate (3) at the inner surface of said case, said spring (23) being provided in the vicinity of said narrower portion of said bias line (8) . Radio equipment using an oscillator as claimed in any one of claims 1 through 7.
Anspruch[fr]
Oscillateur comprenant : un circuit d'oscillation formé sur un substrat diélectrique (3) ; et une ligne d'émission de sortie destinée à émettre les signaux de sortie d'oscillation dudit circuit d'oscillation, dans lequel : ladite ligne d'émission de sortie est une ligne d'émission présentant des caractéristiques de coupure, ladite ligne d'émission de sortie comprenant une partie de matériau diélectrique entre deux plaques conductrices sensiblement parallèles l'une à l'autre, ladite partie de matériau diélectrique étant une plaque diélectrique (30), et ladite ligne d'émission de sortie étant une ligne diélectrique plane dans laquelle les plaques conductrices sont agencées sous la forme de modèles conducteurs (31a, 31b, 32a, 32b) constituant des fentes opposées les unes aux autres par l'intermédiaire de la plaque diélectrique (30) sur les surfaces supérieure et inférieure ; et la fréquence de coupure de ladite ligne d'émission est déterminée de sorte que le composant d'onde fondamentale, ou le composant d'onde fondamentale et les composants harmoniques d'ordre inférieur d'un signal d'oscillation par ledit circuit d'oscillation sont coupés, et de sorte que les composants harmoniques supérieurs présentant des fréquences supérieures à eux sont propagés. Oscillateur selon la revendication 1, dans lequel : ledit circuit d'oscillation est formé en montant un élément à résistance négative (6) à proximité de la position de court-circuit d'une ligne (7) dont au moins une extrémité est ouverte, la ligne (7) présentant une longueur de multiples entiers d'une demi-longueur d'onde (&lgr;g) ; et ladite ligne (7) et ladite ligne d'émission de sortie sont couplées. Oscillateur selon la revendication 2, comprenant en outre : des tronçons (9, 10) prévus sur une ligne de polarisation (8) destinée à fournir la tension de polarisation par rapport au dit élément à résistance négative (6) de sorte que l'impédance lors de la visualisation d'une source d'alimentation de polarisation en provenant du point de connexion dudit élément à résistance négative (6) montre une impédance élevée sous la fréquence de ladite onde fondamentale et les fréquences desdites harmoniques supérieures. Oscillateur selon la revendication 2 ou 3, comprenant en outre : un élément à réactance variable (12) connecté à la ligne (7) de ladite oscillation ; et une ligne (13) destinée à fournir la tension de commande par rapport au dit élément à réactance variable (12). Oscillateur selon la revendication 2, 3 ou 4 comprenant en outre : une borne à couplage faible (21) fournie au dit circuit d'oscillation. Oscillateur comprenant

un circuit d'oscillation formé sur un substrat diélectrique (3) ; et une ligne d'émission de sortie destinée à émettre les signaux de sortie d'oscillation dudit circuit d'oscillation, dans lequel : ladite ligne d'émission de sortie est une ligne d'émission présentant des caractéristiques de coupure et est une ligne diélectrique formée en disposant une bande diélectrique (5) entre deux plaques conductrices (1, 2) sensiblement parallèles les unes aux autres ; ledit circuit d'oscillation est formé en montant un élément à résistance négative (6) à proximité de la position de court-circuit d'une ligne (7) dont au moins une extrémité est ouverte, la ligne (7) présentant une longueur de multiples entiers d'une demi-longueur d'onde (&lgr;g) ; ladite ligne (7) et ladite ligne d'émission de sortie sont couplées ; une fente (22) est formée dans une (2) desdites plaques conductrices (1, 2) ; ledit substrat diélectrique (3) est disposé sur l'extérieur de ladite une (2) desdites plaques conductrices (1, 2) ; ladite ligne (7) dudit oscillateur et ladite ligne diélectrique sont couplées ; et la fréquence de coupure de ladite ligne de transmission est déterminée de sorte que le composant d'onde fondamentale, ou le composant d'onde fondamentale et les composants harmoniques d'ordre inférieur d'un signal d'oscillation par ledit circuit d'oscillation sont coupés, et de sorte que les composants harmoniques supérieurs présentant des fréquences supérieures à eux sont propagés.
Oscillateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, comprenant en outre : un boîtier pour recevoir ledit substrat diélectrique (3) ; ladite ligne de polarisation (8) comprenant des parties ayant chacune des largeurs plus larges et des parties ayant chacune des largeurs plus étroites ; et un ressort (23) destiné à fixer ledit substrat diélectrique (3) au niveau de la surface intérieure dudit boîtier, ledit ressort (23) étant prévu à proximité de ladite partie plus étroite de ladite ligne de polarisation (8). Equipement radio utilisant un oscillateur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7.






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