PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0858691 13.04.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000858691
Titel PASSIVES MAGNETISCHES LAGERELEMENT MIT MINIMALEN LEISTUNGSVERLUSTEN
Anmelder The Regents of the University of California, Oakland, Calif., US
Erfinder POST, F., Richard, Walnut Creek, CA 94595, US
Vertreter LADAS & PARRY, 80335 München
DE-Aktenzeichen 69635769
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 01.11.1996
EP-Aktenzeichen 969402742
WO-Anmeldetag 01.11.1996
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/US96/17572
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0097016882
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 09.05.1997
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 19.08.1998
EP date of grant 25.01.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 13.04.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse H02K 7/09(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse F16C 39/06(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to magnetic bearing system components, and more specifically, it relates to an improved stabilizing element employing spatially periodic magnet arrays and inductive circuits having reduced power losses during the operation of a magnetic bearing system.

Description of Related Art

Motor and generator armatures, flywheel rotors, and other rotatable components have conventionally been supported and constrained against radially and axially directed forces by mechanical bearings, such as journal bearings, ball bearings, and roller bearings. Such bearings necessarily involve mechanical contact between the rotating element and the bearing components, leading to problems of friction and wear that are well known. Even non-contacting bearings, such as air bearings, involve frictional losses that can be appreciable, and are sensitive to the presence of dust particles. In addition, mechanical bearings, and especially air bearings, are poorly adapted for use in a vacuum environment.

The use of magnetic forces to provide a non-contacting, low friction equivalent of the mechanical bearing is a concept that provides an attractive alternative, one which is now being exploited commercially for a variety of applications. All presently available commercial magnetic bearing/suspension elements are subject to limitations, arising from a fundamental physics issue, that increase their cost and complexity. These limitations make the conventional magnetic bearing elements unsuitable for a wide variety of uses where complexity-related issues, the issue of power requirements, and the requirement for high reliability are paramount.

The physics issue referred to is known by the name of Earnshaw's Theorem. According to Earnshaw's Theorem (when it is applied to magnetic systems), any magnetic suspension element, such as a magnetic bearing that utilizes static magnetic forces between a stationary and a rotating component, cannot exist stably in a state of equilibrium against external forces, e. g. gravity. In other words if such a bearing element is designed to be stable against radially directed displacements, it will be unstable against axially directed displacements, and vice versa. The assumptions implicit in the derivation of Earnshaw's Theorem are that the magnetic fields are static in nature (i. e. that they arise from either fixed currents or objects of fixed magnetization) and that diamagnetic bodies are excluded.

The almost universal response to the restriction imposed by Earnshaw's Theorem has been the following: Magnetic bearing elements are designed to be stable along at least one axis, for example, their axis of symmetry, and then external stabilizing means are used to insure stability along the remaining axes. The "means" referred to could either be mechanical, i. e. ball bearings or the like, or, more commonly, electromagnetic. In the latter approach magnet coils are employed to provide stabilizing forces through electronic servo amplifiers and position sensors that detect the incipiently unstable motion of the rotating element and restore it to its (otherwise unstable) position of force equilibrium.

Less common than the servo-controlled magnetic bearings just described are magnetic bearings that use superconductors to provide a repelling force acting against a permanent magnet element in such a way as to stably levitate that magnet. These bearing types utilize the flux-excluding property of superconductors to attain a stable state, achieved by properly shaping the superconductor and the magnet so as to provide restoring forces for displacements in any direction from the position of force equilibrium. Needless to say, magnetic bearings that employ superconductors are subject to the limitations imposed by the need to maintain the superconductor at cryogenic temperatures, as well as limitations on the magnitude of the forces that they can exert, as determined by the characteristics of the superconductor employed to provide that force.

The magnetic bearing approaches that have been described represent the presently utilized means for creating a stable situation in the face of the limitations imposed by Earnshaw's Theorem. The approach followed by the first one of these (i.e., the one not using superconducting materials) is to overcome these limitations by introducing other force-producing elements, either mechanical, or electromagnetic in nature, that restore equilibrium. The latter, the servo-controlled magnetic bearing, is usually designated as an "active" magnetic bearing, referring to the active involvement of electronic feedback circuitry in maintaining stability.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a magnetic bearing cartridge employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses.

These and other objects are achieved by an apparatus in accordance with the appended claim 1. Advantageous embodiments are defined in the dependent claims.

One embodiment of the invention is an improved stabilizing element, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in WO 95/24760 A - see also US 5 495 221 A, published 27 February 1996, entitled "Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System." The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide passive bearing systems that have virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity.

Another embodiment of the invention is a new type of magnetic bearing cartridge that combines strong radially restoring forces with axial stability, without incurring appreciable power losses under equilibrium conditions. Insensitivity to temperature or time-induced strengths of the permanent magnet elements in the cartridge (or in associated axial-force bearing elements) is accomplished by geometry (centering the position of equilibrium between two opposing-force bearing elements). In this way temperature variations in the permanent magnet elements (if the same in both elements) does not displace the equilibrium position, thus does not call on the spatially periodic magnetic array-inductive circuit element to provide a net axial force.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • Figure 1A is a side view of a passive bearing element with minimal power losses.
  • Figure 1B is a top view of the planar conductor array of Figure 1A.
  • Figure 2A is a side view of a first embodiment of a magnetic bearing cartridge.
  • Figure 2B is a top view of the cartridge and centering elements of Figure 2A.
  • Figure 3A is a side view of a second embodiment of a magnetic bearing cartridge.
  • Figure 3B is a top view of the cartridge and centering elements of Figure 3A.
  • Figure 4 shows a side view of an embodiment of the invention using cylindrical spatially periodic magnetic arrays and a cylindrical inductive circuit array.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In the design of passive magnetic bearings in accordance with the teachings of applicant's allowed U. S. patent serial number US 5 495 221 A entitled "Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System," which is incorporated herein by reference, it is necessary to use a combination of passive elements with compensating force derivatives in order to achieve stable levitation. One such element, described in the aforesaid patent application, employs a combination of a spatially periodic magnetic field, such as is produced by a spatially periodic magnetic array (e.g., a Halbach array), in combination with inductive circuit elements, to produce the desired stabilizing force derivatives that overcome the destabilizing force derivatives from other elements. These "other elements" can be, for example, axially symmetric permanent magnet rings, operating either in an attractive or a repelling mode with respect to their axially directed force. The present invention relates to an improved stabilizing element, also employing spatially periodic magnet arrays and inductive circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements in the above described patent application. The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity.

The components of one embodiment of the new system are shown schematically in Figure 1A, which depicts the bearing element with its axis in the vertical direction. (It may also be advantageous to use it with horizontal-axis systems, as will be mentioned later). The spatially periodic magnetic arrays (e.g., Halbach arrays) 10 and 12 are attached by shaft 14 and lie above and below the planar array of inductive circuits (e.g., inductively loaded circuits) 16. In general, array 10 is fixed to and spaced apart from array 12. Figure 1B shows a top view of the planar conductor array 16 of Figure 1A and a representative magnet segment 15. Planar conductor array 16 is movably located between arrays 10 and 12. Array 16 consists of an inductive circuit having a circuit conductor 18 with inductive loading 19. Typically these magnetic arrays would be coupled together and would be the rotating elements, while the circuit array between them would be stationary. It is also necessary that the azimuthal orientation of the magnet arrays be such that the azimuthal components of their fields add at a fixed position at about the midplane or midway between them, while their axial components cancel on the midplane. Thus the axial flux through the planar circuits is nulled out when their symmetry plane corresponds to the midplane between the magnets, becoming finite only when the magnet array is displaced vertically with respect to the planar circuit. If then the other permanent magnet elements that are attached to the rotating system are arranged so as to reach force equilibrium with external forces (i.e. gravity) at an axial position corresponding to the location where the rotating spatially periodic magnet arrays lie symmetrically above and below the planar circuit, the induced currents and thus the resistive power dissipation in those circuits will approach zero. For a horizontal-axis system this circumstance can be accomplished purely geometrically. For a vertical-axis system it can be accomplished by a combination of geometrical location and tailoring the magnetic fields and/or gap of the permanent magnet elements so as to accomplish this objective.

An approximate analysis of the concept yields a theoretical estimate of the magnitude of the force derivative as a function of circuit and field-parameters. The following derived expression is useful to design a system having a desired force derivative: [d<F>dx]x=0=8r22B02mL0[1-r1r2]2exp(-2ka)   N m-1 Here B0 is the peak strength of the field at the inner surface of each Halbach array, L0 is the inductance per circuit, m is the number of circuits in the planar array, and k is 2 &pgr;,/&lgr; with &lgr;, being the mean azimuthal wavelength of the Halbach arrays, which are separated by distance 2a, with r1, and r2 being the inner and outer radius of the ends of the Halbach array magnet bars.

Note that the force derivative depends on azimuthal wavelength only through the term exp(-2ka), leaving the choice of wavelength open for optimization. Whatever choice is made, however, the azimuthal spacing of the legs of each of the circuits must be chosen to match it. Note also that in-phase elements of the circuits, i.e., those elements that are spaced one-half wavelength azimuthally from each other, may be connected in series, using a lumped inductance load, where this is appropriate, that is equal to the sum of the inductance needed for each circuit if alone. Under some circumstances, the self and mutual inductances of the circuits themselves are sufficient, so that no extra inductance loading elements are required.

As an example of the level of force derivative that is possible from even a small element, consider the following set of parameters:

B0 = 1.0 Tesla; L0 = 10-6 hy/circuit; m = 40; r2 = .05 m.; r1/r2 = 1/3

Finding: [d<F>dx]x=03.56×105N m-1exp(-2ka)((2030 lbs/inch exp(-2ka))

Another embodiment pertains to an improved magnetic bearing element in the form of a radially and axially stable bearing "cartridge" employing, for radial stability, two radially stable, axially unstable permanent-magnet-excited bearing elements whose axial forces oppose and balance each other out, thus establishing a metastable equilibrium for axial displacements. Axial stability is provided by means described below.

Figures 2A and 3A indicate equivalent elements with identical numbers. The figures show a cartridge-type element 20 which can provide strong radially centering forces, while remaining axially stable (above a critical operating speed) with minimal power losses as long as the cartridge 20 is not called on to provide a substantial net axial force. This latter requirement would be automatically fulfilled were two such cartridges used to support the two ends of a horizontal rotating shaft (such as the two ends of the shaft of an electric motor). For a vertically oriented system, axially stable vertical levitation could be provided by one or more opposing bearing elements whose radially unstable force derivatives are by design chosen to be smaller than the radial stabilizing force derivatives provided by the cartridge (or cartridges, if two are used). In this latter case, as shown in Figure 2A, to insure that the centering element (i.e., spatially periodic magnetic arrays such as Halbach arrays 22 and 24 and associated inductive circuit array 26) does not experience any appreciable axial load, the cartridge is supported vertically by low compliance springs 28 and 29. These are adjusted so as to support the weight of the cartridge when it is centered vertically with respect to its rotating elements, i.e. when the inductive circuit array 26 is midway between the two Halbach Arrays 22, 24. If now small deviations from this position occur during operation (for example, as a result of temperature variations that affect the levitating power of the repelling bearing elements) the low compliance springs 28, 29 will adjust to the new position with a minimal axial force, thus with minimal increase in the power dissipation by the inductive circuit array. To insure that the required radial centering force is provided by the bearing cartridge, it is restrained radially by sliding-fit retainers 30 (or a slip-fit cylinder, or the equivalent) as shown in figures 2B and 3B.

A key point to recognize is that by the use of opposed radially stable permanent magnet elements 32 and 33 operated at their point of metastable equilibrium (i.e., when centered geometrically), the axial stabilizing element is only called on to provide an axially centering force derivative that exceeds the axially destabilizing force derivative from the radially stable bearing pair. At the exact metastable equilibrium point no axial force is required to accomplish this result, thus the resistive power dissipated in the stabilizer will be "zero". For small deviations from equilibrium the resistive power dissipation will be non-zero but correspondingly small. This situation is to be contrasted with one where a single Halbach array and inductive circuit is used to provide axial stability against the axially destabilizing force derivative of a radially stable magnetic bearing element. In this case the stabilizer must provide a continuous force in opposition to the bearing element, thus will dissipate power continually.

In applications, such as vehicular ones, where short-duration vertical accelerations might occur, the low-compliance supporting springs might be augmented by "shock-absorber-type" elements 28, 29 These would transmit short duration vertical accelerations to the cartridge, while producing no net vertical force at equilibrium. In this way the strong axial force derivative associated with the Halbach arrays in interaction with the inductive circuit elements could absorb impulsive axial forces with only a momentarily increased power loss.

Note also that, although in the above embodiments, strong axial force derivatives are produced, the concept can also be applied to create strong radial force derivatives, again with vanishing induced currents and resistive power losses at the equilibrium position. As shown in figure 4, all that is required is that the spatially periodic magnetic arrays be made in the form of concentric cylinder magnetic arrays 40 and 42, with the inner face of the outer cylinder 40 carrying one array, and the outer face of the inner cylinder 42 carrying the other array. The inductive circuits then lie on a cylinder 44 at a radius corresponding to the null point for the radial magnetic field that exists between the two arrays 40, 42. The concentric cylinder magnetic arrays 40 and 42 are connected to a shaft 48 by a support 50. The cylindrical inductive circuit array 44 is supported by a support structure 46. As in the other embodiments, either the magnet arrays can be rotating, with the windings stationary, or vice-versa.

Thus, for the bearing systems described in the invention to operate successfully, mechanical or other means must be provided to maintain stability when the rotating element is at rest, or when rotating below a low critical speed determined by the design. To accomplish this end various elements can be used, whereby centering elements act below a critical speed, and are thereafter disengaged, for example by centrifugal action. A centrifugally disengaging mechanical bearing is shown schematically in Figure 5. It is comprises an outer (rotating) element 52, spring elements 54, and retainer quadrants 56. Retainers 56 remain in contact with the outer race 58 of a ball bearing, the inner race 60 of which is non-rotating and which is held in position by shaft 62, which is similar to the shafts 14 in Figure 1A and shaft 48 in Figure 4. As shown, a ball bearing acts on the rotating element at zero or slow speeds, and then is disengaged by the action of the spring-like elements 54 that expand under the influence of centrifugal forces. Other means for achieving this end will be apparent to those skilled in the art. As a part of the present invention, it should be recognized that disengaging mechanical elements of the type described can have a dual function. They not only can function to maintain stability while the rotating element is spun up from zero speed, but if properly designed, they can act as "backup" bearings to accommodate momentary accelerations such as from seismic effects (in stationary systems) or road shocks in mobile systems.

Changes and modifications in the specifically described embodiments can be carried out without departing from the scope of the invention, which is intended to be limited by the scope of the appended claims.


Anspruch[de]
Vorrichtung, die folgendes umfasst: eine erste räumlich periodische Dauermagnetanordnung (10), die eine erste Halbach-Anordnung umfasst; eine zweite räumlich periodische Dauermagnetanordnung (12), die eine zweite Halbach-Anordnung umfasst, wobei die genannte zweite räumlich periodische Dauermagnetanordnung mit der genannten ersten räumlich periodischen Dauermagnetanordnung fest verbunden und von der genannten ersten räumlich periodischen Dauermagnetanordnung räumlich getrennt ist, wobei die genannte erste Halbach-Anordnung und die genannte zweite Halbach-Anordnung geometrisch identisch sind, so dass sie die gleiche Anzahl von Magneten und die gleiche Polanzahl aufweisen, so dass ihre Felder die gleiche azimutale räumliche Periodizität aufweisen; eine Leiteranordnung (16), die beweglich zwischen der genannten ersten räumlich periodischen Dauermagnetanordnung (10) und der genannten zweiten räumlich periodischen Dauermagnetanordnung (12) angeordnet ist, wobei die genannte Leiteranordnung eine Mehrzahl von Induktionskreisen (16) umfasst, und wobei entweder die genannte erste räumlich periodische Dauermagnetanordnung oder die genannte zweite räumlich periodische Dauermagnetanordnung (10, 12) gemeinsam mit der genannten Leiteranordnung (16) ein drehbares Element bildet, und wobei die andere Anordnung ortsfest ist; wobei die azimutalen Magnetkomponenten der genannten ersten Halbach-Anordnung und die azimutalen Magnetkomponenten der genannten zweiten Halbach-Anordnung eine Gleichgewichtsposition dazwischen hinzufügen, wobei die genannte erste Halbach-Anordnung und die genannte zweite Halbach-Anordnung gemeinsam aus einer ersten Gruppe oder einer zweiten Gruppe ausgewählt werden, wobei die genannte erste Gruppe aus zwei konzentrischen Zylindern (40, 42) besteht, und wobei die genannte zweite Gruppe aus zwei planaren Anordnungen (10, 12) besteht, wobei bei einer Auswahl der genannten ersten Gruppe, die genannten zwei konzentrischen Zylinder azimutal im Verhältnis zueinander ausgerichtet werden, so dass sich ihre radialen Magnetkomponenten an der genannten Gleichgewichtsposition gegenseitig aufheben, wobei bei einer Auswahl der genannten zweiten Gruppe die genannten zwei planaren Anordnungen im Verhältnis zueinander azimutal ausgerichtet sind, so dass sie zueinander hin zeigen, und so dass sich ihre axialen Komponenten an der genannten Gleichgewichtsposition gegenseitig aufheben; und eine Einrichtung (52 - 60), die dazu dienen, das genannte drehbare Element in einem stabilen Gleichgewicht zu halten, bis das genannte drehbare Element eine kritische Winkelgeschwindigkeit überschritten hat, wobei die genannte Leiteranordnung (16) an der genannten Gleichgewichtsposition zwischen der genannten ersten Halbach-Anordnung (10) und der genannten zweiten Halbach-Anordnung (12) nahezu einen Nullfluss abfängt, wobei die ohmschen Widerstandsverluste in der genannten Leiteranordnung nahezu auf Null reduziert werden, wobei die genannte Vorrichtung axial symmetrisch ist. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die genannte Leiteranordnung aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt wird, die eine planare Leiteranordnung (26) und eine zylindrische Leiteranordnung (44) aufweist. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die genannte Mehrzahl von Induktionskreisen (16) Schaltungen mit induktiver Belastung umfasst. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei diese ferner Dauermagnetelemente (32, 33) umfasst, die fest an der genannten ersten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung und der genannten zweiten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung angebracht ist, wobei die genannten Dauermagnetelemente so angeordnet sind, dass an einer axialen Position ein Kraftgleichgewicht mit externen Kräften (z.B. Schwerkraft) erreicht wird, welche der Position entspricht, an der die genannten ersten und zweiten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnungen symmetrisch oberhalb und unterhalb der genannten planaren Leiteranordnung liegen. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei jede der genannten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnungen (10, 12) so gestaltet ist, dass sie eine Kraftableitung

[d<F>dx]x=0 erzeugt, bestimmt durch die Formel [d<F>dx]x=08r22B02L0[1-r1r2]2 exp(-2ka)Nm-1

wobei B0 die Spitzenstärke des Felds an der inneren Oberfläche jeder räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung bezeichnet, wobei L0 die Induktanz des genannten Induktionskreises bezeichnet,

wobei m für die Anzahl der Schaltungen in der genannten planaren Leiteranordnung steht, und wobei k gleich 2&pgr;/&lgr; ist,

wobei &lgr; die mittlere azimutale Wellenlänge der genannten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung bezeichnet, die durch einen Abstand 2a getrennt sind, wobei r1 und r2 dem inneren und äußeren Radius der Enden der Magnetstäbe der genannten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung entsprechen, wobei x die Stabilisierungsrichtung bezeichnet.
Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die genannten Induktionskreise (26) Wirkelemente umfassen, die in Reihe verbunden sind. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 6, wobei die genannten Induktionskreise (26) eine konzentrierte Induktanzbelastung umfassen. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die genannte zylindrische Magnetanordnung einen äußeren ersten konzentrischen Zylinder (40) und einen inneren zweiten konzentrischen Zylinder (42) umfasst, wobei die genannte räumlich periodische Magnetanordnung fest mit der Innenseite des genannten ersten konzentrischen Zylinders verbunden ist,

wobei die genannte zweite räumlich periodische Magnetanordnung fest mit der Außenseite des genannten inneren zweiten konzentrischen Zylinders verbunden ist, wobei die genannte zylindrische Leiteranordnung in einem Radius angeordnet ist, der dem Nullpunkt für das radiale Magnetfeld entspricht, das zwischen der genannten ersten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung und der genannten zweiten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung existiert.
Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Vorrichtung ferner ein Paar radial stabiler Dauermagnetlager (32, 33) umfasst, mit anziehenden inneren und äußeren Lagerelementen, wobei die genannten inneren Lagerelemente fest an der genannten ersten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung und der genannten zweiten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnung angebracht sind, und wobei die genannten äußeren Lagerelemente gemeinsam mit der genannten planaren leitenden Anordnung fest an einer Lagerpatrone (20) angebracht sind, wobei jedes Lager des genannten Paars radial stabiler Dauermagnetlager auf gegenüberliegenden Seien einer Einheit angeordnet ist, definiert durch die genannte erste räumlich periodische Magnetanordnung, die genannte planare Leiteranordnung (26) und die genannte zweite räumlich periodische Magnetanordnung. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 9, wobei diese ferner eine Mehrzahl von Stützfedern (28, 29) mit geringer Federung umfasst, die mit der genannten Lagerpatrone (20) und einer Stützstruktur verbunden sind. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 9, wobei diese ferner eine Mehrzahl von Zentrierelementen (30) umfasst, die fest mit der genannten Stützstruktur verbunden und so konfiguriert sind, dass eine Zentrierkraft auf die genannte Lagerpatrone (20) vorgesehen wird. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 9, wobei die genannte Mehrzahl von Schaltungen induktiv belastete Schaltungen umfasst. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 9, wobei jede der genannten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnungen drehbar ist, und wobei die genannte planare Leiteranordnung nicht drehbar ist. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 9, wobei jede der genannten räumlich periodischen Magnetanordnungen nicht drehbar ist, und wobei die genannte planare Leiteranordnung drehbar ist. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10, wobei die genannte Mehrzahl von Stützfedern (28, 29) mit geringer Federung durch mindestens einen Stoßdämpfer verstärkt wird, der mit der genannten Lagerpatrone und einer Stützstruktur verbunden ist. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 11, wobei die genannte Mehrzahl von Zentrierelementen aus einer Gruppe ausgewählt wird, die eine Gleitsitzhalteeinrichtung und einen Rutschsitzzylinder aufweist.
Anspruch[en]
An apparatus, comprising: a first spatially periodic permanent magnetic array (10) comprising a first Halbach array; a second spatially periodic permanent magnetic array (12) comprising a second Halbach array, wherein said second spatially periodic permanent magnetic array is fixedly connected to said first spatially periodic permanent magnetic array and spaced apart from said first spatially periodic permanent magnetic array, wherein said first Halbach array and said second Halbach array are geometrically identical such that they have the same number of magnets and the same pole number so that their fields have the same azimuthal spatial periodicity; a conductor array (16) movably located between said first spatially periodic magnetic array (10) and said second spatially periodic magnetic array (12), wherein said conductor array comprises a plurality of inductive circuits (16), and wherein one of said first spatially periodic permanent magnetic array together with said second spatially periodic permanent magnetic array (10,12) and said conductor array (16) forms a rotatable element and the other is stationary; wherein azimuthal magnetic components of said first Halbach array and azimuthal magnetic components of said second Halbach array add at an equilibrium position between them, wherein said first Halbach array and said second Halbach array together are selected from a first group or a second group, wherein said first group consists of two concentric cylinders (40,42) and wherein said second group consists of two planar arrays (10,12), wherein when said first group is selected, said two concentric cylinders are oriented azimuthally with respect to each other such that their radial magnetic components cancel at said equilibrium position, wherein when said second group is selected, said two planar arrays are oriented azimuthally with respect to each other such that they are facing each other and that their axial components cancel at said equilibrium position; and means (52-60) for sustaining said rotatable element in stable equilibrium until said rotatable element has exceeded a critical angular velocity, wherein at said equilibrium position between said first Halbach array (10) and said second Halbach array (12), said conductor array (16) intercepts near zeroflux, wherein the resistive power losses in said conductor array are reduced to near zero, wherein said apparatus is axially symmetric. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said conductor array is selected from a group consisting of a planar conductor array (26) and a cylindrical conductor array (44). The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said plurality of inductive circuits (16) comprise inductively loaded circuits. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising permanent magnet elements (32,33) fixedly attached to said first spatially periodic magnetic array and said second spatially periodic magnetic array, wherein said permanent magnet elements are arranged so as to reach force equilibrium with external forces (e.g. gravity) at an axial position corresponding to the location where said first and second spatially periodic magnet array lie symmetrically above and below said planar conductor array. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein each said spatially periodic magnetic array (10, 12) is designed to produce a force derivative [d<F>dx]x=0 determined by the formula [d<F>dx]x=08r22B02L0[1-r1r2]2exp(-2ka)   N m-1

where B0 is the peak strength of the field at the inner surface of each spatially periodic magnetic array, L0 is the inductance per said inductive circuit, m is the number of circuits in said planar conductor array, and k is 2&pgr;/&lgr; where &lgr;, is the mean azimuthal wavelength of said spatially periodic magnetic array, which are separated by distance 2&agr;, with r1, and r2 being the inner and outer radius of the ends of the magnet bars of said spatially periodic magnetic array, wherein x is the stabilization direction.
The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said inductive circuits (26) comprise in-phase elements that are connected in series. The apparatus of claim 6, wherein said inductive circuits (26) comprise a lumped inductance load. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said cylindrical magnetic array comprises an outer first concentric cylinder (40) and an inner second concentric cylinder (42), wherein said first spatially periodic magnetic array is fixedly connected to the inner face of said outer first concentric cylinder, wherein said second spatially periodic magnetic array is fixedly connected to the outer face of said inner second concentric cylinder, wherein said cylindrical conductor array is located at a radius corresponding to the null point for the radial magnetic field that exists between said first spatially periodic magnetic array and said second spatially periodic magnetic array. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a pair of radially stable permanent-magnet bearings (32,33) comprising attracting inner and outer bearing elements, wherein said inner bearing elements are fixedly attached to said first spatially periodic magnetic array and said second spatially periodic magnetic array, and said outer bearing elements, together with said planar conducting array are fixedly attached to a bearing cartridge (20), wherein each bearing of said pair of radially stable permanent-magnet bearings is disposed on opposite sides of a unit defined by said first spatially periodic magnet array, said planar conductor array (26) and said second spatially periodic magnet array. The apparatus of claim 9, further comprising a plurality of low compliance supporting springs (28,29) connected to said bearing cartridge (20) and a support structure. The apparatus of claim 9, further comprising a plurality of centering elements (30) fixedly connected to said support structure and configured to provide a centering force on said bearing cartridge (20). The apparatus of claim 9, wherein said plurality of circuits comprise inductively loaded circuits. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein each said spatially periodic magnetic array is rotatable and said planar conductor array is non-rotatable. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein each said spatially periodic magnetic array is non-rotatable and said planar conductor array is rotatable. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein said plurality of low compliance supporting springs (28,29) are augmented by at least one shock absorber connected to said bearing cartridge and a support structure. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein said plurality of centering elements is selected from a group consisting of a sliding-fit retainer and a slip-fit cylinder.
Anspruch[fr]
Appareil comprenant: un premier réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique (10) comprenant un premier réseau de Halbach; un second réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique (12) comprenant un second réseau de Halbach, dans lequel ledit second réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique est relié de manière fixe audit premier réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique et espacé dudit premier réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique, dans lequel ledit premier réseau d'Halbach et ledit second réseau d'Halbach sont géométriquement identiques de telle sorte qu'ils ont le même nombre d'aimants et le même nombre de pôles de sorte que leurs champs ont la même périodicité spatiale azimutale; un réseau de conducteurs (16) situé de manière mobile entre ledit premier réseau magnétique spatialement périodique (10) et ledit second réseau magnétique spatialement périodique (12), dans lequel ledit réseau de conducteurs comprend une pluralité de circuits inducteurs (16), et dans lequel l'un desdits premier réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique avec ledit second réseau magnétique permanent spatialement périodique (10, 12) et ledit réseau de conducteurs (16) forme un élément rotatif et l'autre est stationnaire; dans lequel les composantes magnétiques azimutales dudit premier réseau d'Halbach et les composantes magnétiques azimutales dudit second réseau d'Halbach s'ajoutent à une position d'équilibre entre elles, dans lequel ledit premier réseau d'Halbach et ledit second réseau d'Halbach sont ensemble choisis parmi un premier groupe ou un second groupe, dans lequel ledit premier groupe consiste en deux cylindres concentriques (40, 42) et dans lequel ledit second groupe consiste en deux réseaux plans (10, 12) dans lequel lorsque ledit premier groupe est sélectionné, lesdits deux cylindres concentriques sont orientés de manière azimutale l'un par rapport à l'autre de sorte que leurs composantes magnétiques radiales s'annulent à ladite position d'équilibre, dans lequel lorsque ledit second groupe est sélectionné, lesdits deux réseaux plans sont orientés de manière azimutale l'un par rapport à l'autre de sorte qu'ils sont en regard l'un vers l'autre et leurs composantes axiales s'annulent à ladite position d'équilibre; et un moyen (52 à 60) destiné à soutenir ledit élément rotatif en équilibre stable jusqu'à ce que ledit élément rotatif ait excédé une vitesse angulaire critique, dans lequel à ladite position d'équilibre entre ledit premier réseau d'Halbach (10) et ledit second réseau d'Halbach (12), ledit réseau de conducteurs (16) intercepte un flux presque nul, dans lequel les pertes de puissance résistive dans ledit réseau de conducteurs sont réduites à presque zéro, dans lequel ledit appareil est axialement symétrique. Appareil selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit réseau de conducteurs est choisi parmi un groupe consistant en un réseau de conducteurs plan (26) et un réseau de conducteurs cylindrique (44). Appareil selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite pluralité de circuits inducteurs (16) comprend des circuits inductivement chargés. Appareil selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre des éléments d'aimant permanent (32, 33) attachés de manière fixe audit premier réseau magnétique spatialement périodique et audit second réseau magnétique spatialement périodique, dans lequel lesdits éléments d'aimant permanent sont agencés de façon à atteindre un équilibre des forces avec des forces externes (par exemple la gravité) à une position axiale correspondant à l'emplacement où lesdits premier et second réseaux d'aimant spatialement périodiques reposent symétriquement au dessus et au dessous dudit réseau de conducteurs plan. Appareil selon la revendication 1, dans lequel chacun desdits réseaux magnétiques spatialement périodiques (10, 12) est conçu pour produire une dérivée de force [d<F>dx]x=0 déterminée par la formule [d<F>dx]x=08r22B02L0[1-r1r2]2 exp(-2ka)   Nm-1

où B0 est l'intensité maximale du champ au niveau de la surface interne de chaque réseau magnétique spatialement périodique, L0 est l'inductance par dit circuit inducteur, m est le nombre de circuits dans ledit réseau de conducteurs plan, et k est 2&pgr;/&lgr; où &lgr; est la longueur d'onde azimutale moyenne dudit réseau magnétique spatialement périodique, qui sont séparés d'une distance 2&agr;, r1 et r2 étant les rayons interne et externe des extrémités des barreaux aimantés dudit réseau magnétique spatialement périodique, dans lequel x est la direction de stabilisation.
Appareil selon la revendication 1, dans lequel lesdits circuits inducteurs (26) comprennent des éléments en phase qui sont connectés en série. Appareil selon la revendication 6, dans lequel lesdits circuits inducteurs (26) comprennent une charge d'inductance à constantes localisées. Appareil selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit réseau magnétique cylindrique comprend un premier cylindre concentrique externe (40) et un second cylindre concentrique interne (42), dans lequel ledit premier réseau magnétique spatialement périodique est relié de manière fixe à la face interne dudit premier cylindre concentrique externe, dans lequel ledit second réseau magnétique spatialement périodique est relié de manière fixe à la face externe dudit second cylindre concentrique interne, dans lequel ledit réseau de conducteurs cylindrique est situé à un rayon correspondant au point nul du champ magnétique radial qui existe entre ledit premier réseau magnétique spatialement périodique et ledit second réseau magnétique spatialement périodique. Appareil selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une paire de paliers d'aimants permanents radialement stables (32, 33) comprenant des éléments de paliers internes et externes attracteurs, dans lequel lesdits éléments de paliers internes sont attachés de manière fixe audit premier réseau magnétique spatialement périodique et audit second réseau magnétique spatialement périodique, et lesdits éléments de paliers externes, conjointement avec ledit réseau de conducteurs plan, sont attachés de manière fixe à une cartouche de paliers (20) dans laquelle chaque palier de ladite paire des paliers d'aimant permanents radialement stables est disposé sur des côtés opposés d'une unité définie par ledit premier réseau magnétique spatialement périodique, ledit réseau de conducteurs plan (26) et ledit second réseau magnétique spatialement périodique. Appareil selon la revendication 9, comprenant en outre une pluralité de ressorts de support de faible élasticité (28, 29) reliés à ladite cartouche de paliers (20) et une structure de support. Appareil selon la revendication 9, comprenant en outre une pluralité d'éléments de centrage (30) reliés de manière fixe à ladite structure de support et configurés pour fournir une force de centrage sur ladite cartouche de paliers (20). Appareil selon la revendication 9, dans lequel ladite pluralité de circuits comprend des circuits chargés de manière inductive. Appareil selon la revendication 9, dans lequel chacun desdits réseaux magnétiques spatialement périodiques est rotatif et ledit réseau de conducteurs plan est non rotatif. Appareil selon la revendication 9, dans lequel chacun desdits réseaux magnétiques spatialement périodiques est non rotatif et ledit réseau de conducteurs plan est rotatif. Appareil selon la revendication 10, dans lequel ladite pluralité de ressorts de support de faible élasticité (28, 29) est augmenté d'au moins un absorbeur de chocs relié à ladite cartouche de paliers et d'une structure de support. Appareil selon la revendication 11, dans lequel ladite pluralité des éléments de centrage est choisie parmi le groupe consistant en un dispositif de retenue à coulissement emboîté et un cylindre à glissement emboîté.






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