The following invention refers to a method for determination
of suitable moment for insemination of lactating cows with implementation in the
field of cattle breeding and especially in insemination of cows.
Preceding state of the technique
Certain methods are known for inspecting of the conditions
and behaviour of the cattle especially lactating cows and the determination of their
According to RU 95 107 421 and RU 2 075 966 a method for
predicting of cows' insemination is known, in which 0.02% phouracyline solution
is implemented, added to boiling mixture of cervical secret and 4% sodium solution.
The mixture is observed for 30-60 seconds and if a stable light-red, rose coloring
is observed a conclusion of 100% insemination ability of the cow could be made.
A disadvantage of this well known method is the necessity
continuous control, which must be held up to the suitable moment for insemination.
This complicates and forces tests to be fulfilled by qualified
personnel, thus making the insemination procedure expensive.
According to US PAT 4 635 587 a method for determination
of the beginning of the estrous of cattle, especially for cows, by implementation
of apparatus, adhered to the base of the tail of the cow. Having in mind the common
behavior of the other cows is to attempt mounting the cow in heat, right after the
first mounting the position of the apparatus allow this event to be counted and
memorized. During the next milking period and after observing the apparatus data
and the time, passed after the cow's first mounting, the farmer must take the decision
for the suitable moment for insemination of the cow, i. e. for all cows (US 4 635
587 - abstract and 4 column, sentence 6-26). This method suggests using apparatus,
consisting of sensors and signal devices, which together with their position of
use on the cattle, could be easily damaged. More, this method, according to US 4
635 587, offers the farmer or the cattle owner information, concerning only the
time of beginning of the estrous.
Also US PAT 5 566 679 is known, where a method is offered
for observing and controlling the reproduction status of the cattle, especially
cows, by means of color detectors. By the means of one detecting path the beginning
of the cows' estrous is indicated. The detecting path incorporates a base element
of several chemical containing reservoirs, covered by suitable covering element.
These base elements are pressure sensitive and after pressure application release
chemical indicators, in one concrete case - chemiluminescent. The result is certain
coloring. According to this known method the management scheme consists of selecting
the appropriate color patch to match the reproductive status of the cow, for example:
- a) a first color of path identifying a cow's status as being in the interval
between parturition and first post-partum estrous cycle;
- b) a second color of path identifying a cow's status being artificially inseminated
and in the interval between first post-partum estrous cycle and the next estrous
- c) a third color of path identifying the status after artificial insemination
in the interval between first post-partum estrous cycle and showing the next estrous
cycle after insemination, wherein the selective management choice is form the group
consisting of re-insemination and therapeutic treatment; etc.
The detecting path with the specific indicators and colors
is usually attached to the cow on the dorsal midline, at approximately tail head
or between the pelvic bones. After that the cows are observed for discharging of
the indicator substance in response of pressure, applied by a cow mounting a cow
to which the patch is applied. In such cases this method, bases on the color difference,
provides the farmer or the cattle owner possibility for insemination decision.
It is obvious, that the known methods, according to US
5 566 679 and US 4 635 587, - the one, using the implementation of color detectors
and the one using electromechanical device, detect the mounting of a cow by another
cow and based on this fact detect mostly the beginning or the estrous period of
the cow, during which period an artificial insemination to be implemented.
US 5,873,323 discloses a method of determining, wether
a cow is in heat by analysing the milk with a sensor during milking of the cow.
Summary of the invention
The main goal of this invention is to offer a method for
determination of the suitable moment for insemination of lactating cows which should
be simple and allowing the owner or farmer to do the insemination with 100% guaranteed
This goal is achieved by the method, according to which
the cattle, especially lactating cows are observed and after the beginning of estrous
or during this period the cow is artificially inseminated. The fact, that the insemination
is done right after observation of spontaneous lactation is typical for this method,
and the milking is done after the insemination.
The advantage of this method, according to the invention,
is in the fact, that the determination of the most suitable moment for insemination
of the cow is based on natural physical reactions of the cow's organism without
implementation of special techniques. This simplifies the realization of the method
and makes the procedure cheaper.
Another advantage is, that according to the invention this
method allows the farmer or the owner to determine by specific biological sign -
spontaneous lactation during estrous - the most suitable moment for insemination
of the cow. This guarantees high percentage of successful inseminations and allows
implementation of the method even by average skilled personnel.
The breeder or owner, according to this invention, fulfills
the milking right after spontaneous lactation during estrus and insemination of
lactating cows. During the phase of spontaneous milking the cows' milking is individual
and spontaneous at biological 12 hour cycle.
Explanation of the figures included
Examples for using the invention
- Figure 1 - Scheme of the lactation after giving birth;
- Figure 2 - Illustrates the lactation of cows in technical milking regime in
6 a. m. and 6 p. m.
- Figure 3 - Illustrates the spontaneous lactation periods;
- Figure 4 - Shows the the 6 hours passive period;
- Figure 5 - Illustrated the cycle of cows with prolonged passive period;
- Figure 6 - Overall scheme, illustrating simultaneously the different cycles
and the passive periods;
In conditions of good feeding and taking care of the lactating
cows the udder will fill with milk approx. for avg. 12 hours, after that starting
spontaneous lactation. When milking at this moment and using a proper milking technique,
the lactation is at its maximum, the milking itself is easy and the milk quantity
The lactation maximum comes 65 days after the giving birth
date, as seen on Fig. 1, this is also the highest insemination ability.
With technological milking regime in 6 a. m. and 6 p. m.
an estrus coming succession could be observed, with following minimums and maximums
of lactation in every 12 hours (Fig. 2). The active phase (when the cow doesn't
allow sexual contact) is between 1-st and 6-th hour after the beginning of estrus
and the passive phase is between 6-th and 12-th hours of the estrus, when spontaneous
lactation is observed.
The balancing is from 12-th to the 18-th hour. In this
case the most suitable moment for insemination of the cow is the 12-th hour from
the beginning of the estrus, when spontaneous lactation from the udder is observed.
If during morning or evening milking the cow doesn't give
milk and the first symptoms of the passive phase are observed, than the maximum
lactation should be observed after 6 hours. During this period the cow allows sexual
contact (passive phase). The most suitable moment for insemination is the beginning
of the spontaneous lactation, when the optimal probability for fertilazation is
After the insemination individual milking (not in technical
schedule) should be done, after that the cow doesn't allow sexual contact. This
cycle is shown on Fig.3 where the passive phase is determined between 6 am and 12
am and 6 pm and 12 pm.
In case the cow shows symptoms of starting the passive
phase (i.e. starting of spontaneous lactation) 6 hours after morning or evening
milking, than the duration of the passive phase will be also 6 hours.
For example if the start of the passive phase is in 12
am. it will continue until 6 pm., meanwhile spontaneous milking is noted; the cow
could be inseminated and milked individually. If the start of the passive phase
is at 1 pm its end will be at 7 pm respectively, etc. (see Fig. 4).
In all cases the next milking is desirable to be after
12 hours. During this period of time up to the beginning of the spontaneous lactation
the cow is not to be milked.
If despite the fact that the cow is milked the maximum
milk quantity is not reached, the passive phase is prolonged for an undetermined
period, the ovulation is slowed down and there is lower percentage of fertilazation
The shown above is for cows with synchronized estrus. But
there are cows whose passive phase shows up immediately after the morning or evening
milking and is prolonged from 7 to 15 hours. That's why for such cows the next spontaneous
lactation could not be determined in advance, which imposes individual observation.
Part of the cows show spontaneous lactation symptoms 7-8
hours after the morning or evening milking when the udder is not filled with milk.
These cases are shown on Fig. 5 and concern cows with misbalanced estrus synchronization.
The variety of the different cycles of passive phase of
different cows is shown on Fig. 6, which is a summary schedule.