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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1290328 03.08.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001290328
Titel VERFAHREN UND VORRICHTUNG ZUR ABGASRÜCKGEWINNUNG UND EINE AUFGELADENE DIESELKRAFTMASCHINE
Anmelder Scania CV AB, Södertälje, SE
Erfinder SPONTON, Ove, S-610 75 Västerljung, SE
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60120967
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB, IT
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 16.05.2001
EP-Aktenzeichen 019347459
WO-Anmeldetag 16.05.2001
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/SE01/01084
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2001090560
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 29.11.2001
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 12.03.2003
EP date of grant 21.06.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 03.08.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse F02M 25/07(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse F02D 21/08(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention concerns a method and a device according to the preambles of claim 1 and 5, respectively. It also concerns a supercharged diesel engine including such a device.

DESCRIPTION OF PRIOR ART

In turbo-supercharged diesel engines it is previously known to recycle exhaust gases to the engine inlet in order to reduce contents of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases. Hereby the recycled exhaust gases function so as to lower the combustion temperature resulting in that a smaller amount of the nitrogen in the inlet air can be converted into nitrogen oxides. This process, usually called EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) has often been used in Otto engines as a relatively simple way of reducing the contents of harmful exhaust gas emissions. In diesel engines, on the other hand, this technique has not been employed to such a great extent depending i.a. on the fact that there are particular problems associated with these engines, making Otto engine solution not directly applicable in diesel engines.

One of these particular problems is that the combustion in diesel engines normally occurs with excess air. This indirectly results in need of transferring relatively large amounts of exhaust gases during a relatively large operating range of the engine in order to achieve the desired function. This problem is accentuated in case of an engine of the supercharged type, because in that case the pressure in the intake system of the engine is greater than the pressure in the exhaust gas system during a great part of the operating range.

Among known solutions to be used in supercharged engines, two main principle solutions can be distinguished, usually named "short route EGR" and "long route EGR". In the first mentioned case exhaust gases are taken from a position before an exhaust turbine in the exhaust system and is recycled to a position after an intake air compressor which is arranged in the intake system. In the latter case exhaust gases are taken from a position after the exhaust turbine and are recycled to a position before the intake air compressor. Both of these principle solutions have advantages and disadvantages.

Also US-A-5 611 203 and US-A-5 611 204 could be mentioned as previously known art with respect to this invention. These documents describe how exhaust gases are recycled to the intake in turbo-supercharged diesel engines through a venturi device or any other kind of ejector being placed in the intake channel. The system according to these documents uses the low static pressure prevailing in a certain section of the ejector device for pumping-in an EGR flow into the charged air.

In supercharged diesel engines having double exhaust collectors, some times only exhaust gases from one of these exhaust collectors are used as an EGR source which however results in an uneven EGR flow which in turn may affect the engine so that a correspondingly uneven operation will result.

In previously known devices where both exhaust collectors are being used as an EGR source indeed a more even EGR flow has been obtained, but at the fusion of the gas streams, a cross flow easily occurs from that channel where, at the moment, the highest pressure prevails, to the channel where the lower pressure prevails. This means that taken together, a lower pressure of accessible EGR gases will result and thus an increased power need in order to pump them into the intake channel of the engine.

There is also a risk for a negative effect on the turbo operation, since available energy may be reduced.

In order to avoid these problems it has been suggested to provide one-way valves in the channels up-stream the point of fusion, but this results in an unwanted pressure drop and lower reliability of operation and increased costs.

THE AIM OF THE INVENTION

It is an aim of this invention to provide a solution to or a reduction of the problems of the prior art. A main aim of the invention is thus to provide a simple, long life, economic and effective solution for EGR transfer.

According to the invention this is achieved in a method and a device according to the above through the features of the characterising portions of claim 1 and 5 respectively.

Through the invention it is achieved that EGR gases are accelerated in the contraction portion, resulting in an increase of the dynamic pressure during simultaneous reduction of the static pressure. By designing the contraction portion such that the accelerated EGR gases from the exhaust collector with the highest prevailing pressure are accelerated so that their static pressure correspond to the static pressure of the EGR gases from the exhaust gas collector with the lowest pressure, at the moment, no cross flow will occur and it will be secure to combine the channels. The leak flow between the collectors thereby has been eliminated through solely flow modifying measures and without any use of valves of the Reed type or the like. Further, a back flow from the upstream side is avoided.

Further, the transition portion is constructed such that the gas stream from that part of the contraction portion, where at the moment the highest pressure prevails, easily goes over to and adjoins with the "opposite" side during simultaneous continuous adjoining to its "own" side.

Further, the diffuser portion is constructed such that the gas stream continues to adhere and adjoin to the wall of the diffuser portion over its entire length without any vortex formation occurring through diversion of flow. This is obtained by testing and dimensioning of the different portions of the mixing section while considering for example the temperature gradient and the density gradient of the gas as seen in the length direction of the mixing section. As an example it could be mentioned that the cross-section of the transition portion is preferably elongated, essentially rectangular, or at least almost slot-shaped, with the dimensions, as an example for a six cylinder diesel engine having a cylinder volume of about 11 litres, ca 12 mm x 25 mm.

By shaping the wall separating the parts of the contraction portion as a plate having its down stream edge ended with a sharp edge or sharply cut-off edge, simple production and effective function is achieved.

Further features and advantages of the invention will come clear from the following description of embodiments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Embodiments exemplifying the invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the annexed drawings, wherein:

  • Fig. 1 diagrammatically shows an embodiment of the invention in connection with a four-stroke turbo-supercharged diesel engine,
  • Fig. 2a shows in more detail a device according to one embodiment of the invention,
  • Fig. 2b shows diagrammatically a device according to a variant of the invention, and
  • Fig. 3 shows pressure as a function of time in two exhaust collectors of a diesel engine.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically a combustion engine 1 of the piston engine type with a cylinder arranged in a straight inline cylinder block. The engine is a four-stroke diesel engine adapted for a heavy vehicle such as a truck or a bus. Each cylinder is in its respective cylinder head in a conventional manner provided with at least one intake valve for supply of combustion air and at least one exhaust valve for discharge of exhaust gases from the combustion. An intake channel 2 leads the intake air to the cylinders whereas two exhaust collectors 3 and 4 lead the exhaust gases from the cylinders to the turbine T and subsequently to the exhaust pipe.

Further, a transfer channel 5 is arranged for recycling EGR gases from the exhaust side of the cylinders to their intake side. The transfer channel 5 debouches in the intake channel 2 after a charging air cooler 6 and before a manifold to the cylinders. An EGR control valve 7 is positioned in the transfer channel whereby the transfer may be disconnected and possibly controlled to a certain extent. An EGR cooler is indicated with 8.

The transfer channel 5 debouches in a section 9 of the intake channel 2 wherein a venturi 9 is arranged in such a way that the flow of intake gases, which are charged by the compressor C, is modified so as to create a negative pressure at the passage of the venturi. The EGR gases are led-in in said section where thus a negative pressure prevails. By shaping the venturi device it could be ensured that an adequate negative pressure may be achieved so that a suitable amount of EGR gases can be transferred. Normally between 0 and about 20% of the exhaust gas amount is used as EGR gases.

Further there is arranged a mixing section 10 in the transfer channel wherein EGR gases from both exhaust gas collectors enter in order to be combined into one single channel 5.

In Fig. 2a the section 10 is shown in more detail, where the contraction portion 11 is shown, which thus is a more or less funnel-shaped channel restriction, and wherein the gases are accelerated. The contraction portion is comprised of a first 11' and a second 11" channel portion, each communicating with one of the exhaust collectors of the engine. The channel portions have at their inlets I1 and 12, respectively, essentially semicircular section and are successively transformed to rectangular cross section in the direction of the downstream end A of the contraction portion. At the inlets I1 and I2 also other sections may be possible, for example semi-elliptic.

Between the channel portions 11' and 11" there is arranged a partition wall 14 being comprised of a plate with, in this example, a downstream edge 15 terminated with a sharply cut-off edge in order to obtain good flowing properties at this position. 12 indicates the transition portion wherein the accelerated gas bridges the distance from the edge 15 to the opposite side at 17. This is indicated with interrupted line at 16 in case the highest pressure prevails in the portion 11', and thus the gas has to bridge the distance below, as seen in the figure, the edge 15 over to the underside (at 17) of the transition portion.

When the gases from the channel portion 11' fill the entire cross-section of the section 10, pressure gain will be obtained through expansion in the diffuser 13, so that the static pressure in the channel after the section 10 essentially is the highest pressure prevailing in any of the two exhaust collectors 3 and 4.

Fig. 2b only intends to show that a downstream edge 15' with sharp edge is possible instead of the sharply cut-off edge shown on Fig. 2a.

In Fig. 3 is diagrammatically shown, with a full line, the pressure in one of and with a dot interrupted line the pressure in the other of the exhaust collectors of the diesel engine in Fig. 1. As can be seen, this pressure varies between values P1 and P2, where the top value P2 occurs in connection with an exhaust pulse, and where P1 is typically about R of P2. A pure combination of the gases in the respective exhaust gas collectors would result in a pressure near 0,6 P1. The invention, however, makes it possible to effectively take advantage of the energy in the exhaust pulses which results in that an essentially higher pressure is obtained, which is indicated with the interrupted line, i.e. essentially all pulse energy is utilised.

Alternative constructions of the section 10 are possible within the scope of protection as defined by the appended claims. For example the contraction portions may extend in a certain angle relative to each other and the plate 14 may be exchanged with another separating element.

The cross section over the length of the section may also be different, and as an example, the parts of the contraction portions may be terminated with funnel sections having curved instead of straight sections:

The invention has been described at the background of a supercharged diesel engine but it is also applicable in other combustion engines wherein similar problems and conditions prevail.


Anspruch[de]
Verfahren zum Rückführen von Abgasen (EGR) in einem Verbrennungsmotor (1) mit zwei Abgassammlern (3, 4), wobei EGR-Gase über einen EGR-Kanal (5) einem Einlasskanal (2) des Motors zugeführt werden, um zusammen mit Einlassluft dem Motor (1) zugeführt zu werden, dadurch gekennzeichnet, - dass EGR-Gase von den beiden Abgassammlern (3, 4) in einem Mischbereich (10) des EGR-Kanals (5) vermischt werden, - dass in Flussrichtung betrachtet die EGR-Gase durch einen Einschnürungsbereich (11) wo sie beschleunigt werden, durch einen Übergangsbereich (12) und einen Diffusorbereich (13) hindurchgeführt werden, wobei alle Bereiche in dem Mischbereich vorgesehen sind, - dass die EGR-Gase von einem ersten Abgassammler in einen ersten Bereich (11') des Einschnürungsbereichs geführt werden, - dass die EGR-Gase von einem zweiten Abgassammler in einen zweiten Bereich (11") des Einschnürungsbereichs geführt werden, der bezüglich des ersten Bereichs des Einschnürungsbereichs seitlich angeordnet ist und von diesem bis zur stromaufwärts des Übergangsbereichs (12) liegenden Fläche getrennt ausgebildet ist. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die EGR-Gase zu einem Übergangsbereich mit einem länglichen, im Wesentlichen rechteckigen Querschnitt geführt werden.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zwischen 0 und etwa 20% der Abgasmenge als EGR-Gase zurückgeführt werden.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, 2 oder 3,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die EGR-Gase nach dem Mischbereich (10) zu einem Pumpelement, wie beispielsweise einer Venturianordnung (9), geführt werden, das in dem Einlasskanal des Motors angeordnet ist.
Vorrichtung für das Rückführen von Abgasen (EGR) in einem Verbrennungsmotor (1) mit zwei Abgassammlern (3, 4), wobei ein EGR-Kanal (5) derart angeordnet ist, dass er EGR-Gase in einen Einlasskanal (2) des Motors führt, damit diese dem Motor (1) zusammen mit der Einlassluft zugeführt werden, gekennzeichnet durch: - einen Mischbereich (10) in dem EGR-Kanal (5) zum Zusammenführen von EGR-Gasen von den beiden Abgassammlern, - wobei der Mischbereich in Strömungsrichtung betrachtet einen Einschnürungsbereich (11), einen Übergangsbereich (12) und einen Diffusorbereich (13) umfasst, - wobei die EGR-Gase von einem ersten Abgassammler in einen ersten Bereich des Einschnürungsbereichs geführt werden, - wobei die EGR-Gase von einem zweiten Abgassammler in einen zweiten Bereich (11") des Einschnürungsbereichs geführt werden, der bezüglich des ersten Bereichs des Einschnürungsbereichs seitlich angeordnet ist und von diesem bis zur stromaufwärts liegenden Fläche des Übergangsbereichs (12) getrennt sind. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Übergangsbereich (12) einen länglichen im Wesentlichen rechtwinkligen Querschnitt aufweist.
Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 oder 6,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zwischen 0 und etwa 20% der Abgasmenge als EGR-Gase nutzbar sind.
Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 7,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass beide seitlich zueinander angeordneten Bereiche des Einschnürungsbereichs (11) zumindest über einen Teil ihrer Länge mit einer Platte (14) voneinander getrennt sind, deren stromabwärts liegende Kante (15) von einer im Wesentlichen scharfen Kante oder scharf abgeschnittenen Kante abgeschlossen wird.
Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 8,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass ein Austrittabschnitt des Diffusorbereichs (13) im Wesentlichen kreisförmig ausgebildet ist.
Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 9,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Bereiche des Einschnürungsbereichs (11) halbkreisförmigen oder halbelliptischen Querschnitt aufweisen.
Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 10,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie ein EGR-Steuerventil (7) aufweist.
Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 10,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie eine EGR-Venturianordnung (9) aufweist, die in dem Einlasskanal des Motors angeordnet ist.
Aufgeladener Dieselmotor,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass er eine Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 12 aufweist.
Anspruch[en]
Method of exhaust gas recycling (EGR) in a combustion engine (1) having two exhaust collectors (3, 4), wherein EGR gases over an EGR channel (5) are supplied to an intake channel (2) of the engine in order to be led to the engine (1) together with the intake air, characterized in - that EGR gases from the two exhaust collectors (3, 4) are combined in a mixing section (10) of the EGR channel (5), - that, seen in the flow direction, the EGR gases are led through a contraction portion (11)- where they are accelerated, a transition portion (12) and a diffuser portion (13), all portions being included in the mixing section, - that the EGR gases from a first exhaust collector are led into a first portion (11') of the contraction portion, - that the EGR gases from a second exhaust collector are led into a second portion (11") of the contraction portion, which is arranged sideways with respect to the first portion of the contraction portion and separated therefrom up to the upstream area of the transition portion (12). Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the EGR gases are led to a transition portion having an elongated, essentially rectangular cross section. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that between 0 and about 20% of the exhaust gas amount is recycled as EGR gases. Method according to claims 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the EGR gases after the mixing section (10) are led to a pump element such as a venturi device (9) which is located in the intake channel of the engine. Device for exhaust gas recycling (EGR) in a combustion engine (1) with two exhaust collectors (3, 4), wherein an EGR channel (5) is arranged to feed EGR gases into an intake channel (2) of the engine in order to be led to the engine (1) together with the intake air, characterized by - a mixing section (10) in the EGR channel (5) for combining EGR gases from the two exhaust collectors, - that the mixing section includes, as seen in the flow direction, a contraction portion (11), a transition portion (12) and a diffuser portion (13), - that the EGR gases from a first exhaust collector are arranged to be led into a first portion of the contraction portion, - that the EGR gases from a second exhaust collector are arranged to be led into a second portion (11") of the contraction portion, which is arranged sideways with respect to the first portion of the contraction portion and separated therefrom up to the upstream area of the transition portion (12). Device according to claim 5, characterized

in that the transition portion (12) has an elongated, essentially rectangular section.
Device according to any of the claims 5 or 6,

characterized in that between 0 and about 20% of the exhaust gas amount is arranged to be used as EGR gases.
Device according to any of the claims 5 - 7,

characterized in that both sideways arranged portions of the contraction portion (11) are separated over at least a part of its length of a plate (14) having its downstream edge (15) terminated by an essentially sharp edge or a sharply cut-off edge.
Device according to any of the claims 5 - 8,

characterized in that an exit section of the diffuser portion (13) is essentially circular.
Device according to any of the claims 5 - 9,

characterized in that the portions of the contraction portion (11) have semicircular or semielliptic sections.
Device according to any of the claims 5 - 10,

characterized in that it includes an EGR control valve (7).
Device according to any of the claims 5 - 10,

characterized in that it includes an EGR venturi device (9) which is arranged in the intake channel of the engine.
Supercharged diesel engine, characterized in that it includes a device according to any of the claims 5-12.
Anspruch[fr]
Procédé de recirculation des gaz d'échappement (RGE) dans un moteur à combustion (1) comportant deux collecteurs d'échappement (3, 4), dans lequel les gaz du système RGE, via un canal de RGE (5), sont amenés vers un canal d'admission (2) du moteur afin d'alimenter le moteur (1) avec l'admission d'air, caractérisé en ce que - les gaz du système RGE provenant des deux collecteurs d'échappement (3, 4) sont combinés dans une section de mélange (10) du canal de RGE (5), - dans la direction d'écoulement, les gaz du système RGE sont conduits à travers une portion de contraction (11) dans laquelle ils sont accélérés, une portion de transition (12) et une portion de diffuseur (13), toutes ces portions étant incluses dans la section de mélange, - les gaz du système RGE provenant d'un premier collecteur d'échappement sont amenés dans une première portion (11') de la portion de contraction, - les gaz du système RGE provenant d'un second collecteur d'échappement sont amenés dans une seconde portion (11 ") de la portion de contraction, qui est disposée latéralement par rapport à la première portion de la portion de contraction et est séparée de celle-ci jusqu'à la zone amont de la portion de transition (12). Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les gaz du système RGE sont conduits vers une portion de transition ayant une section transversale allongée, essentiellement rectangulaire. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que 0 à environ 20 % de la quantité des gaz d'échappement sont recyclés en tant que gaz du système RGE. Procédé selon les revendications 1, 2 ou 3, caractérisé en ce que les gaz du système RGE, après la section de mélange (10), sont conduits vers un élément de pompe tel qu'un dispositif venturi (9) qui est situé dans le canal d'admission du moteur. Dispositif de recirculation des gaz d'échappement (RGE) dans un moteur à combustion (1) comportant deux collecteurs d'échappement (3, 4), dans lequel un canal de RGE (5) est monté pour amener les gaz du système RGE dans un canal d'admission (2) du moteur afin d'alimenter le moteur (1) avec l'air d'admission, caractérisé : - par une section de mélange (10) dans le canal de RGE (5), destinée à combiner les gaz du système RGE provenant des deux collecteurs d'échappement, - en ce que la section de mélange comprend, en considérant la direction de l'écoulement, une portion de contraction (11), une portion de transition (12) et une portion de diffuseur (13), - en ce que les gaz du système RGE provenant d'un premier collecteur d'échappement sont disposés de façon à être amenés dans une première portion de la portion de contraction, - en ce que les gaz du système RGE provenant d'un second collecteur d'échappement sont disposés pour être amenés dans une seconde portion (11") de la portion de contraction, qui est disposée latéralement par rapport à la première portion de contraction et séparée de celle-ci jusqu'à la zone amont de la portion de transition (12). Dispositif selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que la portion de transition (12) présente une section transversale allongée, essentiellement rectangulaire. Dispositif selon l'une des revendications 5 ou 6, caractérisé en ce qu'entre 0 et environ 20 % de la quantité des gaz d'échappement sont prévus pour être utilisés comme gaz du système RGE. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 7, caractérisé en ce que les deux portions disposées latéralement de la portion de contraction (11) sont séparées sur au moins une partie de sa longueur par une plaque (14) dont le bord aval (15) se termine par une arête sensiblement vive ou un bord à découpe vive. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 8, caractérisé en ce qu'une section de sortie de la portion de diffuseur (13) est essentiellement circulaire. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 9, caractérisé en ce que les portions de la portion de contraction (11) ont des sections semi-circulaires ou semi-elliptiques. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 10, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend une vanne (7) de commande de RGE. Dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 10, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend un dispositif venturi (9) de RGE qui est disposé dans le canal d'admission du moteur. Moteur diesel suralimenté, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend un dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 12.






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