PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0902307 28.12.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000902307
Titel Optischer Wellenleiter mit niedriger Dämpfung
Anmelder Corning Inc., Corning, N.Y., US
Erfinder Jones, c/o Corning Inc., Peter Christopher, Corning, NY 14831, US;
Ma, c/o Corning Incorporated, Daiping, Corning, NY 14831, US;
Smith, c/o Corning Incorporated, David Kinney, Corning, NY 14831, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69836402
Vertragsstaaten AT, CH, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IT, LI, NL, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 17.08.1998
EP-Aktenzeichen 981154388
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 17.03.1999
EP date of grant 15.11.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 28.12.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse G02B 6/036(2006.01)A, F, I, 20060524, B, H, EP

Beschreibung[en]
Background of the Invention

The invention relates to an optical waveguide fiber optimized for low attenuation. In particular, waveguide fiber attenuation is minimized for any core refractive index profile by proper selection of the core refractive index profile variables.

The dependence of waveguide properties upon the configuration of the refractive index profile has been described in the pioneering patent, U. S. 4,715,679, Bhagavatula. In that patent, core refractive index profiles are disclosed which provide for a variety of waveguide fiber properties, especially those having a zero dispersion wavelength shifted into the 1550 nm operating window and those which have a relatively constant dispersion over an extended wavelength range such as 1250 nm to 1600 nm.

In response to demands for specialized waveguide fibers, particularly with regard to high performance waveguides, investigation of waveguide core refractive index profiles has intensified. For example in U.S. patent 5,483,612, Gallagher et al., (the '612 patent) there is disclosed a core profile design which provides low polarization mode dispersion, low attenuation, a shifted dispersion zero, and low dispersion slope. Other core refractive index profiles have been designed to meet the requirements of applications which include the use of higher power signals or optical amplifiers.

A problem which may arise when a core profile is altered in order to arrive at a desired property is that the property is realized at the expense of another essential property. For example, a certain core refractive index profile design may provide increased effective area, thus reducing non-linear distortion of the signal. However, in this large effective area waveguide fiber, the bend resistance may be seriously compromised. Thus, core profile design is an exacting task, in which model studies usually precede the manufacturing stage of product development.

The interaction of the profile variables is such that one skilled in the art usually cannot, except perhaps in a very general way, predict the impact of a refractive index profile change upon such waveguide properties as, bend resistance, attenuation, zero dispersion wavelength, and total dispersion and total dispersion slope over a selected wavelength range. Therefore, studies of waveguide refractive index profiles usually include a computer simulation of the particular profile or family of profiles. Manufacturing testing is then carried out for those refractive index profiles which exhibited the desired properties.

In a continuation of the work disclosed in the '612 patent, a family of profiles was found which produced a high performance fiber having a zero dispersion wavelength above a pre-selected band of wavelengths and excellent bend resistance. A description of this work is to be found in US-B-6389208.

As further model studies and manufacturing tests were completed, it became clear that:

  • a particular family of profiles could be found to provide a selected set of operating parameters; and, most surprisingly,
  • the profiles of the particular family could be further adjusted to optimize attenuation without materially changing the operating parameters.

By way of further background, attention is directed to :

  • (a) US-A-5 483 612, which discloses, inter alia, a fiber satisfying the preamble of claim 1 below; and
  • (b) Y. Takahashi et al, "Attenuation and Bending Loss of VAD Dual Shape Core Dispersion-Shifted Fiber", International Wire and Cable Symposium Proceedings 1990, pages 18-22, which discloses, inter alia, a fiber satisfying the preamble of claim 2 below.

Definitions

  • The radii of the regions of the core are defined in terms of the index of refraction. A particular region has a first and a last refractive index point. The radius from the waveguide centerline to the location of this first refractive index point is the inner radius of the core region or segment. Likewise, the radius from the waveguide centerline to the location of the last refractive index point is the outer radius of the core segment. Other definitions of core geometry may be conveniently used.

Unless specifically noted otherwise in the text, the parameters of the index profiles discussed here are defined as follows:

  • * radius of the central core region is measured from the axial centerline of the waveguide to the intersection with the x axis of the extrapolated central index profile;
  • * radius of the second annular region is measured from the axial centerline of the waveguide to the center of the baseline of the second annulus; and,
  • * the width of the second annular region is the distance between parallel lines drawn from the half refractive index points of the index profile to the waveguide radius.

The dimensions of the first annular region are determined by difference between the central region and second annular region dimensions.

  • Core refractive index profile is the term which describes the refractive index magnitude defined at every point along a selected radius or radius segment of an optical waveguide fiber.
  • A compound core refractive index profile describes a profile in which at least two distinct segments are demarcated.
  • The relative index percent (&Dgr;%) is: &Dgr;  % = n 1 2 - n 0 2 / 2 n 1 2 × 100 , , where n1 is a core index and nc is the minimum clad index. Unless otherwise stated, n1 is the maximum refractive index in the core region characterized by a % &Dgr;.
  • The term alpha profile refers to a refractive index profile which follows the equation, n r = n 0 1 - &Dgr; r / a &agr;

    where r is radius, &Dgr; is defined above, a is the last point in the profile, r is chosen to be zero at the first point of the profile, and I is a real number. For example, a triangular profile has &agr;=1, a parabolic profile has &agr;=2. When &agr; is greater than about 6, the profile is essentially a step. Other index profiles include a step index, a trapezoidal index and a rounded step index, in which the rounding may be due to dopant diffusion in regions of rapid refractive index change.
  • The profile volume is defined as 2∫r1 r2 (&Dgr; % r dr). The inner profile volume extends from the waveguide centerline, r = 0, to the crossover radius. The outer profile volume extends from the cross over radius to the last point of the core. The units of the profile volume are %µm2 because refractive index is dimensionless.
  • The crossover radius is found from the dependence of power distribution in the signal as signal wavelength changes. Over the inner volume, signal power decreases as wavelength increases. Over the outer volume, signal power increases as wavelength increases.
  • The bend resistance of a waveguide fiber is expressed as induced attenuation under prescribed test conditions. A bend test referenced herein is the pin array bend test which is used to compare relative resistance of waveguide fiber to bending. To perform this test, attenuation loss is measured for a waveguide fiber with essentially no induced bending loss. The waveguide fiber is then woven about the pin array and attenuation again measured. The loss induced by bending is the difference between the two measured attenuations. The pin array is a set of ten cylindrical pins arranged in a single row and held in a fixed vertical position on a flat surface. The pin spacing is 5 mm, center to center. The pin diameter is 0.67 mm. During testing, sufficient tension is applied to make the waveguide fiber conform to a portion of the pin surface.

The bend test used in the model calculations was a single turn of waveguide fiber around a 30 mm diameter mandrel.

  • The effective group refractive index (ngeff) is the ratio of the velocity of light to the group velocity. The mathematical expression for ngeff in terms of electromagnetic field, refractive index, wavelength and propagation constant, derives from Maxwell's equations, or, more particularly, from the scalar wave equation.
  • The propagation constant &bgr;, also called the effective refractive index is an electromagnetic field parameter related to field propagation velocity and is found by solving the scalar wave equation for a selected waveguide. Because &bgr; depends upon waveguide geometry, one may expect that bending the waveguide will change &bgr;. An example of a scalar wave equation descriptive of the electromagnetic fields which are supported by a particular waveguide geometry is found in "Optical and Quantum Electronics", J. P. Meunier et al., 15, (1983), pp. 77-85.

Summary of the Invention

The present invention is therefore directed to an optical waveguide fiber having a core refractive index profile which produces a pre-selected set of operating properties and in which attenuation is optimized for that particular refractive index profile.

The novel core refractive index profile has a core region and a surrounding clad layer which together form a waveguide fiber. To confine light within the fiber, at least a portion of the core index profile must have a higher refractive index than at least a portion of the clad layer. Usually, the clad layer index profile is a single step, although useful designs which have a modified clad index have been made.

The core refractive index profile, defined above, is a refractive index value defined at each point along a specified portion of the waveguide radius. Thus the core index profile may be expressed as an index value n(r) at points along a radius beginning at 0, the center of the waveguide, and extending to a radius ro. This core index is designed to produce a pre-selected set of waveguide fiber operating properties. The operating properties each may have tolerance limits so that a family or set of core refractive profiles exists which produce these waveguide operating properties. Even in a model case, in which the operating properties each have a single value, a set or family of refractive index profiles which provide the properties can be found.

The set of core refractive index profiles, which provide the pre-selected waveguide operating parameters, may be specified by stating the amount of refractive index variation at any radial point r of the refractive index, &dgr;n(r), and the amount of variation of the total radius, &dgr;ro, which is allowable.

Through modeling studies of the family or set of allowable refractive index profiles, a subset of profiles have been found which have lower attenuation than the other members of the set. The waveguide properties which distinguish this highly preferred subset are the effective group refractive index, ngeff, and the propagation constant &bgr;. In particular, the highly preferred subset of lowest attenuation refractive index profiles have the lowest ngeff of any other members of the set, and exhibit the smallest change in the square of the propagation constant, &bgr;2, when the waveguide is bent. Any of a number of bending models can be used to calculate the bending induced change in &bgr;2. A bending model used in the case described here is one in which the waveguide makes one turn around a 30 mm diameter mandrel.

The lowest attenuation refractive index profile family or set has been found for step index single mode waveguide fiber, trapezoidal shaped index, rounded step index, and compound index profiles made up of combinations of these. Thus it is believed to be very likely that essentially every family or set of profiles has members which exhibit lowest attenuation and that these members are characterized by the lowest ngeff and lowest change in &bgr;2 in bending as compared to any other member of the set or family of profiles.

The refractive index profiles of the invention are ones in which N segments are defined. Each segment has a &Dgr; % value and a shape. Various widths and radii (see the definitions section above) of the segments are defined until the complete geometry of the compound core has been specified. For example the outer radius, measured from the waveguide center to the outermost point of the particular core refractive index segment, of each segment may be specified. A preferred band of operating wavelengths is 1200 nm to 1750 nm, which includes the operating windows near 1300 nm and 1550 nm.

In a first aspect of the invention the core has three segments. This aspect is discussed in detail below. The model used to calculate waveguide fiber structure and properties can be adapted to account for a refractive index dip on centerline. In the case where there is some dopant depletion from the centerline, the lower limit of &Dgr;1 % is decreased about 15%. Although dopant compensation can be made to eliminate centerline depletion, it is more time and cost efficient to adjust other profile parameters to compensate for the depletion. The definitions given above are followed in that r3 is the radius drawn to the center of the base of the third segment and that w3 is the width at the half relative index points of the third segment.

More particularly, a fiber having such a core is, according to the first aspect, as defined in claim 1 below

A preferred embodiment of this three segment core refractive profile is given in Table 1. The waveguide parameters in Table 1 provide the waveguide fiber properties set forth on Table 2.

According to a second aspect of the invention there is provided a fiber as defined in claim 2 below. A preferred embodiment of this fiber is given in Table 3. The waveguide fiber having parameters as set forth in Table 3 also give rise to waveguide fiber properties of Table 2.

Brief Description of the Drawings

  • Fig. 1 is a general illustration of the various profile types.
  • Fig. 2 is an illustration of the three segment compound core embodiment.
  • Fig. 3 is an illustration of the two segment compound core embodiment.
  • Fig. 4 is a chart of attenuation at 1550 nm versus effective group index.
  • Fig. 5 is a chart of attenuation at 1550 nm versus the bend induced change in &bgr;2.

Description of the Preferred Embodiments

Recent study of optical waveguide fiber core refractive index profiles has resulted in the description of a large number of core profiles which provide unique and advantageous waveguide properties. Examples are U.S. patent 4,715,679, Bhagavatula and U. S. patent 5,483,612, Gallagher in which the disclosed core index profiles were tailored to provide total dispersion, zero dispersion wavelength, and total dispersion slope which fit well with a particular fiber application. These investigations combined with additional work with various sets of refractive index profiles showed that it was possible to design waveguide fiber for very high performance systems. For example, waveguide fibers were developed which could accommodate telecommunication systems capable of high information transmission rates, using high power lasers, and optical amplifiers.

Researchers working with novel core index profiles, found that, in general a required set of waveguide functional properties could be provided by any of one or more sets of profile types. The decision as to which profile to use in the manufacturing process was driven by ease of manufacture, low cost, and insensitivity of the waveguide function to normal variations in waveguide manufacturing.

More recent work has shown that an additional factor must be included in evaluating which profile is best suited to the intended use and to low cost, high efficiency manufacturing. In particular, this recent work has served to identify sub-sets or sub-families of core index profiles which are unique in that they provide minimum attenuation compared to other members of the profile sets or families.

Experimentation with manufactured waveguides having core refractive index profiles in both the family and the low attenuation sub-family has shown that the attenuation difference is not due to manufacturing variability, Rayleigh scattering, or

  • OH content. The difference in attenuation between the profile set and the related profile sub-set stems from the details of the profile shape and so is termed "profile attenuation".

The novel feature of the core refractive profiles disclosed and described herein is that they are members of their respective minimum profile attenuation sub-sets.

Parametric modeling studies and experimentation with manufactured waveguide fibers showed that profile attenuation is correlated with effective group refractive index, ngeff and propagation constant &bgr;. More particularly, the studies showed that minimum profile attenuation waveguide fibers have minimum ngeff and minimum change in &bgr;2 in bending of the waveguide. This unexpected result provides another important tool in designing optimum core refractive index profiles for essentially all types of telecommunications uses.

The general type core refractive index profile of this invention is illustrated in Fig. 1. Note that the reference for the relative index is the clad layer index. The solid line index profile has a central point 24 of relatively low relative index percent, &Dgr;%. The profile portion of higher &Dgr;%, 6, may be, for example, an &agr;-profile or a rounded step profile. A flat portion of the profile, 14, is followed by another lower &Dgr;% portion, 18, whose relative index is negative. Another &agr;-profile or rounded step profile region, for example, 20, follows region 18. The dots, 22, indicate the profile may include additional annular regions. Dashed lines 8 and 10 indicate alternative profile shapes close to the core center. Dashed line 2, a step index profile, is an alternative to the &agr;-profile shape 6. Dashed lines 12 and 16 show alternative profile shapes for the negative &Dgr;% region of the profile.

Fig. 1 also shows the definitions of radii and width as the terms are used herein. Radius 3 of the center profile is the line which extends from the core centerline to the point at which the extrapolated profile 6 meets the x-axis. The radii of the annular regions surrounding the center profile are in general measured from the core center to the center of an annular region as illustrated by radius 7 of annulus 20. The width of an annular region is taken at the half &Dgr;% points as illustrated by width 5 of annulus 20.

Extensive modeling studies as well as manufacturing studies were done on the profile illustrated in Fig. 2. Table 1 lists the parameters of the low attenuation sub-set of the profile in Fig. 2. Table 1 Parameter Upper Limit Lower Limit &Dgr;1% 1.30 0.77 r1 (µm) 3.41 2.04 &Dgr;2% 0.16 0 &Dgr;3% 0.51 0 r3(µm) 10.21 5.53 w3(µm) 5.76 0 Inner Profile Volume 3.62 2.67 (%µm2) Outer Profile Volume 7.86 1.00 (%µm2)

The cases where either &Dgr;3 or w3 are zero are simply additional examples of optimum attenuation for the core refractive index illustrated in Fig. 3. The definitions of the parameters given in Table 1 are found in Fig. 2. The center &agr;-profile, having an &agr; of 1 is shown as curve 30. The refractive index on the centerline, 28, is less than the maximum index of &agr;-profile 30. Dashed line 26 indicates that the profile can be modeled in cases where the maximum index lies on the waveguide centerline. The relative index of 30 is &Dgr;1 % and the radius 31 is r1. The relative index of region 32 is &Dgr;2%. The relative index of the rounded step 34 is &Dgr;3 %, the radius 33 is r3, and the width 35 is w3. The core refractive index profiles having the parameters shown in Table 1, may produce the waveguide fiber functional properties given in Table 2. Over 700 core refractive index profiles taken from Table 1 were found to have the required functional properties stated in Table 2. It will be understood that not all combinations of Table 1 parameters will produce the functional properties stated in Table 2. Table 2 Waveguide Property Upper Limit Lower limit Dispersion Zero (nm) 1595 1575 Dispersion Slope (ps/nm2 - km) 0.10 - Mode Field Diameter (nm) 9.1 7.9 Cut off Wavelength (nm) 1500 - Pin Array Bend Loss (dB) 8 - Att 1550 (dB/km) 0.203 -

The waveguide properties shown in Table 2 are characteristic of a waveguide fiber for use in a multiplexed, high input power telecommunications system. This choice of example was made for convenience and in no way limits or defines the invention.

Another core refractive index profile shape was modeled to find parameter limits which would provide the waveguide properties given in Table 2. This second core refractive index shape is shown in Fig. 3. Again we choose to use the center profile shape in which centerline index 38 is less than the maximum index of &agr;-profile 40, where &agr;=1. Dashed line 36 indicates that the profile may be modeled without the lower refractive index on centerline. The core refractive index profile shown in Fig. 2 has two segments. The center segment 40 has relative index &Dgr;1% and radius 41, designated r1 in Table 3. The step portion of the index profile, 42, has radius 43, designated r2 in Table 3. The relative index of segment 42 is &Dgr;2%. Note that the outer end point of r2 is found by extrapolating the descending portion of segment 42 to the horizontal or x-axis. Table 3 Parameter Upper Limit Lower Limit &Dgr;1 % 1.25 1.02 r1 2.38 1.84 &Dgr;2 % 0.10 0.03 r2 10.54 6.50 Inner Profile Volume 3.35 2.76 % µm2 Outer Profile Volume 7.77 2.24 % µm2

All possible combinations of the parameters in Table 3 do not provide waveguides having the properties given in Table 2. However, in the model study over 200 refractive index profiles which were combinations of the Table 3 parameters did provide a waveguide having properties in the ranges shown in Table 2. The Fig. 2 index profiles in general produced lower dispersion slope, an average of about 0.01 ps/nm2-km lower, than the profiles exemplified by Fig. 3.

Experimental results from attenuation measurements on waveguides having four distinct profile types are shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Waveguide fiber types A, C, and D are variations on the profile shown in Fig. 2. All are dispersion shifted single mode waveguide fiber. The type A waveguide is further characterized in Table 1. Waveguide fiber B is a step index single mode waveguide fiber.

In Fig. 4, the attenuation at 1550 nm is charted versus the effective group index, ngeff, of each of the waveguides. The process was carefully controlled to remove any data scatter due to manufacturing variables. Data scatter due to -OH content effects and Rayleigh scattering were also removed. Thus, the clusters of points for each waveguide type show the change in attenuation due to a change in the index profile which is manifested as a change in the effective group index. The step index waveguides B, dark squares 44, show a profile attenuation variation of about 0.013 dB/km for the change in ngeff shown. Likewise the A waveguides, dark diamonds 48, show a 0.02 dB/km change, the C waveguides, dark triangles 46, show a 0.015 dB/km change, and the D waveguides, light triangles 47, show about a 0.017 dB/km change in attenuation.

Fig. 5 shows the same data except that the change in attenuation is charted versus change in &bgr;2 induced by making a single turn of the waveguide about a 30 mm mandrel. Here the B step index waveguides, dark squares 54, show about the same change as before. The A type waveguides, having a profile similar to that of Fig. 2, dark diamonds 52, show a much higher change in attenuation with bending change in &bgr;2 than do the other Fig. 2 type profiles, i.e., C type, dark triangles 56, and D type, light triangles 50.

The major finding of the experimental data set forth in Figs. 4 and 5 is that:

  • profile attenuation occurs for widely different profile shapes; and,
  • profile attenuation is closely related to ngeff and change in &bgr;2 with bending. Based in these results, one is led to the conclusion that profile attenuation is essentially a universal phenomenon.

Examples - Manufactured Waveguides of the Type Illustrated in Fig. 2

Two distinct draw preforms were made in accordance with the core refractive index profile shown in Fig. 2. The parameters of the two profiles are set forth in Table 4. Table 4 Parameter Draw Preform #1 Draw Preform #2 &Dgr;1 % 0.868 0.864 r1(nm) 2.773 2.781 &Dgr;2 % 0.023 0.025 &Dgr;3 % 0.258 0.216 r3(nm) 6.71 7.51 w3 (nm) 0.67 0.64 Inner Volume (%µm2) 3.02 3.08 Outer Volume (%µm2) 3.90 4.01

The optical properties of the waveguides produced from these draws preforms were well within the specified limits as shown in Table 3. Some of the waveguide measurements are shown in Table 5. Note the very low attenuation in both the 1310 nm and the 1550 nm operating windows. These waveguides are thus in the subset of low profile attenuation waveguides. Table 5 Waveguide Properties Draw Preform #1 Draw Preform #2 Dispersion Zero (nm) 1582.5 1584.5 Dispersion Slope (ps/nm2- km) 0.077 0.073 Mode Field Diameter (nm) 8.34 8.22 Cut Off Wavelength (nm) 1186 1190 Att 1310 nm (dB/km) 0.371 0.372 Att 1550 nm (dB/km) 0.199 0.201

These results clearly demonstrate the accuracy and integrity of the model and the excellent reproducibility of the process. The existence of a low profile attenuation sub-set had been established and a means to manufacture waveguides which lie in the sub-set have been set forth.

Although particular embodiments of the invention have herein been disclosed and described, the invention is nonetheless limited only by the following claims.


Anspruch[de]
Optische Wellenleitfaser für einen Einzelmode, die auf eine niedrige Dämpfung hin optimiert ist, mit: einem Kernglasbereich mit einem Brechungsindexprofil; einer ringförmigen Umhüllungs- bzw. Mantelglasschicht, die den Kernglasbereich umgibt und mit ihm in Kontakt steht, wobei die Umhüllungsglasschicht ein Brechungsindexprofil aufweist, in welchem mindestens ein Teil des mittigen Kernindexprofils größer als mindestens ein Teil des Umhüllungsschichtindexprofils ist; wobei der Kernbereich folgendes aufweist: einen Mittelabschnitt mit einem Außenradius r1, einem relativen Index &Dgr;1 % und einer Mittellinie mit einem relativen Index, einen ersten ringförmigen Abschnitt, der den Mittelabschnitt umgibt und mit ihm in Kontakt steht, mit einem relativen Index &Dgr;2 %, und einen zweiten ringförmigen Abschnitt, der den ersten ringförmigen Abschnitt umgibt und mit ihm in Kontakt steht, mit einem Mittelradius r3, einem relativen Index &Dgr;3 %, und einer Breite w3; wobei, &Dgr; 1 % > &Dgr; 3 % &Dgr; 2 % 0 ; und der Mittelabschnitt ein &agr;-Profil aufweist, für das &agr;=1 ist, das Indexprofil des ersten ringförmigen Abschnitts eine Stufe ist und das Indexprofil des zweiten ringförmigen Abschnitts eine gerundete Stufe ist; der relative Index der Mittellinie kleiner als oder gleich &Dgr;1 % ist und in dem Bereich von 0,2 % bis 1,3 % liegt, &Dgr;1 % in dem Bereich von 0, 77 % bis 1,30 % liegt, r1 in dem Bereich von 2,04 µm bis 3,41 µm liegt, &Dgr;2 % in dem Bereich von 0 bis 0,16 % liegt, &Dgr;3 % in dem Bereich von 0 bis 0,51 % liegt und w3 in dem Bereich von 0 bis 5,76 liegt; und einem inneren und einem äußeren Profilvolumen, wobei das äußere Volumen in dem Bereich von 1,00 %µm2 bis 7,85 %µm2 liegt, wobei, die Kombinationen von Profilparametern, die aus den zuvor beschriebenen Bereichen ausgewählt sind, einen Einzelmode-Wellenleiter schaffen, der ein totales Dispersionsgefälle ≤ 0,10 ps/nm2-km, einen Modenfelddurchmesser im Bereich von 7,9 µm bis 9,1 µm und eine kritische Wellenlänge ≤ 1500 nm aufweist, worin das Profilvolumen als 2 r 1 r 2 &Dgr; % r dr definiert ist, sich das innere Profilvolumen von der Wellenleitermittellinie, r = 0, zum Übergangsradius erstreckt, sich das äußere Profilvolumen vom Übergangsradius zum letzten Punkt des Kerns erstreckt und der Übergangsradius aus der Abhängigkeit der Energieverteilung im Signal bei einer Signalwellenlängenänderung ermittelt wird, wobei die Signalenergie über dem inneren Volumen abnimmt, wenn die Wellenlänge zunimmt, und die Signalenergie über dem äußeren Volumen zunimmt, wenn die Wellenlänge zunimmt, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass: r3 in dem Bereich von 5,53 µm bis 10,21 µm liegt, das innere Volumen in dem Bereich von 2,67 %µm2 bis 3,62 %µm2 liegt, und die Gegebenheiten der aus den zuvor beschriebenen Bereichen ausgewählten Profilparameter einen Einzelmode-Wellenleiter schaffen, der bei 1550 nm eine Dämpfung kleiner als oder gleich 0,203 dB/km, eine Null-Dispersionswellenlänge von 1575 nm bis 1595 nm und eine durch Pinfeldkrümmung induzierte Dämpfung kleiner als oder gleich 8 dB aufweist. Optische Wellenleitfaser für einen Einzelmode, die auf eine niedrige Dämpfung hin optimiert ist, mit: einem Kernglasbereich mit einem Brechungsindexprofil; einer ringförmigen Umhüllungsglasschicht, die den Kernglasbereich umgibt und mit ihm in Kontakt steht, wobei die Umhüllungs- bzw. Mantelglasschicht eine Brechungsindexprofil aufweist, in welchem mindestens ein Teil des zentralen Kernindexprofils größer als mindestens ein Teil des Umhüllungsschichtindexprofils ist; wobei der Kernbereich einen Mittelabschnitt mit einem relativen Index &Dgr;1 % und einem Außenradius r1 und einer Mittellinie mit einem relativen Index aufweist, einem ringförmigen Abschnitt mit einem relativen Index &Dgr;2 % und einem Radius r2, gemessen von der Mittellinie des Wellenleiters zur äußeren Kante des ersten ringförmigen Abschnitts, wobei der relative Index der Mittellinie kleiner als oder gleich &Dgr;1 % ist, der Mittelabschnitt ein &agr;-Profil aufweist und das Indexprofil des ersten Abschnitts ein gestuftes Indexprofil ist, r1 in dem Bereich von 1,84 µm bis 2,38 µm liegt, &Dgr;2 % in dem Bereich von 0,03% bis 0,10 % liegt und r2 in dem Bereich von 6,50 µm bis 10,54 µm liegt, wobei die Kombinationen von Profilparametern, die aus den zuvor beschriebenen Bereichen ausgewählt sind, einen Einzelmode-Wellenleiter schaffen, der ein totales Dispersionsgefälle ≤ 0,10 ps/nm2-km und eine kritische Wellenlänge ≤ 1500 nm aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass &agr;=1, &Dgr;1 % in dem Bereich von 0,86 % bis 1,25 % liegt, und die Faser ein inneres und ein äußeres Profilvolumen aufweist, bei dem das innere Volumen in dem Bereich von 2,76 %µm2 bis 3,35 %µm2liegt und das äußere Volumen in dem Bereich von 2,24 %µm2 bis 7,77 %µm2 liegt, die Kombinationen der aus den zuvor beschriebenen Bereichen ausgewählten Profilparameter einen Einzelmode-Wellenleiter schaffen, der bei 1550 nm eine Dämpfung kleiner als oder gleich 0,203 dB/km, eine Null-Dispersionswellenlänge von 1575 nm bis 1595nm, einen Modenfelddurchmesser in dem Bereich von 7,9 µm bis 9,1 µm und eine durch Pinfeldkrümmung induzierte Dämpfung kleiner als oder gleich 8 dB aufweist, worin das Profilvolumen als 2 r 1 r 2 &Dgr; % r dr definiert ist, sich das innere Profilvolumen von der Wellenleitermittellinie, r = 0, zum Übergangsradius erstreckt, sich das äußere Profilvolumen vom Übergangsradius zum letzten Punkt des Kerns erstreckt und der Übergangsradius aus der Abhängigkeit der Energieverteilung im Signal bei einer Signalwellenlängenänderung ermittelt wird, wobei die Signalenergie über dem inneren Volumen abnimmt, wenn die Wellenlänge zunimmt, und die Signalenergie über dem äußeren Volumen zunimmt, wenn die Wellenlänge zunimmt.
Anspruch[en]
A single mode optical waveguide fiber optimized to have low attenuation comprising: a core glass region having a refractive index profile; an annular clad glass layer surrounding and in contact with the core glass region, the clad glass layer having a refractive index profile, wherein at least a portion of the central core index profile is greater than at least a portion of the clad layer index profile; wherein, said core region includes, a center segment having an outer radius r1, a relative index &Dgr;1%, and a centerline having a relative index, a first annular segment, surrounding and in contact with the center segment, having a relative index &Dgr;2%, and, a second annular segment, surrounding and in contact with the first annular segment, having a center radius r3, a relative index &Dgr;3%, and a width w3; wherein, &Dgr; 1 % > &Dgr; 3 % &Dgr; 2 % 0 ; and, the center segment has an &agr;-profile, for which &agr;=1,the index profile of the first annular segment is a step, and the index profile of the second annular segment is a rounded step; the centerline relative index is less than or equal to &Dgr;1% and is in the range of 0.2% to 1.3%, &Dgr;1% is in the range 0.77 % to 1.30 %, r1 is in the range 2.04 µm to 3.41 µm, &Dgr;2% is in the range 0 to 0.16 %, &Dgr;3% is in the range 0 to 0.5 % and w3 is in the range 0 to 5.76 µm; and an inner and an outer profile volume wherein the outer volume is in the range 1.00%µm2 to 7.85%µm2; wherein, the combinations of profile parameters selected from the prescribed ranges provide a single mode waveguide having a total dispersion slope ≤ 0.10 ps/nm2 -km, a mode field diameter in the range 7.9 µm to 9.1 µm, and a cut off wavelength ≤ 1500 nm, wherein the profile volume is defined as 2 r 1 r 2 &Dgr; % r dr , , the inner profile volume extends from the waveguide centerline, r = 0, to the crossover radius, the outer profile volume extends from the crossover radius to the last point of the core, and the crossover radius is found from the dependence of power distribution in the signal as signal wavelength changes, with signal power over the inner volume decreasing as wavelength increases, and signal power over the outer volume increasing as wavelength increases,

characterized in that: r3 is in the range 5.53 µm to 10.21 µm, the inner volume is in the range 2.67%µm2 to 3.62%µm2, and the circumstances of profile parameters selected from the prescribed ranges provide a single mode waveguide having attenuation at 1550 nm less than or equal to 0.203 dB/km, a zero dispersion wavelength in the range 1575 nm to 1595 nm, and a pin array bending induced attenuation less than or equal to 8dB.
A single mode optical waveguide fiber optimized to have low attenuation comprising: a core glass region having a refractive index profile; an annular clad glass layer surrounding and in contact with the core glass region, the clad glass layer having a refractive index profile, wherein at least a portion of the central core index profile is greater than at least a portion of the clad layer index profile; wherein, said core region includes, a center segment having a relative index &Dgr;1% and an outer radius r1 and a centerline having a relative index, an annular segment having relative index &Dgr;2% and radius r2 measured from the waveguide centerline to the outer edge of the first annular region, wherein, the centerline relative index is less than or equal to &Dgr;1%, the center segment has an &agr;-profile, and the index profile of the first segment is a step index profile, r1 is in the range 1.84 µm to 2.38 µm, and &Dgr;2% is in the range 0.03 % to 0.10 %, r2 is in the range 6.50 µm to 10.54 µm wherein, the combinations of profile parameters selected from the prescribed ranges provide a single mode waveguide having a total dispersion slope ≤ 0.10 ps/nm2-km and a cut off wavelength ≤ 1500 nm, characterized in that: &agr;=1, &Dgr;1% is in the range 0.86 % to 1.25 %, and the fiber has an inner and an outer profile volume wherein the inner volume is in the range 2.76% µm2 to 3.35 %µm2 and the outer volume is in the range 2.24%µm2 to 7.77%µm2; the combinations of profile parameters selected from the prescribed ranges provide a single mode waveguide having attenuation at 1550 nm less than or equal to 0.203 dB/km, a zero dispersion wavelength in the range 1575 nm to 1595 nm, a mode field diameter in the range 7.9 µm to 9.1 µm and a pin array bending induced attenuation less than or equal to 8 dB, wherein the profile volume is defined as 2 r 1 r 2 &Dgr; % r dr , the inner profile volume extends from the waveguide centerline, r = 0, to the crossover radius, the outer profile volume extends from the crossover radius to the last point of the core, and the crossover radius is found from the dependence of power distribution in the signal as signal wavelength changes, with signal power over the inner volume decreasing as wavelength increases, and signal power over the outer volume increasing as wavelength increases.
Anspruch[fr]
Une fibre de guide d'ondes optique monomode optimisée pour présenter une faible atténuation, comprenant : une région de verre de coeur ayant un profil d'indice de réfraction ; une couche de verre de gainage annulaire entourant la région de verre de coeur et se trouvant en contact avec elle, la couche de verre de gainage ayant un profil d'indice de réfraction, où au moins une portion du profil d'indice du coeur central est supérieure à au moins une portion du profil d'indice de la couche de gainage ; où ladite région de coeur comporte un segment central ayant un rayon extérieur r1, un indice relatif &Dgr;1% et une ligne centrale ayant un indice relatif, un premier segment annulaire, entourant le segment central et se trouvant en contact avec lui, ayant un indice relatif &Dgr;2%, et un deuxième segment annulaire, entourant le premier segment annulaire et se trouvant en contact avec lui, ayant un rayon central r3, un indice relatif &Dgr;3% et une largeur w3 ; &Dgr; 1 % > &Dgr; 3 % &Dgr; 2 % 0 ; et le segment central a un profil en alpha, pour lequel alpha = 1, le profil d'indice du premier segment annulaire est un créneau et le profil d'indice du deuxième segment annulaire est un créneau arrondi ; l'indice relatif de la ligne centrale est inférieur ou égal à &Dgr;1% et se situe dans l'intervalle de 0,2 % à 1,3 %, &Dgr;1% se situe dans l'intervalle de 0,77 % à 1,30 %, r1 se situe dans l'intervalle de 2,04 µm à 3,41 µm, &Dgr;2% se situe dans l'intervalle de 0 à 0,16 %, &Dgr;3% se situe dans l'intervalle de 0 à 0,51% et w3 se situe dans l'intervalle de 0 à 5,76 µm ; et un volume de profil intérieur et un volume de profil extérieur, le volume extérieur se situant dans l'intervalle de 1,00%µm2 à 7,85%µm2 ; les combinaisons de paramètres de profil choisis dans les intervalles spécifiés fournissent un guide d'ondes monomode ayant une pente de dispersion totale inférieure ou égale à 0,10 ps/nm2/km, un diamètre de champ de mode se situant dans l'intervalle de 7,9 µm à 9,1 µm et une longueur d'onde de coupure inférieure ou égale à 1500 nm, où le volume de profil à pour expression r 1 r 2 &Dgr; % r dr , le volume de profil intérieur s'étend de la ligne centrale du guide d'ondes, où r = 0, au rayon de raccordement, le volume de profil extérieur s'étend du rayon de raccordement au dernier point du coeur, et le rayon de raccordement est trouvé à partir de la dépendance de la distribution de puissance dans le signal lorsque la longueur d'onde du signal change, la puissance du signal sur le volume intérieur décroissant lorsque la longueur d'onde croît, et la puissance du signal sur le volume extérieur croissant lorsque la longueur d'onde croît, caractérisée en ce que : r3 se situe dans l'intervalle de 5,53 µm à 10,21 µm, le volume intérieur se situe dans l'intervalle de 2,67%µm2 à 3,62%µm2, et les paramètres de profil particuliers choisis dans les intervalles spécifiés fournissent un guide d'ondes monomode ayant une atténuation à 1550 nm inférieure ou égale à 0,203 dB/km, une longueur d'onde de dispersion nulle se situant dans l'intervalle de 1575 nm à 1595 nm et une atténuation à l'essai de courbure sur rangée de broches inférieure ou égale à 8 dB. Une fibre de guide d'ondes optique monomode optimisée pour présenter une faible atténuation, comprenant : une région de verre de coeur ayant un profil d'indice de réfraction ; une couche de verre de gainage annulaire entourant la région de verre de coeur et se trouvant en contact avec elle, la couche de verre de gainage ayant un profil d'indice de réfraction, où au moins une portion du profil d'indice du coeur central est supérieure à au moins une portion du profil d'indice de la couche de gainage ; où ladite région de coeur comporte un segment central ayant un indice relatif &Dgr;1% et un rayon extérieur r1 et une ligne centrale ayant un indice relatif, un segment annulaire ayant un indice relatif &Dgr;2% et un rayon r2 mesuré de la ligne centrale du guide d'ondes à la limite extérieure de la première région annulaire, l'indice relatif de la ligne centrale est inférieur ou égal à &Dgr;1%, le segment central a un profil en alpha, et le profil d'indice du premier segment est un profil à saut d'indice, r1 se situe dans l'intervalle de 1,84 µm à 2,38 µm, et &Dgr;2% se situe dans l'intervalle de 0,03 à 0,10 %, r2 se situe dans l'intervalle de 6,50 µm à 10,54 µm où les combinaisons de paramètres de profil choisis dans les intervalles spécifiés fournissent un guide d'ondes monomode ayant une pente de dispersion totale inférieure ou égale à 0,10 ps/nm2/km et une longueur d'onde de coupure inférieure ou égale à 1500 nm, caractérisée en ce que : alpha = 1, &Dgr;1% se situe dans l'intervalle de 0,86 % à 1,25 %, et la fibre a un volume de profil intérieur et un volume de profil extérieur, le volume intérieur se situant dans l'intervalle de 2,76%µm2 à 3,35%µm2 et le volume extérieur se situant dans l'intervalle de 2,24%µm2 à 7,77%µm2 ; les combinaisons de paramètres de profil choisis dans les intervalles spécifiés fournissent un guide d'ondes monomode ayant une atténuation à 1550 nm inférieure ou égale à 0,203 dB/km, une longueur d'onde de dispersion nulle se situant dans l'intervalle de 1575 nm à 1595 nm, un diamètre de champ de mode se situant dans l'intervalle de 7,9 µm à 9,1 µm et une atténuation à l'essai de courbure sur rangée de broches inférieure ou égale à 8 dB, où le volume de profil a pour expression r 1 r 2 &Dgr; % r dr , le volume de profil intérieur s'étend de la ligne centrale du guide d'ondes, où r = 0, au rayon de raccordement, le volume de profil extérieur s'étend du rayon de raccordement au dernier point du coeur, et le rayon de raccordement est trouvé à partir de la dépendance de la distribution de puissance dans le signal lorsque la longueur d'onde du signal change, la puissance du signal sur le volume intérieur décroissant lorsque la longueur d'onde croît, et la puissance du signal sur le volume extérieur croissant lorsque la longueur d'onde croît.






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