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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1014534 22.03.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001014534
Titel Quellenumschaltsystem und -verfahren
Anmelder S & C Electric Co., Chicago, Ill., US
Erfinder O'Leary, Raymond P., Evanston, Illinois 60201, US;
Tobin, Thomas J., Northbrook, Illinois 60062, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69935060
Vertragsstaaten BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, LI
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 20.12.1999
EP-Aktenzeichen 993102706
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 28.06.2000
EP date of grant 07.02.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 22.03.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse H02J 9/06(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to source-transfer switching systems and more particularly to a high-speed control arrangement and high-speed switches to control the transfer of a load from one source to another with minimal transfer delays.

2. Description of Related Art

Source-transfer systems for electrical power distribution systems provide power delivery to a load by transferring the supply of the load from a first source to a second independent source when undesirable characteristics are sensed in the first source. One type of source-transfer systems utilize relatively lower-speed control systems and mechanical switches, for example, requiring in the range often to several hundred cycles of the source frequency to accomplish transfer of the load between two sources. These systems are arranged to operate in a "break before make" fashion such that the current is interrupted from one source to the load before the second source is connected. Another type of source-transfer system, illustrated in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,070,252 and 3,936,782, is utilized in a "make before break" mode to transfer a load between two sources by momentarily paralleling the sources when the sources are each viable.

Another type of source-transfer system denoted the "FasTran 25" utilizes high-speed vacuum switches operated by solenoids. The "FasTran25" system is stated to accomplish transfer within approximately 24 milliseconds and is described in publication DB770-512. dated August 1998, available from Joslyn Hi-Voltage Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio.

Yet another type of source-transfer switching system commonly utilizes solid-state switches, which can also be characterized as static transfer switches. The control arrangements sample the voltage waveforms of each source to detect when transfer between the sources is necessary, e.g. sensing outages and momentary interruptions as well as voltage sags and swells based on the source supplying the load being above or below preset levels. For example, see U.S. Patent Nos. 5,808,378 and 5,644,175.

Yet further examples of prior art switching systems are EP 0771059, US 5070252, US 5770897 and "High-speed transfer systems in flue-gas desulphuration plants", Brown-Boveri Review, vol. 74, no.6, June 1987, Baden, Switzerland. EP 0771059 operates to transfer via a conventional open transition with a time delay, while Brown-Boveri Review utilizes voltage comparison to perform short-time transfer.

While these arrangements may be useful and generally satisfactory for their intended purposes, the transfer systems of the prior art either require expensive solid-state switches or introduce delays in transfer times.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, it is a principal object of the present invention to provide a source-transfer switching system that utilizes a high-speed control arrangement and high-speed switches to control the transfer of a load from one source to another with minimal transfer delays.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a source-transfer switching system that does not introduce any intentional delay after a transfer decision has been made and before transferring the load from one source to another via the opening of one switch and the closing of a second switch.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a source-transfer switching system that accomplishes transfer between sources via an "open" transition, break before make, when severe disturbances of a first category are detected and that accomplishes transfer via a "closed" transition, which may involve a make before break condition, when less severe disturbances of a second category are detected.

According to a first aspect of the invention there is provided a source-transfer system of the type where a common load connection is supplied by one of two sources, the system comprising: two switches, each of said two switches having open and closed operative states and being connected to supply the common load connection through a respective one of the two sources; and control means for actuating said two switches by responding to predetermined transfer conditions to actuate opening of a first of said switches and closing of the second of said switches with no introduction of any intentional delay after detection of a transfer condition and such that paralleling of the two sources may occur, characterised in that said control means controls transfer between the two sources by first opening one of the switches and then closing the other of the switches when severe disturbances are detected like very deep voltage sag, and controls transfer between the sources via operation of the switches with no intentional delay when less severe disturbances are detected like shallow or moderate voltage sag.

According to another aspect of the invention there is provided a method for transferring a load in a source-transfer system of the type where a common load connection is supplied by one of two sources, the system comprising: two switches, each of said two switches having open and closed operative states and being connected to supply the common load connection through a respective one of the two sources; and control means for actuating said two switches by responding to predetermined transfer conditions to actuate opening of a first of said switches and closing of the second of said switches with no introduction of any delay after detection of a transfer condition and such that intentional paralleling of the two sources may occur, characterised in that the method comprises the steps of: controlling transfer between the two sources by first opening one of the switches and then closing the other of the switches when severe disturbances are detected like very deep voltage sag, and controlling transfer between the sources via operation of the switches with no intentional delay when less severe disturbances are detected like shallow or moderate voltage sag.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

The invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, will best be understood by reference to the specification taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in which:

  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram representation of a source-transfer switching system in accordance with the present invention; and
  • FIG. 2 is a block diagram representation of another common circuit configuration for which the source-transfer switching system of the present invention is suitable.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Referring now to FIG. 1, a source-transfer switching system 10 (system 10 hereafter) includes a controller stage 12 and switches 20, 22 (designated S1 and S2 respectively in FIG. 1). The system 10 supplies a load at 14 with an alternating-current waveform via either a first AC source at 16 or a second AC source at 18. The first and second AC sources 16 and 18 and the load at 14 as provided in an electrical power distribution system are typically multi-phase circuits which are represented in FIG. 1 by a one-line diagram. The system 10 via the controller stage 12 controls either the switch 20, S1 to supply the load at 14 via the first source 16 or controls the switch 22,S2 to supply the load at 14 via the second source 18. In one illustrative example, the switches 20, 22 are vacuum interrupters. The controller stage 12 may also be characterized as a transfer control arrangement.

The controller stage 12 samples the voltage waveforms of each source 16, 18, e.g. via respective sensing inputs at 24, 26 to detect when transfer between the sources is desirable, e.g. sensing outages and momentary interruptions as well as voltage sags and swells based on the source supplying the load being above or below preset levels. The controller stage 12 provides appropriate switch actuator signals at 28, 30 to control the operation of each respective switch S1 and S2 to accomplish the transfer with minimal delays. For example, assume that S1 is closed by the controller stage 12 via signals at 28 so as to supply the load at 14. If the controller stage 12 via the sensing input 24 senses that the voltage of the first source at 16 is exhibiting undesirable characteristics, the controller stage 12 via the control signals at 28, 30 opens S1 and closes S2 so as to transfer the supply of the load at 14 from the first source at 16 to the second source at 18. As used herein, the term "incoming" is used to describe the switch that will be closed to supply the load from its respective source (e.g. the second source at 18 and S2 in the illustrative example), and the term "outgoing" is used to describe the switch that is being opened to interrupt current from its respective source (e.g. the first source at 16 and S1 in the illustrative example).

In a preferred embodiment and in accordance with important aspects of the present invention, after a transfer decision is made, the controller stage 12 opens the closed switch and closes the open switch without any intentional delay. In this manner, the incoming switch may be closed before the current through the outgoing switch is interrupted, such that the sources 16 and 18 are momentarily paralleled. However, since the switch operating times are very short, e.g. less than 1-2 cycles of the AC source frequency (e.g. 50-60 Hz.), this does not present a problem since the overall control method normally keeps the sources disconnected and eliminates undesirable circulating currents. For embodiments where momentary paralleling of the sources may occur, the switches S1 and S2 are fault interrupters, i.e. having fault-interrupting capabilities.

While connecting the two sources is not generally advantageous where the sag is very deep, i.e. near zero voltage, due to the effect on the incoming source, the momentary paralleling is acceptable to achieve minimal transfer delays because the overall speed with which the system returns to an unfaulted state is desirable as defined by ITIC (formerly CBEMA) parameters and guidelines. Further, for shallow or moderate sags, connecting the two sources is actually advantageous because the sag on the outgoing source is immediately relieved, to some degree, due to the incoming source. For example, if the source impedance of the incoming source is about equal to the impedance between the system 10 and the fault on the outgoing source, then the sag is approximately reduced by one-half during the period that the sources are connected together. Actually, the system 10 then behaves similarly to systems which are predicated on running with the two sources normally connected together. Accordingly, the overall transfer profile of the system 10 can restore the system to an unfaulted condition in less than 1-2 cycles of the AC source frequency (e.g. 50-60 Hz.).

In another embodiment where the outgoing switch is actuated to open before the incoming switch is tripped to close, such that the current in the outgoing switch is interrupted before the incoming switch is closed, the overall transfer time is still typically less than four cycles.

In yet another embodiment, the system 10 accomplishes transfer between sources via an "open" transition, break before make, when severe disturbances of a first category are detected and accomplishes transfer via a "closed" transition, which may involve make before break conditions, when less severe disturbances of a second category are detected.

Considering other circuit configurations for which the present invention is suitable and referring now additionally to FIG. 2, a controller 112 of a source-transfer switching system 110 controls three switches S1, 120, S2, 122 and S3 121 via respective control signal paths 128, 130, and 132. The specific illustrative circuit configuration of FIG. 2 implements a split-bus primary selective system, which is used to split the load during normal operation. Specifically, in normal operation, a first source 16 supplies a first load circuit 114 via S1 and a second source 18 supplies a second load circuit 116 via S2, with S3 normally being open and functioning as a bus-tie switch. Thus, each of the sources 16, 18 is a preferred source for its respective load circuit 114, 116 and each is an alternate source for the other load circuit, 116, 114 respectively. When one of the sources at 16, 18 is lost or exhibits undesirable characteristics, the controller 112, in accordance with the various control embodiments discussed hereinbefore, opens one of the switches S1 or S2 and closes the switch S3 such that the load circuits 114, 116 are supplied from one of the sources at 16 or 18. For example, if the source 16 is lost, S1, 120 will be opened and S3, 121, the bus-tie switch, will be closed to supply the load circuit 114 while S2, 122 remains closed and continues to supply the load circuit 116.

While there have been illustrated and described various embodiments of the present invention, it will be apparent that various changes and modifications will occur to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, it is intended in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications that fall within the scope of the present invention.


Anspruch[de]
Quellentransfersystem (10) der Bauart, bei der ein gemeinsamer Lastanschluss (14) von einer von zwei Quellen (16, 18) gespeist wird, wobei das System umfasst: zwei Schalter (20, 22), wobei jeder der beiden Schalter einen offenen und einen geschlossenen Betriebszustand hat und so geschaltet ist, dass der gemeinsame Lastanschluss (14) über eine entsprechende Quelle der zwei Quellen gespeist wird; und eine Steuervorrichtung (12), die die beiden Schalter (20, 22) betätigt, indem sie auf vorbestimmte Transferbedingungen anspricht und das Öffnen eines ersten der beiden Schalter und das Schließen des zweiten Schalters vornimmt, ohne dass irgendeine beabsichtigte Verzögerung nach dem Erkennen einer Transferbedingung eingeführt wird, so dass ein Parallelbetrieb der beiden Quellen vorkommen kann, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Steuervorrichtung (12) den Transfer zwischen den beiden Quellen steuert, indem sie zuerst einen der Schalter öffnet und anschließend den zweiten Schalter schließt, wenn ernsthafte Störungen erkannt werden, beispielsweise sehr tiefe Spannungseinbrüche, und dass sie den Transfer zwischen den beiden Quellen über das Betätigen der Schalter ohne eine beabsichtigte Verzögerung steuert, wenn weniger gravierende Störungen erkannt werden, beispielsweise geringe oder moderate Spannungseinbrüche. Verfahren zum Transfer einer Last in einem Quellentransfersystem (10) der Bauart, bei der ein gemeinsamer Lastanschluss (14) von einer von zwei Quellen (16, 18) gespeist wird, wobei das System umfasst: zwei Schalter (20, 22), wobei jeder der beiden Schalter einen offenen und einen geschlossenen Betriebszustand hat und so geschaltet ist, dass der gemeinsame Lastanschluss (14) über eine entsprechende Quelle der zwei Quellen gespeist wird; und eine Steuervorrichtung (12), die die beiden Schalter (20, 22) betätigt, indem sie auf vorbestimmte Transferbedingungen anspricht und das Öffnen eines ersten der beiden Schalter und das Schließen des zweiten Schalters vornimmt, ohne dass irgendeine beabsichtigte Verzögerung nach dem Erkennen einer Transferbedingung eingeführt wird, so dass ein Parallelbetrieb der beiden Quellen vorkommen kann, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren die Schritte umfasst: das Steuern des Transfers zwischen den beiden Quellen, indem zuerst einer der beiden Schalter geöffnet wird und anschließend der andere Schalter geschlossen wird, wenn ernsthafte Störungen erkannt werden, beispielsweise sehr tiefe Spannungseinbrüche, und das Steuern des Transfers zwischen den beiden Quellen über das Betätigen der Schalter ohne eine beabsichtigte Verzögerung, wenn weniger gravierende Störungen erkannt werden, beispielsweise geringe oder moderate Spannungseinbrüche.
Anspruch[en]
A source-transfer system (10) of the type where a common load connection (14) is supplied by one of two sources (16, 18), the system comprising: two switches (20, 22), each of said two switches having open and closed operative states and being connected to supply the common load connection (14) through a respective one of the two sources; and control means (12) for actuating said two switches (20, 22) by responding to predetermined transfer conditions to actuate opening of a first of said switches and closing of the second of said switches with no introduction of any intentional delay after detection of a transfer condition and such that paralleling of the two sources may occur, characterised in that said control means (12) controls transfer between the two sources by first opening one of the switches and then closing the other of the switches when severe disturbances are detected like very deep voltage sag, and controls transfer between the sources via operation of the switches with no intentional delay when less severe disturbances are detected like shallow or moderate voltage sag. A method for transferring a load in a source-transfer system (10) of the type where a common load connection (14) is supplied by one of two sources (16, 18), the system comprising: two switches (20, 22), each of said two switches having open and closed operative states and being connected to supply the common load connection (14) through a respective one of the two sources; and control means (12) for actuating said two switches (20, 22) by responding to predetermined transfer conditions to actuate opening of a first of said switches and closing of the second of said switches with no introduction of any intentional delay after detection of a transfer condition and such that paralleling of the two sources may occur, characterised in that the method comprises the steps of: controlling transfer between the two sources by first opening one of the switches and then closing the other of the switches when severe disturbances are detected like very deep voltage sag, and controlling transfer between the sources via operation of the switches with no intentional delay when less severe disturbances are detected like shallow or moderate voltage sag.
Anspruch[fr]
Système de commutation de sources (10), du type dans lequel une connexion à une charge commune (14) est alimentée par l'une de deux sources (16, 18), le système comprenant : deux commutateurs (20, 22), chacun de ces deux commutateurs ayant des états de fonctionnement fermé et ouvert et étant connecté afin d'alimenter la connexion à une charge commune (14) à l'aide de l'une des deux sources, respectivement ; et un moyen de commande (12), destiné à actionner lesdits deux commutateurs (20, 22) en répondant à des conditions prédéterminées de commutation afin de commander l'ouverture d'un premier desdits commutateurs et la fermeture du second desdits commutateurs, sans introduire aucun retard intentionnel après la détection d'une condition de commutation, faisant que la connexion en parallèle des deux sources peut se produire, caractérisé en ce que ledit moyen de commande (12) commande la commutation entre les deux sources en ouvrant d'abord l'un des commutateurs et en fermant ensuite l'autre des commutateurs lorsque de graves perturbations sont détectées, telles que des chutes de tension très profondes, et commande la commutation entre les sources en faisant fonctionner les commutateurs sans retard intentionnel lorsque des perturbations moins graves sont détectées, comme des chutes de tension faibles ou modérées. Procédé de commutation d'une charge dans un système de commutation de sources (10), du type dans lequel une connexion à une charge commune (14) est alimentée par l'une de deux sources (16, 18), le système comprenant : deux commutateurs (20, 22), chacun de ces deux commutateurs ayant des états de fonctionnement fermé et ouvert et étant connecté afin d'alimenter la connexion à une charge commune (14) à l'aide de l'une des deux sources, respectivement ; et un moyen de commande (12), destiné à actionner lesdits deux commutateurs (20, 22) en répondant à des conditions prédéterminées de commutation afin de commander l'ouverture d'un premier desdits commutateurs et la fermeture du second desdits commutateurs, sans introduire aucun retard intentionnel après la détection d'une condition de commutation, faisant que la connexion en parallèle des deux sources peut se produire, caractérisé en ce que le procédé comprend les étapes consistant à : commander la commutation entre les deux sources en ouvrant d'abord l'un des commutateurs et en fermant ensuite l'autre des commutateurs lorsque de graves perturbations sont détectées, telles que des chutes de tension très profondes, et commander la commutation entre les sources en faisant fonctionner les commutateurs sans retard intentionnel lorsque des perturbations moins graves sont détectées, comme des chutes de tension faibles ou modérées.






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G Physik
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