PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1154699 30.08.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001154699
Titel GEFRORENE MILCHPRODUKTE UND VERFAHREN ZU DEREN HERSTELLUNG
Anmelder Nestec S.A., Vevey, CH
Erfinder MARTIN, Robert W., San Ramon, CA 94583, US;
BRAKE, Nicole C., Union City, CA 94587, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60035576
Vertragsstaaten CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, LI
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 24.02.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 009146853
WO-Anmeldetag 24.02.2000
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/US00/04692
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2000049883
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 31.08.2000
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 21.11.2001
EP date of grant 18.07.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 30.08.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse A23G 9/32(2006.01)A, F, I, 20070226, B, H, EP

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates, in general, to frozen dairy products. More particularly, the present invention relates to formulations and methods for producing frozen dairy products for dessert use that have surprising stability, organoleptic, and body characteristics.

2. Statement of the Problem. Frozen dairy products enjoy great popularity. Many variations of frozen dairy products have been developed for dessert use, including ice cream, whipped toppings, and soft-serve products. Soft-serve products are particularly popular and have a wide appeal. Distinguishing features of conventional soft serve products are that they are frozen in a special soft-serve freezer, are dispensed by extrusion at carefully chosen subfreezing temperatures, and generally stand up on a cone or dish upon extrusion. Conventional soft-serve products are usually dispensed at an overrun on the order of 40% to 60%. Although soft-serve products of this character have been marketed for many years, they are still available only from stores having special freezers that dispense the product for immediate consumption. This is because the product generally is dispensed at temperatures between 16°F and 24°F. At lower temperatures, the product is no longer sufficiently soft. Thus, conventional soft-serve products are not suited for sale from grocery store freezers for home storage and use. Home freezers maintain temperatures generally around -18°C to -12°C (0°F to 10°F), and store freezers, which as used herein includes grocery store, supermarket, and restaurant freezers, are generally at colder temperatures.

Others have expended considerable effort to develop a soft-serve product for home use, but apparently with little success. A search of the prior art concerning such frozen dairy products discovered the following patents: Rivière et al. WO 97/30600 Aug. 28, 1997 Morley et al. 4,346,120 Aug. 24,1982 Morley et al. 4,400,406 Aug. 23, 1983 Tapfer et al. 5,482,728 Jan. 9, 1996 Sponholtz 5,690,983 Nov. 25, 1997 Cole et al. 4,452,824 June 5, 1984 Zobel et al. 4,478,867 Oct. 23, 1984 Gonsalves et al. 5,077,076 Dec. 31, 1991 Martin et al. 5,171,602 Dec. 15, 1992 Martin et al. 5,358,728 Oct. 25, 1994 Kahn et al. 4,421,778 Dec. 20, 1983 Greenberg et al. 4,840,813 June 20, 1989

PCT Patent No. WO 97/30600 to Rivière et al. teaches a compound that is "spoonable" at -18°C to -24°C (-0.4°F to -11.2°F) and that contains 6 to 18 wt% milk proteins (as skim milk or dried milk powders), 6 to 24 wt% fat, 20.3 to 24.6 wt% carbohydrates (8.2 to 13.3 wt% dextrose, 3.3 to 8.2 wt% invert sugar, and 7.0 to 8.2 wt% glucose syrup), 0.25 to 0.8 wt% stabilizer, and 49 wt% liquid skim milk. The overrun is 50 to 200%. The Rivière patent relies on vegetable fat with a very low melting point, specifically sunflower oil, to achieve the softness or spoonability set forth. There is a further reliance on the use of emulsifiers (mono- and diglycerides) to provide the whipability, desirable texture, and shelf life characteristics of this frozen dessert.

U.S. Patent Nos. 4,346,120 and 4,400,406 to Morley et al. teach a soft-serve compound. Patent 4,346,120 shows a compound with 5 to 15 wt% milk solids non-fat (MSNF), 5 to 15 wt% fat, 20 to 40 wt% carbohydrates, 0.25 to 1.3 wt% stabilizer, 0.2 to 0.8 wt% emulsifier, and 43 to 65 wt% water. The overrun is between 110 and 220%. U.S. Patent No. 4,400,406 is a continuation in part of the 4,346,120 patent that has different ranges: protein is between 3 and 7 wt%, fat is at 3 to 15 wt%, carbohydrates are at 18 to 30 wt%, stabilizer is at 0.35 to 1.0 wt%, water is at 43 to 65 wt%, and emulsifier is at 0.2 to 0.8 wt%. The overrun is between 100 and 220%. The Morley patent relies upon providing a saccharide system containing various sugars, a stabilizer system employing at least one stabilizer from each of at least three groups of stabilizers, and an emulsifier system having particular emulsifiers to provide an extrudable product at home freezer temperatures (0°F to 10°F). The carbohydrates used include fructose, sorbitol (a sugar alcohol), and corn syrup. The presence of the sorbitol is justified by a need to compensate for the excessive sugary taste imparted by the fructose.

U.S. Patent No. 5,482,728 (to Tapfer et al. ) teaches "hard" ice cream compositions containing 10 to 12.19 wt% MSNF, 5 to 14 wt% milk fat, 12.99 to 18.48 wt% carbohydrates as sugars encapsulated in fat, 0.29 to 0.34 wt% stabilizer/emulsifier, and 58.28 to 69.48 wt% water. The overrun is 50%. The key to the Tapfer et al. results is their method in which the sugar components are encapsulated in fat before use.

U.S. Patent No. 5,690,983 (to Sponholtz) discloses an unfrozen expanded ice cream mix having 10.70 wt% MSNF, 8.00 wt% milk fat, 8.00 wt% sucrose, 7.0 wt% dextrose, 2.55 wt% stabilizer-emulsifier mix (Mixture TS-D 434), and 4.5 wt% flavor, for a total solids content of 42.75 wt%. The composition forms a liquid aerated mix with an overrun of 90% that can be stored at non-freezing temperatures.

U.S. Patent No. 4,452,824 and US 4,374,154 (to Cole et al.) teache a soft-serve composition containing 2 to 10 wt% MSNF, 2 to 15 wt% milk fat, 24 to 34 wt% carbohydrates, 0 to 2 wt% stabilizer, 0.2 to 1.0 wt% emulsifier, and 45 to 65 wt% water. The carbohydrates are distributed in a critical combination so that the ratio of higher saccharides to mono- and disaccharides (ratio 1) and the ratio of disaccharides to monosaccharides (ratio 2) satisfy the relationship of 11 (28 x ratio 1) + ratio 2 28. The overrun is 50 to 200%.

U.S. Patent No. 4,478,867 (to Zobel et al. ) teaches a process for whipping an emulsion. The emulsion contains 2 to 30 wt% nonfat dry milk, 18.0 to 30.0 wt% vegetable fat, 20.0 to 30.0 wt% carbohydrates, 0.01 to 2.0 wt% stabilizer, 0.5 to 2 wt% sodium caseinate, 0.4 to 2.0 wt% emulsifier, and 40 to 60 wt% water. The overrun is 200 to 350%. This emulsion has a texture similar to that of whipped cream (Cool Whip®).

U.S. Patent No. 5,077,076 (to Gonsalves ) teaches a formula for a whipped topping. The topping is comprised of 2.5 to 7.0 wt% MSNF, 5 to 15 wt% fat (either vegetable fat or milk fat), 15 to 25 wt% carbohydrates, 0.05 to 1.0 wt% stabilizer, 0.5 to 2 wt% sodium caseinate, 0.15 to 0.6 wt% emulsifier, 0.03 to 0.15 wt% phosphate salts, and 57 to 62 wt% water. The overrun is more than 250%. This topping also has a texture similar to that of whipped cream (Cool Whip®).

U.S. Patent No. 5,171,602 (to Martin et al. ) discloses a nonfat composition for a dessert product consisting of 8 to 18 wt% MSNF, 12 to 36 wt% carbohydrates, 0.5 to 3.0 wt% starch, and the balance being water. There is no fat, stabilizer, or emulsifier. The overrun is 80 to 100%.

U.S. Patent No. 5,358,728 (to Martin et al. ) is similar to Patent No. 5,171,602 , except that 0.03 to 0.3 wt% polyphosphate compounds are added.

U.S. Patent No. 4,421,778 (to Kahn et al. ) teaches compounds that contain a premix comprising 10 to 30 wt% fat, 3.5 to 20 wt% emulsifier, 6 to 34 wt% stabilizer, and the balance being a protein carrier, such as MSNF, dairy whey, whey protein, and/or a carbohydrate carrier. The basic composition is described as an oil-in-water emulsion of 3.00 wt% premix, 10.85 wt% protein, 24.00 wt% carbohydrates, 54.24 wt% water, 0.50 wt% flavor, and 7.41 wt% fat, of which at least 50% is a solid beta phase-tending crystalline fat (such as lauric fats, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil, etc.) that prevents the formation of crystalline surfaces. The overrun is 70 to 130%.

U.S. Patent No. 4,840,813 (to Greenberg et al. ) discloses a product having 4.0 to 7.2 wt% casein and 1 to 7 wt% whey. It is required by this patent to have a whey:casein ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:4. The product also includes 0.1 to 9.0 wt% fat, 14 to 18 wt% carbohydrates, 0.5 to 2 wt% ash, 0.1 to 5.0 wt% flavor, and 55 to 65 wt% water. The overrun is 40 to 100%.

In these prior formulations, it has been common to obtain a soft-serve type of product by the use of sugar alcohols, emulsifiers, vegetable fats, and other additives, all of which may add undesirable tastes or mouth sensations to the frozen dairy product. In other formulations, a soft-serve type of product has only been obtainable through the use of complex formulations and ratios of ingredients, or by complicated methods. To achieve different flavors or different types of products, additional ingredients must be added. None of the above references has provided a product having commercial success as a soft-serve ice cream type of product for home use.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to frozen dairy products having desirable texture and that are soft and scoopable at home freezer temperatures (that is, at about -18°C (0°F) to about -15°C (5°F)) with unique organoleptic properties. The present invention also provides frozen dairy products that have a long shelf-life and that have an overrun of about 200%. In addition, the present invention provides for different embodiments of frozen dairy products, such as yogurt-like and custard-like. All of these characteristics are obtained by the present invention with simple and straightforward formulations that do not include sugar alcohols or vegetable fats. Further, emulsifiers may or may not be used, and preferably are not used in the present invention.

The frozen dairy product of the present invention is formulated with ingredients that provide fat, protein, water, sweeteners, and stabilizer constituents in a combination that permits the attainment of the desirable properties described above. The attainment with these ingredients of these properties is deemed unexpected and not predictable.

The frozen dairy product of the present invention preferably comprises, on a weight basis, about 10% to about 13% milk solids non-fat (MSNF), about 4% to about 16% milk fat, about 5% to about 10% sucrose, about 2% to about 8% corn syrup having a DE of about 36, about 4% to about 12% dextrose, up to about 1.5% starch, and about 0.2% to about 1.0% stabilizer.

One particular feature of the frozen dairy products of the present invention is the ability to be aerated with significantly more air than is common for frozen dessert products. In the ice cream and soft serve industries, the amount of air in a product is described as "overrun." Overrun measures the percentage by which the volume of the liquid mix for a product is increased with air during whipping and freezing. The overrun of the frozen dairy product of the present invention is about 200%. It is unexpected for the formulation of this product to be able to attain such an overrun and produce a product with satisfactory shelf life/stability.

A method for production of the frozen dairy products as defined above is also provided by the present invention. In this method, a first mixture is prepared by adding the sucrose, corn syrup, dextrose, starch and stabilizer to heated water with agitation. The milk fat and milk solids non-fat are then added to the first mixture to form a final mixture. The final mixture is agitated for a time to thoroughly mix the ingredients. The final mixture is then pasteurized and homogenized. After these steps, the final mixture is aerated to an overrun of about 200% in a scrape surface heat exchanger, extruded, and packaged by conventional methods. The packaged mixture is then hardened for a predetermined period of time at -34°C (-30°F). Unlike previous methods for producing frozen dessert products, there is no "mix maturation" step.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide frozen dairy products having a desirable texture and unique organoleptic properties. It is another object of the present invention to provide frozen dairy products that are soft and scoopable at about -18°C (0°F) to about -15°C (5°F). It is an object of the present invention to provide frozen dairy products that can be produced in both regular and low-fat formulations and in a variety of product types without the addition of separate flavor ingredients. It is a further object of the present invention to provide methods for producing frozen dairy products.

These and other advantages, features, and objects of the present invention will be more readily understood in view of the following detailed description.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides frozen dairy products that are soft and scoopable at about -18°C (0°F) to about -15°C (5°C) have a stable through shelf-life, and incorporate a significant amount of air (up to about 200% overrun) while also having unique (creamy) organoleptic properties. Methods of production for the frozen dairy products are also disclosed herein. The frozen dairy products can be produced by the methods in a variety of embodiments, such as ice cream-like, low-fat ice cream-like, low-fat yogurt-like, and custard-like. Each of these embodiments can be further flavored, for example, with cocoa or other liquid flavor ingredients, or can support the addition of other edible materials, such as fruit, nuts, or candy pieces, for example.

Throughout the specification and claims, percentages and ratios are by weight and temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit unless otherwise indicated.

The frozen dairy products of the present invention generally contain milk solids non-fat, milk fat, sucrose, corn syrup having a DE of about 36, dextrose, stabilizer and starch.

The amount and exact character of each ingredient will depend upon such factors as the character of the other ingredients and the desired nature of the end product. For example, the amount of fat is varied to provide regular and low-fat frozen dairy products. In one embodiment, a soft textured ice cream-like product is provided. In another embodiment, the milk solids non-fat are cultured with bacteria to a predetermined acidity, which provides a frozen yogurt-like product. In a further embodiment, egg yolk is added to provide a frozen custard-like product.

In an important embodiment, the composition of the present invention that can be used to prepare frozen dairy products generally has the following components as set forth in Table I. TABLE I Ingredient Range (%) Milk solids non-fat 10-13 Milk Fat 4-16 Sucrose 5-10 Corn syrup (about 36 DE) 2 - 8 Dextrose 4-12 Starch up to 1.5 Stabilizer 0.2-1.0 Water q.s.

Milk solids non-fat as used in the preferred compositions of this invention can be derived from cream, milk (including condensed milk, skim milk, and condensed skim milk), and non-fat dry milk. Milk solids non-fat aid in providing the desirable properties of whipability, smoothness, body, mouthfeel, and melt resistance.

The milk fat ingredient aids in providing a creamy taste and the eating characteristics associated with ice cream-like products. It also contributes to the smoothness, the body, and the melting resistance of the frozen dairy products. Dairy cream and milk are the preferred fat sources.

The sweetener ingredients preferably are a combination of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup that provide a desired level of sweetness and texture to the frozen dairy products. The combination of dextrose, sucrose, and corn syrup also serves to decrease the freezing point of the mixture. It is postulated that the freezing point depression decreases viscosity, thus allowing for uniform and stable incorporation of air. The corn syrup preferably has a dextrose equivalent (DE) of about 36, which is in the low DE range of corn syrups. Corn syrups possessing a DE of about 24 to about 42 can be used in this invention. Corn syrup of 36 DE is preferred for ease of processability and satisfactory low-molecular-weight sugar composition. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup can be used.

The stabilizer ingredient may also contribute to the attainment of the desired features of the new frozen dairy products. The stabilizer ingredient is used to improve the ability of the products to withstand commercial shelf life and substantial heat shock without undue deterioration, such as a loss of overrun. The stabilizer ingredient may include vegetable gums and, in a preferred embodiment, the stabilizer ingredient is selected from the group consisting of locust bean gum, guar gum, and carrageenan. Other stabilizers may be appropriate for use in the present invention, and such stabilizers will be evident to those skilled in the art and are meant to be included in this description of the frozen dairy products.

Water is present in the new frozen dairy products as a dispersion medium for the other ingredients of the emulsified product. The portion of water in the product is determined on an "as needed" (q.s.) basis to provide the balance of the mixture with reference to a total weight of 100% after the weights of the other ingredients are taken into account. The portion of water in the products that remains unfrozen provides fluidity for the product. The portion of water that does freeze forms ice crystals that give the product rigidity as well as the refreshing taste perception characteristic of a frozen dessert.

A flavor ingredient can be added to these ingredients if desired. The flavor ingredient is selected from known flavors according to the desired taste, taking into account the other ingredients. Flavor ingredients include, by way of illustration, liquid flavor ingredients such as vanilla, vanilla extract, cocoa, and mint, and solid flavor ingredients such as fruits, nuts, candy, chocolate- and peanut-flavored chips and the like, as well as other flavor ingredients. The present invention provides frozen dairy products with a stable matrix that will hold unexpectedly large amounts of such flavor ingredients. For example, cocoa is added at up to about 3.5% to provide a chocolate flavor. Fruit and nuts can be added from about 0% to about 40% usage by weight. Note, however, that the ingredient ranges specified herein, unless stated otherwise, are for an unflavored product. Those skilled in the art will comprehend the adjustments appropriate for the particular flavor ingredient used. Of importance to the present invention, different embodiments of the frozen dairy products exist that are not dependent on the addition of flavor ingredients, such as yogurt-like or custard-like products (see examples below).

In addition to the foregoing ingredients, the frozen dairy products of the present invention can include other ingredients if desired, such as, for example, starches.

Any modified food starch, such as, for example, corn starch, potato starch, rice starch, or tapioca starch, can be used. The starch used in the compositions of the present invention is preferably modified corn starch. Modified starches, when used at low levels (less than about 2%), offer improved texture (creaminess) and improved shelf-life (stability) to the frozen dairy products. It is thought that starch molecules organize water in fashion similar to that of hydrocolloid (stabilizer) molecules by obstructing ice crystal growth and/or changing the morphology of ice crystals. In addition, starch may enhance the whipability and air incorporation in the frozen dairy products by strengthening the solids matrix surrounding the air cells.

In order to achieve the frozen dairy products of the present invention, a particular method is preferably used. In a preferred method of the present invention, the water required is added to a kettle provided with an agitating device. The preferred agitating device is a Lanco/Breddo high shear mixer/liquefier that is preferably operated at its highest speed. The water is heated to a temperature of from about 49°C to about 54°C (about 120°F to about 130°F).

The order of addition of the individual ingredients is important to obtain uniform blending of the ingredients. The following order of addition is preferred. The sucrose, corn syrup, dextrose, stabilizer, and starch are added to the heated water, and agitation is commenced and continued for a period of from about 30 seconds to about 4 minutes, preferably about 2 minutes, to form a first mixture. The milk fat and milk solids non-fat are then added and agitation is continued for an additional about 30 seconds to about 4 minutes, preferably about 2 minutes, to form a final mixture.

The final mixture is then pasteurized under suitable time and temperature conditions, preferably at a temperature of from about 82°C (180°F) to about 93°C (200°F) for a hold time of about 30 to about 120 seconds, followed by regeneration and cooling to about 4°C (40°F). In another embodiment the final mixture is pasteurized by vat between about 74°C (165°F) to about 77°C (170°F) for about 30 minutes, followed by similar regeneration and cooling to about 4°C (40°F).

The pasteurized final mixture is then homogenized in a conventional two-stage homogenizer. In a preferred embodiment, homogenization comprises a first stage performed at a pressure of about 3.45 MPa (500 psi) to about 10.34 MPa (1,500 psi) and a second stage following the first stage, with the second stage performed at about 13.79 MPa (2,000 psi) to about 34.47 MPa (5,000 psi).

After pasteurization and homogenization, the final mixture is flavored, aerated in a scrape surface heat exchanger, extruded, and packaged by conventional methods. The aerated final mixture has an overrun of about 200%. The packaged mixture is then hardened at about -34°C (30°F) for about 6 hours to about 18 hours before distribution.

Once the frozen dairy products are prepared by the above method, they can be stored for about 2 weeks to about 4 weeks at either store freezer or home freezer temperatures and also resist considerable temperature variations, such as that which occurs between the time the product is purchased from a store until the product is placed in a home freezer, without significant loss of their desirable properties.

Of importance to the present invention, the desired properties of a soft texture that is scoopable at about -18°C (0°F) to about -15°C (5°F), unique organoleptic properties, a stable shelf-life, and the ability to hold an overrun of about 200% are obtained in the frozen dairy products of this invention with the use of the above-described ingredients in a straightforward combination and method of production. These results are deemed unexpected and advantageous, in that other ingredients such as emulsifiers, complex ratios of ingredients, and additional, time-consuming steps, such as a mix maturation step in which the product is held at a predetermined temperature for up to 24 hours before freezing, have generally been necessary in previous frozen products in order to achieve some of these desirable results.

The individual ingredients comprising the compositions of the invention may be varied in quantity to obtain embodiments of frozen dairy products having different flavor and textural sensations without the use of additional flavor and textural ingredients as described above. The following examples further illustrate various features of the present invention that are intended to in no way limit the scope of the invention that is defined in the appended claims.

EXAMPLE 1

A batch of frozen dairy product was made by the above-described method using the following components at the indicated levels: Ingredient Range (%) Milk solids non-fat 10-13 Milk fat 5 - 16 Sucrose 5 - 8 Corn syrup (about 36 DE) 3 - 6 Dextrose 5 - 9 Starch up to 1.5 Stabilizer 0.2 - 1.0 Water q.s.

In this example, the resulting frozen dairy product has a soft texture and a taste similar to that of ice cream. If desired, cocoa or other liquid flavor ingredients can be added at up to 3.5% as described above.

EXAMPLE 2

In this example, the frozen dairy product has a soft texture and a taste similar to that of a frozen yogurt. This embodiment is also low in fat. Ingredients Range (%) Milk solids non-fat 10-13 Milk fat 5 -10 Sucrose 5 - 10 Corn syrup (about 36 DE) 4 - 8 Dextrose 4 - 12 Starch 0.5 - 1.5 Stabilizer 0.65 - 1.0 Water q.s.

In the method for producing the frozen dairy product of Example 2, a portion of the ingredients is first cultured with bacteria to provide the yogurt-like product of this embodiment. That is, in this particular method, a culture mixture is first prepared by heating water to a temperature of about 49°C (120°F) to about 54°C (130°F) and adding a portion of the milk solids non-fat, that is, about 5% to about 10% of the total milk solids non-fat, to the heated water to form a first mixture. This first mixture is then pasteurized and cooled to about 43°C (110°F). Bacteria are then added with agitation for about 30 minutes. The first mixture with the bacteria is then incubated at about 43°C (110°F). For about 2 hours to about 6 hours until it reaches about 1.10 titratable acidity. Titratable acidity is defined as percent acid (by weight) in a given sample.

The bacteria used for culturing the culture mix are selected from the group consisting of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus. Other species of bacteria capable of culturing the culture mix may be known to those skilled in the art and are meant to be included in the present invention.

In the next step, a sugar mixture is prepared by heating water between about 49°C (120°F) and about 54°C (130°F) and adding the remainder of the milk solids non-fat, milk fat, sucrose, corn syrup, dextrose, starch, and stabilizer to the heated water with agitation to form a second mixture. The second mixture is then pasteurized as described above.

The culture mixture having a titratable acidity of about 1.10 is then blended with the sugar mixture to form a final mixture. Preferably, the culture mixture is blended with the sugar mixture in a 32.5%/67.5% volume/volume ratio, but other ratios can be used under the present invention as will be known to those skilled in the art. The final mixture is then aerated in a scrape surface heat exchanger, extruded, packaged, and hardened at about -34°C (-30°F) as described above to provide a frozen yogurt-like product. As for Example 1, flavor ingredients can be added to the final mixture to provide desired flavors for the yogurt-like frozen dairy product.

EXAMPLE 3

In this embodiment of the present invention, the frozen dairy product is similar to a low-fat ice cream with a soft texture. Ingredients Range (%) Milk solids non-fat 10 - 13 Milk fat 5 - 10 Sucrose 5 - 10 Corn syrup (about 36 DE) 2 - 4 Dextrose 4 - 10 Starch 0.5 - 0.75 Stabilizer 0.65 - 1.0 Water q.s.

In this embodiment, the method of Example 1 is used to prepare the product. Flavor ingredients can be added if desired.

EXAMPLE 4

In this embodiment, the frozen dairy product has a soft texture, is low in fat, and resembles a custard-like product. Ingredients Range (%) Milk solids non-fat 10-13 Milk fat 4 -10 Sucrose 5 - 7 Corn syrup (about 36 DE) 2 - 6 Dextrose 4 - 10 Starch 0.65 - 1.0 Stabilizer 0.65 - 1.0 Egg yolk 1.4 - 2.0 Water q.s.

In the method for this embodiment, the egg yolk is added to the heated water along with the sweeteners, stabilizer, and starch (if present) and agitated for about 30 seconds to about 4 minutes, preferably for about 2 minutes, in order to combine the egg yolk thoroughly before pasteurization. As before, flavoring ingredients can be added if desired.

Thus, the present invention provides for frozen dairy products having desirable textural and unique organoleptic properties, such as being soft and scoopable at about -18°C (0°F) to about -15°C (5°F) being capable of being aerated to an overrun of about 200%, providing a variety of embodiments, such as ice cream like, yogurt-like, and custard-like, and maintaining these desirable properties during a long shelf life. These results are unexpected when using the ingredients and methods specified herein.

The foregoing discussion of the invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. Further, the description is not intended to limit the invention to the form disclosed herein.


Anspruch[de]
Ein gefrorenes Milchprodukt umfassend auf einer Gewichtsbasis: 10 % bis 13 % von fettfreien Milchfeststoffen; 4 % bis 16 % von Milchfett; 5 % bis 10 % von Saccharose; 2 % bis 8 % an Maissirup mit einem DE von 36; 4 % bis 12 % an Dextrose; Stärke in einer Menge bis zu 1,5 % und von 0,2 % bis 1 % an Stabilisator, wobei der Differenzbetrag Wasser ist. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei das gefrorene Milchprodukt einen Luftaufschlag von etwa 200 % hat. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei das gefrorene Milchprodukt weich und löffelbar bei Temperaturen von -18 °C (0 °F) bis -15°C (5° F) ist. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Stabilisator ausgewählt ist aus Johannisbrotkernmehl, Guargummi und Carrageen. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Stärke eine modifizierte Stärke ist. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, das ferner von 0 % bis 3,5 % einer flüssigen Aromazutat aufweist. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Milchfett in einer Menge von 5 % bis 16 % vorliegt, die Saccharose in einer Menge von 5 % bis 8 % vorliegt, der Maissirup in einer Menge von 3 % bis 6 % vorliegt und die Dextrose in einer Menge von 5 % bis 9 % vorliegt. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Milchfett in einer Menge von 5 % bis 10 % vorliegt, der Maissirup in einer Menge von 2 % bis 4 % vorliegt, die Dextrose in einer Menge von 4 % bis 10 % vorliegt, die Stärke in einer Menge von 0,5 % bis 0,75 % vorliegt und der Stabilisator in einer Menge von 0,65 % bis 1,0 % vorliegt. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Milchfett in einer Menge von 5% bis 10 % vorliegt, der Maissirup in einer Menge von 4 % bis 8 % vorliegt, die Stärke in einer Menge von 0,5 % bis 1,5 % vorliegt und der Stabilisator in einer Menge von 0,65 % bis 1,0 % vorliegt. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 9, wobei eine Portion der fettfreien Milchfeststoffe mit Bakterien ist. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 10, wobei die Bakterien ausgewählt sind aus Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus und Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus. Gefrorenes Milchprodukt nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Milchfett in einer Menge von 4% bis 10 % vorliegt, die Saccharose in einer Menge von 5 % bis 7 % vorliegt, der Maissirup in einer Menge von 2 % bis 6 % vorliegt, die Dextrose in einer Menge von 4% bis 10 % vorliegt, die Stärke in einer Menge von 0,65 % bis 1,0 % vorliegt und der Stabilisator in einer Menge von 0,65 % bis 1,0 % vorliegt, wobei das gefrorene Milchprodukt von 1,4 % bis 2,0 % Eigelb enthält. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines gefrorenen Milchprodukts gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, umfassend die Schritte: erhitzen von Wasser auf eine Temperatur von 49 °C (120 °F) bis 54 °C (130 °F); hinzufügen von Saccharose, Maissirup mit einem DE von 36, Dextrose, Stärke und Stabilisator zu dem Wasser, um eine erste Mischung zu erzeugen; rühren der ersten Mischung; hinzufügen von fettfreien Milchfeststoffen und Milchfett zu der ersten Mischung, um eine endgültige Mischung zu erzeugen; rühren der endgültigen Mischung; pasteurisieren und Homogenisieren der endgültigen Mischung; Luftbeaufschlagens, extrudieren und abpacken der endgültigen Mischung; und des hart werden lassen der endgültigen Mischung bei -34 °C (-30 °F). Verfahren nach Anspruch 13, wobei der Schritt des Pasteurisierens umfasst: Erhitzen der endgültigen Mischung bei zwischen 82 °C (180 °F) und 93 °C (200 °F) mit einer Haltezeit von 30 bis 120 Sekunden; ruhen lassen; und kühlen auf 4 °C (40 °F) Verfahren nach Anspruch 13, wobei der Schritt des Pasteurisierens umfasst: Erhitzen der endgültigen Mischung bei zwischen 74 °C (165°F) und 77 °C (170 °F) 30 Minuten lang; ruhen lassen; und Kühlen auf 4 °C (40 °F). Verfahren nach Anspruch 13, wobei der Schritt des Homogenierens umfasst: eine erste Stufe, die bei 3,45 MPa (500 psi) bis 10,34 MPa (1500 psi) durchgeführt wird; und eine zweite Stufe, die auf die erste Stufe folgt, wobei die zweite Stufe bei 13,79 MPa (2000 psi) bis 34,47 MPa (5000 psi) durchgeführt wird. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines gefrorenen Milchprodukts nach einem der Ansprüche 10 oder 11, umfassend die Schritte: (i) Herstellen einer Kulturmischung durch: Wasser erhitzen auf eine Temperatur von 49 °C (120 °F) bis 54 °C (130 °F); hinzufügen von fettfreien Milchfeststoffen zu dem Wasser, um eine erste Mischung zu erzeugen; pasteurisieren der ersten Mischung; kühlen der ersten Mischung auf 43 °C (110 °F); hinzufügen von Bakterien zu der ersten Mischung unter 30-minütigem Rühren; 2 Stunden bis 6 Stunden lang inkubieren der ersten Mischung bei 43 °C (110 °F), bis die erste Mischung einen titrierbaren Säuregehalt von 1,10 erreicht; (ii) Herstellen einer Zuckermischung durch: erhitzen von Wasser auf eine Temperatur von 49 °C (120 °F) bis 54 °C (130 °F) hinzufügen von fettfreien Milchfeststoffen, Milchfett, Saccharose, Maissirup mit einem DE von 36, Dextrose, Stärke und Stabilisator zu dem erhitzten Wasser unter Rühren, um eine zweite Mischung zu erzeugen; (iii) durchmischen der Kulturmischung mit der Zuckermischung, um eine endgültige Mischung zu erzeugen; (iv) mit Luft beaufschlagen, extrudieren und abpacken der endgültigen Mischung; und (v) fest werden lassen der endgültigen Mischung bei -34 °C (-30 ° F). Verfahren nach Anspruch 17, wobei die Kulturmischung durchmischt ist mit der Zuckermischung in einem Verhältnis von 32,5 Volumen-%/67,5 Volumen- %. Verfahren nach Anspruch 17, wobei eine Portion von 5 % bis 10 % der 10 % bis 13 % fettfreier Milchfeststoffe zu dem Wasser hinzugefügt wird, um die Mischung herzustellen. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines gefrorenen Milchprodukts gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, umfassend der Schritte: Erhitzen von Wasser auf eine Temperatur von 49 °C (120 °F) bis 54 °C (130 °F); rühren des Wassers; hinzufügen von Saccharose, Maissirup mit einem DE von 36, Dextrose, Stärke und Stabilisator zu dem Wasser um eine erste Mischung zu erzeugen; rühren der ersten Mischung; hinzufügen von fettfreien Milchfeststoffen und Milchfett zu der ersten Mischung, um eine endgültige Mischung zu erzeugen; rühren der endgültigen Mischung; pasteurisieren und homogenisieren der endgültigen Mischung, wobei der Homogenisierungsschritt eine erste Stufe aufweist, die bei 3,45 MPa (500 psi) bis 10,34 MPa (1500 psi) durchgeführt wird, und eine zweite Stufe, die auf die erste Stufe folgt, wobei die zweite Stufe bei 13,79 MPa (2000 psi) bis 34,47 MPa (5000 psi) durchgeführt wird; mit Luft beaufschlagen, extrudieren und abpacken der endgültigen Mischung, wobei der Belüftungsschritt einen Luftaufschlag von etwa 200 % bereitstellt; und hart werden lassen der endgültigen Mischung bei -34 °C (-30 °F). Verfahren nach Anspruch 20, wobei der Pasteurisierungsschritt umfasst: Erhitzen der endgültigen Mischung auf zwischen 32 °C (180 °F) und 93 °C (200 °F) mit einer Haltezeit von 30 Sekunden bis 120 Sekunden; ruhen lassen; und kühlen auf 4 °C (40° F). Verfahren nach Anspruch 20, wobei der Pasteurisierungsschritt umfasst: Erhitzen der endgültigen Mischung auf zwischen 74 °C (165 °F) und 77 °C (170 ° F) 30 Minuten lang; ruhen lassen; und kühlen auf 4 °C (40 °F).
Anspruch[en]
A frozen dairy product comprising on a weight basis: from 10% to 13% of milk solids non-fat; from 4% to 16% of milk fat; from 5% to 10% of sucrose; from 2% to 8% of corn syrup having a DE of 36; from 4% to 12% of dextrose; starch in an amount up to 1.5%, and from 0.2% to 1.0% of stabiliser, with the balance being water. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said frozen dairy product has an overrun of about 200%. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said frozen dairy product is soft and scoopable at temperatures from -18 °C (0 °F) to -15°C (5 °F). The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said stabiliser is selected from the group consisting of locust bean gum, guar gum, and carrageenan. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said starch is a modified starch. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 further comprising from 0% to 3.5% of a liquid flavour ingredient. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said milk fat is present in an amount from 5% to 16%, said sucrose is present in an amount from 5% to 8%, said corn syrup is present in an amount from 3% to 6%, said dextrose is present in an amount from 5% to 9%. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said milk fat is present in an amount from 5% to 10%, said corn syrup is present in an amount from 2% to 4%, said dextrose is present in an amount from 4% to 10%, said starch is present in an amount from 0.5% to 0.75%, and said stabiliser is present in an amount from 0.65% to 1.0%. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said milk fat is present in an amount from 5% to 10%, said corn syrup is present in an amount from 4% to 8%, said starch is present in an amount from 0.5% to 1.5%, and said stabiliser is present in an amount from 0.65% to 1.0%. The frozen dairy product of claim 9 wherein a portion of said milk solids non-fat are cultured with bacteria. The frozen dairy product of claim 10 wherein said bacteria are selected from the group consisting of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, and Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus. The frozen dairy product of claim 1 wherein said milk fat is present in an amount from 4% to 10%, said sucrose is present in an amount from 5% to 7%, said corn syrup is present in an amount from 2% to 6%, said dextrose is present in an amount from 4% to 10%, said starch is present in an amount from 0.65% to 1.0%, and said stabiliser is present in an amount from 0.65% to 1.0%, said frozen dairy product comprising from 1.4% to 2.0% of egg yolk. A method for producing a frozen dairy product according to any of claims 1 to 12 comprising the steps of: heating water to a temperature from 49 °C (120 °F) to 54 °C (130 °F); adding to said water sucrose, corn syrup having a DE of 36, dextrose, starch, and stabiliser to form a first mixture; agitating said first mixture; adding to said first mixture milk solids non-fat and milk fat to form a final mixture; agitating said final mixture; pasteurising and homogenising said final mixture; aerating, extruding, and packaging said final mixture; and hardening said final mixture of -34 °C (-30 °F). The method of claim 13 wherein said pasteurising step comprises: heating said final mixture between 82 °C (180 °F) and 93 °C (200 °F) with a hold time of 30 seconds to 120 seconds; regenerating; and cooling to 4 °C (40 °F). The method of claim 13 wherein said pasteurising step comprises: heating said final mixture between 74 °C (165 °F) and 77 °C (170 °F) for 30 minutes; regenerating; and cooling to 4 °C (40 °F). The method of claim 13 wherein said homogenising step comprises: a first stage performed at 3.45 MPa (500 psi) to 10.34 MPa (1,500 psi); and a second stage following said first stage, said second stage performed at 13.79 MPa (2,000 psi) to 34.47 MPa (5,000 psi). A method for producing frozen dairy product according to any of claims 10 a 11 comprising the steps of: (i) preparing a culture mixture by: heating water to a temperature from 49 °C (120 °F) to 54 °C (130 °F); adding milk solids non-fat to said heated water to form a first mixture; pasteurising said first mixture; cooling said first mixture to 43 °C (110 °F); adding bacteria to said first mixture with agitation for 30 minutes; incubating said first mixture at 43 °C (110 °F) for 2 hours to 6 hours until said first mixture reaches 1.10 titrable acidity; (ii) preparing a sugar mixture by: heating water to a temperature from 49 °C (120 °F) to 54 °C (130 °F); adding milk solids non-fat, milk fat, sucrose, corn syrup having a DE of 36, dextrose, starch, and stabiliser to said heated water with agitation to form a second mixture; (iii) blending said culture mixture with said sugar mixture to form a final mixture; (iv) aerating, extruding and packaging said final mixture; and (v) hardening said final mixture at -34 °C (-30 °F). The method of claim 17 wherein said culture mixture is blended with said sugar mixture in a 32.5%/67.5% volume/volume ratio. The method of claim 17 wherein a portion of 5% to 10% of said 10% to 13% milk solids non-fat is added to said water to form said mixture. A method for producing a frozen dairy product according to any of claims 1 to 12 comprising the steps of: heating water to a temperature from 49 °C (120 °F) to 54 °C (130 °F); agitating said water; adding to said water sucrose, corn syrup having a DE of 36, dextrose, starch, and stabiliser to form a first mixture; agitating said first mixture; adding to said first mixture milk solids non-fat and milk fat to form a final mixture; agitating said final mixture; pasteurising and homogenising said final mixture, said homogenising step having a first stage performed at 3.45 MPa (500 psi) to 10.34 MPa (1,500 psi) and a second stage following said first stage, said second stage performed at 13.79 MPa (2,000 psi) to 34.47 MPa (5,000 psi); aerating, extruding, and packaging said final mixture, said aerating step providing an overrun of about 200%; and hardening said final mixture of-34 °C (-30 °F). The method of claim 20 wherein said pasteurising step comprises: heating said final mixture between 82 °C (180 °F) and 93 °C (200 °F) with a hold time of 30 seconds to 120 seconds; regenerating; and cooling to 4 °C (40 °F). The method of claim 20 wherein said pasteurising step comprises: heating said final mixture between 74 °C (165 °F) and 77 °C (170 °F) for 30 minutes; regenerating; and cooling to 4 °C (40 °F).
Anspruch[fr]
Produit laitier congelé comprenant, sur base pondérale : 10 % à 13 % d'extrait sec dégraissé du lait ; 4 % à 16 % de matière grasse laitière ; 5 % à 10 % de saccharose ; 2 % à 8 % de sirop de glucose ayant un équivalent en dextrose (DE) de 36 ; 4 % à 12 % de dextrose ; de l'amidon en une quantité allant jusqu'à 1,5 % ; et 0,2 % à 1,0 % de stabilisant, le pourcentage restant consistant en eau. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, ledit produit laitier congelé présentant un foisonnement d'environ 200 %. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, ledit produit laitier congelé étant mou et pouvant être débité à la cuiller à des températures allant de -18°C (0°F) à -15°C (5°F). Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit stabilisant est choisi dans le groupe consistant en gomme de caroube, gomme guar et carraghénine. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit amidon est un amidon modifié. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, comprenant en outre 0 % à 3,5 % d'un ingrédient aromatisant liquide. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite matière grasse laitière est présente en une quantité de 5 % à 16 %, ledit saccharose est présent en une quantité de 5 % à 8 %, ledit sirop de glucose est présent en une quantité de 3 % à 6 %, ledit dextrose est présent en une quantité de 5 % à 9 %. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite matière grasse laitière est présente en une quantité de 5 % à 10 %, ledit sirop de glucose est présent en une quantité de 2 % à 4 %, ledit dextrose est présent en une quantité de 4 % à 10 %, ledit amidon est présent en une quantité de 0,5 % à 0,75 % et ledit stabilisant est présent en une quantité de 0,65 % à 1,0 %. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite matière grasse laitière est présente en une quantité de 5 % à 10 %, ledit sirop de glucose est présent en une quantité de 4 % à 8 %, ledit amidon est présent en une quantité de 0,5 % à 1,5 % et ledit stabilisant est présent en une quantité de 0,65 % à 1,0 %. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 9, dans lequel une portion dudit extrait sec dégraissé du lait est cultivée avec des bactéries. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 10, dans lequel lesdites bactéries sont choisies dans le groupe consistant en Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus et Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus. Produit laitier congelé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite matière grasse laitière est présente en une quantité de 4 % à 10 %, ladite saccharose est présent en une quantité de 5 % à 7 %, ledit sirop de glucose est présent en une quantité de 2 % à 6 %, ledit dextrose est présent en une quantité de 4 % à 10 %, ledit amidon est présent en une quantité de 0,65 % à 1,0 % et ledit stabilisant est présent en une quantité de 0,65 % à 1,0 %, ledit produit laitier congelé comprenant 1,4 % à 2,0 % de jaune d'oeuf. Procédé pour la production d'un produit laitier congelé suivant l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, comprenant les étapes consistant à : chauffer de l'eau à une température allant de 49°C (120°F) à 54°C (130°F) ; ajouter à ladite eau du saccharose, du sirop de glucose ayant un DE de 36, du dextrose, de l'amidon et un stabilisant pour former un premier mélange ; agiter ledit premier mélange ; ajouter audit premier mélange de l'extrait sec dégraissé du lait et de la matière grasse laitière pour former un mélange final ; agiter ledit mélange final ; pasteuriser et homogénéiser ledit mélange final ; aérer, extruder et emballer ledit mélange final ; et faire durcir ledit mélange final à -34°C (-30°F). Procédé suivant la revendication 13, dans lequel ladite étape de pasteurisation comprend : le chauffage dudit mélange final à une température de 82°C (180°F) à 93°C (200°F), avec un temps de maintien de 30 secondes à 120 secondes ; une régénération ; et un refroidissement à 4°C (40°F). Procédé suivant la revendication 13, dans lequel ladite étape de pasteurisation comprend : le chauffage dudit mélange final à une température de 74°C (165°F) à 77°C (170°F) pendant 30 minutes ; une régénération ; et un refroidissement à 4°C (40°F). Procédé suivant la revendication 13, dans lequel ladite étape d'homogénéisation comprend : une première étape effectuée à une pression de 3,45 MPa (500 psi) à 10,34 MPa (1500 psi) ; et une seconde étape suivant ladite première étape, ladite seconde étape étant effectuée à une pression de 13,79 MPa (2000 psi) à 34,47 MPa (5000 psi). Procédé pour la production de produits laitiers congelés suivant l'une quelconque des revendications 10 et 11, comprenant les étapes consistant à : (i) préparer un mélange de culture : en chauffant de l'eau à une température de 49°C (120°F) à 54°C (130°F) ; en ajoutant de l'extrait sec dégraissé du lait à ladite eau chauffée pour former un premier mélange ; en pasteurisant ledit premier mélange ; en refroidissant ledit premier mélange à 43°C (110°F) ; en ajoutant des bactéries audit premier mélange avec agitation pendant 30 minutes ; en mettant en incubation ledit premier mélange à 43°C (110°F) pendant 2 heures à 6 heures jusqu'à ce que ledit premier mélange atteigne une acidité titrable de 1,10 ; (ii) préparer un mélange de sucres : en chauffant de l'eau à une température de 49°C (120°F) à 54°C (130°F) ; en ajoutant de l'extrait sec dégraissé du lait, de la matière grasse laitière, du saccharose, du sirop de glucose ayant un DE de 36, du dextrose, de l'amidon et un stabilisant à ladite eau chauffée, sous agitation, pour former un second mélange ; (iii) mélanger ledit mélange de culture audit mélange de sucres pour former un mélange final ; (iv) aérer, extruder et emballer ledit mélange final ; et (v) faire durcir ledit mélange final à -34°C (-30°F). Procédé suivant la revendication 17, dans lequel ledit mélange de culture est mélangé audit mélange de sucres en un rapport en volume/volume de 32,5 %/67,5 %. Procédé suivant la revendication 17, dans lequel une portion de 5 % à 10 % de ladite quantité de 10 % à 13 % de l'extrait sec dégraissé du lait est ajoutée à ladite eau pour former ledit mélange. Procédé pour la production d'un produit laitier congelé suivant l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, comprenant les étapes consistant à : chauffer de l'eau à une température de 49°C (120°F) à 54°C (130°F) ; agiter ladite eau ; ajouter à ladite eau du saccharose, du sirop de glucose ayant un DE de 36, du dextrose, de l'amidon et un stabilisant pour former un premier mélange; agiter ledit premier mélange ; ajouter audit premier mélange de l'extrait sec dégraissé du lait et de la matière grasse laitière pour former un mélange final ; agiter ledit mélange final ; pasteuriser et homogénéiser ledit mélange final, ladite étape d'homogénéisation comprenant une première étape effectuée à une pression de 3,45 MPa (500 psi) à 10,34 MPa (1500 psi) et une seconde étape suivant ladite première étape, ladite seconde étape étant effectuée à une pression de 13,79 MPa (2000 psi) à 34,47 MPa (5000 psi) ; aérer, extruder et emballer ledit mélange final, ladite étape d'aération provoquant un foisonnement d'environ 200 %; et faire durcir ledit mélange final à -34°C (-30°F). Procédé suivant la revendication 20, dans lequel ladite étape de pasteurisation comprend : le chauffage dudit mélange final à une température de 82°C (180°F) à 93°C (200°F), avec un temps de maintien de 30 secondes à 120 secondes ; une régénération ; et un refroidissement à 4°C (40°F). Procédé suivant la revendication 20, dans lequel ladite étape de pasteurisation comprend : le chauffage dudit mélange final à une température de 74°C (165°F) à 77°C (170°F) pendant 30 minutes ; une régénération ; et un refroidissement à 4°C (40°F).






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