PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1706678 20.09.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001706678
Titel EVAKUIERBARER FLACHPLATTENSONNENKOLLEKTOR
Anmelder European Organisation for Nuclear Research CERN, Genf/Geneva, CH
Erfinder BENVENUTI, Cristoforo, F-01280 Moens, FR
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 602004008116
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 22.01.2004
EP-Aktenzeichen 047042296
WO-Anmeldetag 22.01.2004
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/EP2004/000503
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2005075900
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 18.08.2005
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 04.10.2006
EP date of grant 08.08.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 20.09.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse F24J 2/50(2006.01)A, F, I, 20060905, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse F24J 2/46(2006.01)A, L, I, 20060905, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to an evacuable flat panel solar collector comprising at least one absorber, at least one conduit, a holding structure and at least one transparent wall. Such a solar collector is known from DE 2712153A . The invention further relates to a flat panel solar collector system which comprises at least one flat panel solar collector according to the invention and at least one mirror, and also to a flat panel solar collector array. Finally, the invention relates to a method for the preparation of an evacuable flat panel solar collector according to the invention.

Solar collectors, in particular flat panel solar collectors, are well-known devices which are usually used to absorb and transfer solar energy into a collection fluid. Principally, solar collectors consist of a blackened absorbing cylinder or plate contained in a housing which is frontally closed by a transparent window pane. Due to the diluted nature of solar light, in order to increase the operating temperature by reducing the thermal losses, solar collectors may be evacuated during use to eliminate gas convection and molecular conduction. Very high temperatures could also be achieved by light focussing. However, only direct light may be focussed, while diffuse light is lost. Therefore, this solution is not very attractive for regions, like central Europe, where about 50% of the solar light is diffuse. As the evacuation of flat panel solar collectors is problematic due to the need of a structure which is able to maintain high vacuum even under the huge forces resulting from atmospheric pressure the focus has been on solar collectors which are based on a cylindrical glass envelope containing a cylindrical or flat absorber. Such a design can, for example, be found in US 4,002,160 where a multiple tube solar energy collector having a diffusely reflecting surface positioned behind a collector tube array is disclosed which includes a plurality of double-wall tubular members wherein the outer wall is made of a glass material which is transparent about its entire circumference.

According to US 4,579,107 a tubular collector is disclosed having very advantageous characteristics which is achieved by a method which is used to create both solar selective surfaces or coatings and reflective surfaces or coatings on glass by depositing, by spraying, molten metal onto their respective surfaces so that glass fuses upon contact with the molten metal, resulting in good adhesion and thermal contact.

Also the solar energy collection system according to US 3,960,136 relies on the use of a double-wall glass tube the outer wall thereof being transparent about substantially its entire circumference. The space between the double walls is sealed at a sub-atmospheric pressure.

Although it has been well-known that versus an array of tubular collectors, as for example disclosed in US 4,002,160 , flat panel collectors allow for a maximum availability of energy for absorption, tubular solar collectors are still most often considered to be advantageous due to their easier manufacturing of the glass-to-metal seal, as required for maintaining high vacuum.

In US 4,084,576 a bulb-type solar energy collector is disclosed which comprises a blackened solar absorber which is inserted into a flat lamp envelope thereby making use of a reliable sealing technique which is known for example from TV cathodic tubes.

From US 3,916,871 a flat panel solar collector module can be derived which comprises a housing with an evacuated chamber defined therein, a transparent planar wall forming one side of said chamber and a radiant energy absorber with flow passages therein which is thermally insulated from the housing. In one embodiment a vacuum pump is connected through suitable conduits to the collector module to evacuate the same from time to time as necessary. According to US 3,916,871 a vacuum in the area of one Torr (1 mm Hg) is considered to be sufficient to eliminate convection losses. However, in this document it is admitted that very low pressures that essentially eliminate also conduction losses would require a technology not commercially available.

In US 5,653,222 a flat panel solar collector is disclosed with which it is attempted to provide an evacuated flat panel collector having structures sufficient to resist the forces applied by the atmosphere to an evacuated envelope. Heat losses from the absorber plate due to convection, conduction and thermal infra-red emissions, commonly called radiation, shall be overcome by a flat panel solar collector comprising a rear housing which is configured to provide a series of parallel cells, preferably semi-circular in cross-section, whereby each such cell is adapted to support the primary glazing and to receive a fin-tube absorber. These fin-tubes occupy at least 90% of the open area between the side walls of the cells such that the majority of radiation is absorbed and little radiation passes between the fin-tube absorbers and the side walls. It is stated that the circular cross-section of individual cells provides the best resistance to the deformation forces of the internal vacuum. A flat panel solar collector according to US 5,653,222 affords a multitude of components the dimensions of which have to be accurately determined and which also have to be arranged in a complex predetermined fashion. Accordingly, flat panel solar collectors based on US 5,653,222 are rather expensive and are also rather difficult to manufacture.

In US 4,455,998 use is made of a solar collector which consists of at least one sealed evacuated transparent tube or envelope containing a heatable, reversible hydrogen getter consisting of one or more of the metals titanium, zirconium, hafnium, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, the rare earths, strontium, barium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, thorium and alloys thereof in a partly hydrogenized condition. The hydrogen pressure is increased by heating the reversible hydrogen getter which then releases hydrogen, whilst hydrogen is taken up again when the reversible hydrogen getter cools down. This mechanism ensures that the solar collector maintains its normal high efficiency as the losses of the solar collector can be increased by increasing the hydrogen pressure when the heat production of the solar collector exceeds the storage capacity of the remainder of the installation so that the temperature of the absorber tends to become too high. As an envelope for the solar collector only a glass tube is disclosed which has a round cross-section and encloses a plate-shaped absorber which is thermally conductively connected to the evaporator section of a heat pipe.

In spite of the merits of the solar collectors so far designed the evacuated tubular collectors still present some major inconveniences. Each tube requires a glass-to-metal seal at each end with bellows to reduce heat conduction and to compensate for differential thermal expansion of the cooling pipe with respect to the room temperature envelope. Further, the tubes must be spaced apart to avoid shadowing which results in a loss of absorbing capacity. Also, the maintenance and cleaning of multi-tube structures is rather problematic. Therefore, quite often an additional front glass is added to alleviate this problem, however, resulting in an additional loss of transmitted light.

Although the above disadvantages of tubular solar collectors can at least partially be overcome by a flat evacuated solar panel the major drawback of said flat systems still is that a large flat surface is less adequate to withstand atmospheric pressure. In addition, the peripheral glass-to-metal seal gives still cause for major problems. Probably because of these difficulties the flat solar collector of US 3,916,871 relies on a housing made from plastics having also a transparent plastic front. As a consequence this flat solar collector is evacuated only to 1 Torr, a pressure which may be sufficient to eliminate air convection, but not molecular conduction.

Against this background, it has been an object of the present invention to provide a flat panel solar collector which can also be run at very high temperatures, which has an increased efficiency and which holds a very high vacuum over a very long period. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a flat panel solar collector which also comprises large flat surfaces and which can withstand atmospheric pressure and ensures a high handling safety. Furthermore, it has been an object of the present invention to provide a reliable manufacturing process yielding highly vacuum-tight flat panel solar collectors.

This object has been achieved by a flat panel solar collector which comprises at least one absorber, in particular a plate absorber, at least one conduit which is at least partially thermally associated with at least one absorber, a holding structure, in particular made from metal, comprising a perimetric frame, and at least one first transparent, in particular planar, wall, in particular a glass pane, wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the first transparent wall and the holding structure, in particular a first bearing surface of the frame, have an overlapping, in particular perimetric, area, wherein at least one side of the first transparent wall comprises at least partially, in particular on at least part of the overlapping area and/or the perimeter of said side of the first transparent wall, a metal coating, in particular comprising a first metal layer, in particular a plasma spread copper layer, and a second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer, thereby furnishing at least one metallized area on the transparent wall, said flat panel solar collector further comprising a, in particular first, soft metal ribbon, in particular a lead or/and copper ribbon, which is adapted to seal the junction between the first transparent wall and the holding structure and which is adapted to be soldered, in particular soft-soldered, to the holding structure, in particular to the perimetric frame, and to the metallized area of the first transparent wall.

In another aspect of the invention the flat panel solar collector further comprises a bottom part attached to the holding structure, thereby forming a housing being adapted to be vacuum-tight.

It is particularly preferred, when at least one soft metal ribbon is at least aligned partially parallel to the metal holding structure. Thus, the metal ribbon is most conveniently aligned to the underlying surface of the holding structure on which it rests.

According to one embodiment of the present invention the perimeter of the transparent wall and the frame and/or the bottom part attached to the holding structure are fixed together by use of a soft metal ribbon, which is adapted to be soft soldered via at least one first soft soldered portion to the holding structure, in particular to the frame and/or bottom part of the holding structure, and/or via at least one second soft soldered portion to the transparent wall, in particular to the metallized area of the transparent wall.

The present invention also provides for a flat panel solar collector which further comprises at least one second transparent, in particular planer, wall, in particular glass pane, spaced apart from the first transparent wall by the holding structure, wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the second transparent wall and, in particular the second bearing surface of, the frame have an overlapping, in particular perimetric, area, wherein at least one side of the second transparent wall comprises at least partially, in particular on at least part of the overlapping area and/or the perimeter of said side of the second transparent wall, a metal coating, in particular comprising a first metal layer, in particular a plasma spread copper layer, and a second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer, thereby furnishing at least one metallized area on the second transparent wall; and a, in particular second, soft metal ribbon, in particular a lead and/or copper ribbon, which is adapted to seal the junction between the transparent second wall and the holding structure, in particular the frame, and which is adapted to be soldered, in particular soft-soldered, to the holding structure, in particular to the perimetric frame, and to the metallized area of the second transparent planar wall.

According to a preferred embodiment the flat panel solar collector also comprises at least one spacer, in particular in form of a spacer array, in particular of metal bars.

Spacers are used to properly support the transparent planar wall of the flat panel solar collector, in particular when a glass pane covers a too large surface. Without spacers a larger transparent front pane would collapse under atmospheric pressure. Most preferably, an array of longitudinal and transversal metal bars, in particular with a height essentially identical to the depth of the collector housing, is used. Usually, it is sufficient to provide for longitudinal or transversal bars, in particular metal bars, having a width of around 1 to 10 mm. Thus, the dimensions of the elements of the holding structure, in particular the perimetric frame and the spacers, are designed such that all bearing areas of the holding structure which tightly support the transparent wall lie within a single plane. In such a way the forces applied on the transparent wall are most evenly distributed.

Preferably, at least one shielding plate, in particular a low emissivity shielding plate is used, which is adapted to be interposed between the absorber and the bottom part attached to the holding structure. With such shielding plates thermal losses can be further reduced, mainly because the radiation exchange of the absorber with the metallic part of the collector is reduced.

Regularly, the distance between the bottom of the housing and the transparent planar wall is about 1 to 10 cm. Advantageously, the distance between the bottom part when attached to the holding structure and the front transparent planar wall is in the range of about 2 to 6 cm. Furthennore, the thickness of the front glass pane is usually in the range of from about 1 to 10 mm. The thickness of the front glass pane mainly depends on the surface size of said glass pane and on the distance between the spacers.

According to a preferred embodiment at least the holding structure, in particular at least part of the inner wall of the holding structure, at least one spacer and/or the bottom part, in particular the inner wall of the bottom part, is/are made from copper, steel or aluminium and/or are coated with a low infrared absorbtivity film, in particular comprising copper and/or aluminium to reduce radiation losses of the absorber. Provisions are made that the material used for the holding structure, and/or the bottom part is adapted to be resistant to corrosion, in particular at the outside of said flat panel solar collector.

In another embodiment of the present invention a flat panel solar collector is provided which further comprises at least one lumped getter and/or at least partially a getter coating, in particular having an average thickness of less than 1000 nm, on at least part of the absorber and/or the holding structure. It is preferred to take recourse to the getter technology in order to provide the flat panel solar collector of the invention with an integrated pump. By using such an integrated pump it is possible to maintain pressures lower than 10-4 Torr which are usually necessary to reduce molecular conduction losses to a significant extent. In a preferred embodiment a thin film non-evaporable getter coating is applied, in particular on the back side of the absorber and/or on the internal surface of the housing or holding structure. Care should be taken that the getter coating thickness does not impair the emissivity of the underlying copper or aluminum alloy coating. Usually, the thickness of the getter coating should be kept at a few hundred nm, in particular in the range of from about 100 to 600 nm, and most preferred at about 100 nm. The getter coating technique is for example disclosed in US 6,468,043 . As lumped getter pump, getters commercially available, as for instance the St 707 non-evaporable getter produced by SAES Getters, could be used.

Also, a flat panel solar collector is provided which further comprises between the transparent wall and the absorber at least one additional transparent wall and/or an infrared mirror coating on the internal side of the transparent wall and/or on the internal side or both sides of the additional transparent wall. In order to reduce the radiation losses to the front glass wall even further additional glass panes and/or infrared mirror layer coatings can be employed.

In one aspect of the invention vacuum-tight connecting port(s) being integrated into the perimetric frame and in particular comprising at least one expansion bellow. Also, provisions can be made that at least one connecting port in the form of a pumping port being incorporated into the perimetric frame or lateral wall of the holding structure for the initial evacuation of the collector. Cooling pipes or conduits which are disposed within the flat panel solar collector extend through the wall of the housing of the flat panel solar collector in a vacuum-tight fashion. Due to different thermal behavior of the conduits and the housing, expansion bellows can be employed in the vicinity of the connection of the housing and the conduit or cooling pipe. The pumping port is preferably designed as such that after completion of the evacuation process the connecting pipe is valved off. That connecting pipe may also be pinched off, in particular if made of copper.

In a very preferred embodiment provisions may be made that the holding structure, in particular the frame, comprises a lateral wall and a, in particular perpendicular thereto, supporting surface connected to said lateral wall which is adapted to carry, in particular the perimeter of, the transparent wall. It is particularly preferred if the frame of the flat panel solar collector comprises a perimetric lateral wall which encircles the bottom of the housing and which is in particular aligned perpendicular to the bottom of the housing. In a preferred embodiment the supporting surface which is connected to said lateral wall is aligned parallel to the bottom of the housing at least where it is opposite to said supporting surface. Such a U-shaped profile of the edge portion of the flat panel solar collector allows for a very robust fixture of the front transparent planar wall.

In another embodiment of the invention it is preferred that at least one soft metal ribbon is at least partially disposed between the transparent planar wall and the supporting surface of the frame and wherein at least a first portion of said metal ribbon is soldered, in particular soft soldered, to the, in particular metallized area of the, transparent planar wall and/or to the housing, in particular to the lateral wall and/or to the supporting surface, and/or wherein at least a second portion of said metal ribbon is soldered, in particular soft soldered, to the, in particular metallized area of the, transparent planar wall and/or to the housing, in particular to the lateral wall and/or to the supporting surface. It has been found that a very effective sealing of the flat panel solar collector of the invention can be achieved by using a tin-copper metallisation of the transparent planar wall, in particular by metallisation of the perimeter of one of the two surfaces of the transparent planar wall. A soft metal ribbon can then be soft soldered to both the housing, which is usually made of metal, and to the glass wall. It is preferred to dispose the soft metal ribbon between the interior side of the glass wall and the supporting surface which is connected to the lateral wall of the housing, thereby minimizing the dead volume under vacuum and protecting the glass wall from scratches which may be produced by friction against the metallic structure of the supporting surface of the frame.

Thus, provisions are being made that at least one first portion of a soft metal ribbon is soldered, in particular soft soldered, to the housing, in particular to the frame and/or to the supporting surface of the frame, and wherein a second portion of the soft metal ribbon is soldered, in particular soft soldered, to the transparent wall, in particular to a metallized area of said planar wall.

In another aspect of the invention provisions are being made that the absorber comprises at least one copper plate, in particular an OFE and/or OFS copper plate, which is coated with a selective absorber film, in particular chromium black, at least on that side which is exposed to solar radiation. Absorbers made from copper plates usually exhibit an average thickness of around 1 to 2 mm, e.g. when OFE or OFS copper plates are used. In general, as a selective absorber film such films are preferred which are capable to withstand long-term heating at around 350 to 400°C. The back of the absorber plates are preferably fixed to a conduit, e.g, a cooling pipe for heat extraction. For applications up to 150°C usually water can be used as a cooling fluid, while for higher temperature applications oil or air is preferred.

Also, flat panel solar collectors are provided in which at least one, in particular essentially U-shaped, conduit is thermally attached to at least one absorber, in particular by welding or brazing, and/or wherein the conduit(s) is/are arranged to not be in direct thermal contact with the holding structure, in particular the perimetric frame and/or at least one spacer.

Further, in one embodiment of the invention at least one external pump, in particular a turbo-molecular pumping station is provided. Such an external pump can be used to initially establish a sufficiently low pressure so that in the following use can be made of an integrated pumping, e.g. based on the getter technology.

The objects of the present invention can also be solved by a solar collector wherein also the back part of said collector comprises a transparent wall. Thus, a flat panel solar collector is provided which comprises at least one absorber, in particular a plate absorber, at least one conduit which is at least partially thermally associated with a least one absorber, a perimetric frame, in particular a metal frame, a front transparent wall and a back transparent wall wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the front transparent wall and the upper side of the frame and, in particular the perimeter of, the back transparent wall and the lower side of said frame each have an overlapping perimetric area, wherein at least part of the overlapping area of that side of the front transparent planar wall which is facing the upper side, in particular a supporting surface, of the frame and wherein at least part of the overlapping area of that side of the back transparent wall which is facing the back side, in particular a supporting surface, of the frame are each coated with at least one first metal layer, in particular are metallized with a plasma spread copper layer, and wherein each first metal layer is protected with at least one second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer, and wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the front transparent wall and said frame and in particular the perimeter of, the back transparent wall and said frame are each fixed together by use of a first and second, in particular perimetric, soft metal ribbon, in particular a lead and/or copper metal ribbon, the first metal ribbon being adapted to be soft soldered, in particular via at least one first portion, to the metallized area of the front transparent planar wall and via at least one second portion, in particular on its opposite side, to said frame, in particular across defined soldering portions, and wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the back transparent wall and said frame, are fixed together by use of a second, in particular perimetric, soft metal ribbon, in particular a lead and/or copper metal ribbon, which is adapted to be soft soldered, in particular via at least one first portion, to the metallized area of the back transparent planar wall and via at least one second portion, in particular on its opposite side, to said frame, in particular across defined soldering portions. The first and second soft metal ribbons are preferably at least partially aligned parallel to the holding structure.

Special benefits can be harnessed by a flat panel solar collector system in which combined use is made of a flat panel solar collector of the present invention and a mirror which is suited to reflect solar light onto the back transparent planar wall thereby allowing to increase the incident solar flux on the absorber most effectively. Thus, a flat panel solar collector system is provided which comprises at least one flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims and at least one mirror, in particular an essentially half cylindrical mirror, the mirror being adapted to reflect light onto at least one transparent wall of said flat panel solar collector. In one preferred embodiment, the flat panel solar collector can be placed above the half cylindrical mirror, in particular in such a way that even the diffuse component of the solar light which enters the mirror can almost completely be reflected on the back of the flat panel solar collector.

In another embodiment of the invention, e.g. if a half cylindrical mirror is used, said solar collector is essentially aligned along the axis of said half-cylindrical mirror.

Further, it is herewith proposed that the cross-section of the mirror exhibits the shape of a circular arc or of a part thereof, in particular being smaller than a semi-circle.

According to another embodiment of the invention a flat panel solar collector system is provided in which the solar collector is located above two adjacent half cylindrical mirrors or mirrors the cross-section of which exhibits the shape of a circular arc. By locating the mirrors adjacent to each other, both will reflect the solar light which enters the mirrors on the back portions of said collector.

When using a flat panel solar collector the front and back walls of which are transparent it is preferred to blacken the front and back sides of the absorber with a selective absorber film, in particular with chromium black or any other coating capable of withstanding long-term heating at about 350 to 400°C.

The surface outgassing can be greatly reduced if the entire flat panel solar collector of the invention is heated preferably at about or above 150°C, in particular for a few hours, while evacuating said collector with an external pumping station. Accordingly, the flat panel solar collectors of the present invention are preferably being made according to the following steps:

  1. a) providing at least one holding structure, in particular at least one perimetric frame and/or at least one spacer, at least one absorber, in particular a plate absorber, at least one conduit, at least one first transparent wall, at least one bottom part and/or at least one second transparent wall, wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the first and/or second transparent wall comprises at least partially a metal coating, in particular comprising a first metal layer, in particular a plasma spread copper layer, and a second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer,
  2. b) fitting the spacer(s) into the perimetric frame,
  3. c) fitting at least one conduit being thermally associated to an absorber, in particular by welding or brazing, onto at least one spacer, in particular by at least one snap fitting element, and into connection ports in the perimetric frame,
  4. d) welding the ends of the conduit to the connecting ports,
  5. e) fitting the first transparent wall onto the metal coating of which a soft metal ribbon has been soft-soldered onto the holding structure,
  6. f) soldering said soft metal ribbon to the holding structure, thereby in particular aligning at least part of the soft metal ribbon essentially in parallel to the holding structure,
  7. g) evacuating the solar panel, in particular via a pumping port, by use of at least one external pump,
  8. h) heating the flat panel solar collector from about 120°C to about 170°C, in particular to about 150°C, for a period of time, in particular for at least 30 min, sufficient to provide a sufficient outgassing of the collector,
  9. i) heating the flat panel solar collector, in particular those parts of said flat panel solar collector which comprise a lumped getter and/or a getter coating, to temperatures above 170°C, in particular to about 180°C or higher, in order to activate the getter, and
  10. j) isolating the flat panel solar collector, in particular by closing a valve or by pinching off the conduit connection at the pumping port.

As part of this method or separately the getter pump or getter coating can be thermally activated prior to closing the pumping port by keeping the panel at an elevated temperature over a sufficient period of time. For example, if a TiZrV coating is used as a getter material heating is preferably continued at about 180 to 200°C for around 2 hours. By this method a pressure lower than 10-8 Torr can be obtained. The flat panel solar collector of the invention is then isolated, e.g. by a valve or preferably by pinching-off the connecting pipe.

If the holding structure and the bottom part are not already joined together the step of fitting the bottom part to the holding structure, in particular to its frame, in a vacuum-tight manner can be incorporated into the manufacturing process.

In case both sides of the holding structure should be provided with a transparent wall instead of fitting a bottom part to the holding structure the following step has to be incorporated into the manufacturing process: fitting the second transparent wall onto the metal coating of which a soft metal ribbon has been soft-soldered onto the holding structure, and soldering said soft metal ribbon to the holding structure.

The invention is thus based on the surprising perception that a flat panel solar collector can be obtained with which very low pressures are accessible thereby providing a highly sufficient peripheral glass-to-metal seal. The flat panel solar collector of the invention is thus well suited to accommodate thermal constraints which result from differential expansion of different materials of the solar collector without damaging the seal. These flat panel solar collectors can therefore be used over very long periods without the need to evacuate the housing by use of an external pumping station. Also, the flat panel solar collectors of the invention can be used under various climatic conditions and for a multitude of different applications. Also, the entire temperature range of from about 30°C up to about 300°C and even higher can be covered. With the flat panel solar collectors of the present invention, even those being exposed to solar radiation from one side only, equilibrium temperatures of about 350°C and more have been obtained. Apart from domestic heating which can already be achieved by non evacuated collectors the solar collectors of the present invention can also be used for the generation of electric power, for example by means of collector fields, for refrigeration and air conditioning. Moreover, the flat panel solar collectors of the invention can be used for the generation of hydrogen from water, the desalination of see water and the generation of hot oil for commercial or residential cooking.

Also, the maintenance of said solar collectors is rather easy and the time required for maintenance work is reduced. It is another advantage of the present invention that a solar collector is disclosed which can be very easily assembled and which, therefore, allows for an economic mass production. It is also of great advantage that a very reliable metal to glass seal is provided. As also very large transparent panels can be used a large variety of technical applications is accessible with the flat panel solar collector of the present invention.

Further features and advantages of the invention can be derived from the following description, wherein preferred embodiments of the invention are explained in detail by way of an example on the basis of schematic drawings.

Fig. 1a
depicts a schematic top view of a flat solar panel structure according to the invention;
Fig. 1b
depicts an exploded perspective view of a flat panel solar collector according to the invention;
Fig. 1c
depicts another exploded perspective view of the flat panel solar collector according to the invention;
Fig. 1d
depicts a schematic sectional view of the lateral part of the flat panel solar collector according to Figure 1c;
Fig. 2
depicts a schematic cross-sectional view of a peripheral seal configuration of a flat panel solar collector according to the invention;
Fig. 3
depicts a schematic cross-sectional view of a peripheral seal configuration of a flat panel solar collector according to the invention;
Fig. 4
depicts a schematic cross-sectional view of a peripheral seal configuration of a flat panel solar collector according to the invention;
Fig. 5
depicts a schematic cross-sectional view of a peripheral seal configuration of a flat panel solar collector according to the invention;
Fig. 6
shows a cross-sectional view of a peripheral seal configuration of a flat panel solar collector of the invention also comprising a cooling pipe;
Fig. 7
shows a schematic cross-sectional view of a peripheral seal configuration of a flat panel solar collector of the invention also comprising a lateral connection for evacuation;
Fig. 8
shows another embodiment of a flat panel solar collector of the invention;
Fig. 9
shows another embodiment of a flat panel solar collector of the invention; and
Fig. 10
shows another embodiment of a flat panel solar collector system of the invention.

In Fig. 1 a a flat panel solar collector 1 is shown having a rectangular shape and comprising a housing 2 in the form of a metal box and a top transparent planar wall 4. The housing 2 comprises an essentially flat bottom part 6 and a perimetric lateral frame 8. The top transparent planar wall 4 is placed along its perimeter on frame 8. Longitudinal and transversal metal bars 10 and 12 are used as spacers to support the transparent planar wall 4. Low pressure within the flat panel solar collector 1 can be built up via connecting port 14 which exhibits a lateral connection via frame 8 into the housing 2. Conduits or cooling pipes 16 and 18 are placed within the housing, preferably between the bottom part 6 and absorber plates 20 (shown in dotted lines in order to reveal the underlying cooling pipe system). The surface of the absorber 20 which is subjectable to solar light is preferably coated with a black film. Furthermore, the cooling pipes 16 and 18 are thermally connected to the back of the absorber plate 20. The flat panel solar connector 1 according to Fig. 1 a further comprises a lump getter pump (not shown), e.g. adjacent to frame 8, with which very low pressures can be obtained and also maintained over very long periods. It has been found to be advantageous to provide cooling pipes 16 and 18 which have expansion bellows 24 and 26 outside the housing 2 in order to cope with differential thermal expansion.

In Fig. 1b a flat panel solar collector 1 is shown with its individual components artificially spaced apart from their built-in positions. The holding structure 2 is of rectangular shape having a perimetric frame 8 and a longitudinal and transversal spacer metal bar 10 and 12, respectively; forming a cross-like shape. The height of these spacer bars and the perimetric frame is adjusted as such that a cooling pipe 16, 18 and absorber plates 20 can be accommodated within the housing of the flat panel solar collector 1, when the transparent planer wall is placed on top of them. The individual absorber plates 20 are sized as such that they fit in the compartments generated by the spacer bars and the perimetric frame 8. The cooling pipe 16, 18 is attached to the individual absorber plates, for example having a U-shape, thereby having contact with all four absorber plates 20. Most conveniently, the spacer bars 10 and 12 are provided with respective cut-outs, e.g. in the form of clips, in order to take up and fixate the cooling pipe 16, 18. Care should be taken that there is essentially no thermal contact between the cooling pipe 16, 18 and the spacer bars 10 and 12. This can for example be achieved by using clips or other distant pieces. The terminal portions of the cooling pipe 16, 18 within the holding structure 2 merge into connecting ports 17 and 19, respectively, which are integrated into the perimetric frame 8.

From Fig. 1c an exploded view of the flat panel solar collector according to Fig. 1b seen from below can be derived. As shown in Fig. 1c the cooling pipe 16, 18 is attached to the entire bottom part of each individual absorber plate 20 in order to secure a maximum transfer of thermal energy from the absorber plate 20 to the fluid transferred in the cooling pipe. In an alternative embodiment not only the cover plate of the flat panel solar collector can be provided with a transparent planar wall 4, but also its back part, thereby substituting the bottom part 6 of the housing by another transparent planar wall. In this embodiment, the absorber plates 20 are blackened on both sides. Alternatively, another set of absorbing plates 20 is placed between the second transparent planar wall and the cooling pipe 16, 18. In such an embodiment the cooling pipe 16, 18 is sandwiched between two sets of absorber plates and is thus thermally associated on opposite sides of its tubing with said opposing absorber plates. However, it is also possible, to provide the second set of absorber plates with a separate cooling pipe system, so that between the first and second set of absorber plates at least two separate cooling pipes are arranged.

In Fig. 1d a section of the flat panel solar collector 1 according to Fig. 1b can be seen in an enlarged manner. The connecting ports 17 and 19 which take up the terminal portions of the cooling pipe 16, 18 are each provided with expansion bellows 24 and 26 in order to cope with a thermally induced change of dimension. The pumping port is shown after having been closed and pinched off in order to secure a highly vacuum-tight housing of the flat panel solar collector 1.

In Fig. 2 to 5 different sealing modes are depicted which can be used to connect the top transparent planar wall 4 to a housing 2. In Fig. 2 a cross-sectional view is shown of the edge portion of a flat panel solar collector 1 of the invention in a schematic manner. The frame 8 comprises a lateral wall segment 28 which is essentially perpendicular to the bottom part 6, and at the outer edge of the lateral wall 28 a supporting surface 30 is provided which preferably extends parallel to the bottom part 6, thus being essentially perpendicularly orientated to the lateral wall 28. The sealing of the flat panel solar collector 1 is achieved according to the embodiment of Fig. 2 by disposing a soft metal ribbon 32 between the perimeter of the planar wall 4 and the supporting surface 30. In this embodiment, at least the low surface of the planar wall 4 is coated via tin-copper metallisation along its perimeter, preferably where those portions of the soft metal ribbon are placed which shall be soft soldered to the planar wall 4. In the present example, the soft metal ribbon 32 has a first portion 34 which is soft soldered to the upper supporting surface 30, which is usually made from metal, as is the entire housing 2. Furthermore, the soft metal ribbon 32 is fixed to the transparent wall 4 via a second soft soldered portion 36, thereby furnishing a very tight sealing which also is well suited to minimize the dead volume under vacuum. As there is no direct contact between the transparent wall 4 and the frame 8 the transparent wall is protected from scratches which may be produced by friction against the metallic structure of said frame. As a common feature of a preferred joining mode between the glass plate and the metal holding structure the soft metal ribbon is at least partially arranged essentially parallel to the metal holding structure, e.g. the frame.

Similarly, Fig. 5 provides for an alternative sealing mode for a flat panel solar collector of the invention which also prevents a direct contact between the planar wall 4 and the supporting surface 30. Different from Fig. 1, the soft metal ribbon 32 is soft soldered with a first portion 34 to the supporting surface 30, preferably located at one end of the soft metal ribbon 32, and to the top transparent planar wall 4 via a second soft soldered portion 36, which is fixed to the metallized front perimeter of the planar wall 4.

Alternatively, a tight sealing can also be obtained by use of a soft metal ribbon 32 which is attached to the lateral wall 28 via a first soft soldered portion 34 and to the top surface at the perimeter of the transparent planar wall 4 via a second soft soldered portion 36. The soft metal ribbon 32 is thus sealing the junction of the planar wall 4 and the supporting surface 30, Fig. 3. Another sealing mode can be derived from Fig. 4 according to which the soft metal ribbon 32 is attached to the lateral wall 28 via a first soft soldered portion 34 and to the lower surface of the transparent planar wall 4 via a second soft soldered portion 36. In this case, the lower surface of the transparent planar wall 4 is covered with a metal layer as described above along its perimeter. Different from those embodiments as shown in Fig. 2, 3 and 5 the flat panel solar collector 1 of Fig. 4 uses a transparent planar wall 4 which is slightly bigger in size than the housing 2, thus extending over the lateral wall 28 along its perimeter.

In Fig. 6 the connection of the cooling pipe 38 is depicted in a schematic drawing. Expansion bellows 40, which are connected to an opening in the lateral frame 8 on the one hand and to, for example, a thermal insulation on the other hand, are used to cope with the differential thermal expansion of different materials used within the flat panel solar collector 1. Also, as can be seen in Fig. 7, a lateral connection 42 can be provided as a connection means for an external pumping station. The connecting port 44 can for example be provided with a valve in order to seal the flat panel solar collector 1. Preferably, the lateral connection is pinched-off to provide a proper sealing.

From Fig. 8 an alternative flat panel solar collector 1' can be derived which comprises a top transparent planar wall 46, a bottom transparent planar wall 48 and a circumferencial peripheral wall or frame 50 which is preferably made from metal. Most preferably, frame 50 is provided with a lateral wall 68 and with perimetric supporting surfaces 70 and 72 on its top and bottom parts on which the top and bottom transparent planar walls 46 and 48 can be placed, respectively. As with flat panel solar collector 1 also the solar collector 1' can be provided with metal bars 52 which function as spacers and which support both, the top and bottom transparent planar walls 48 and 46. Again, a tight junction between the top planar wall 46 and the surface 70, and between the bottom planar wall 48 and the supporting surface 72 can be achieved by individual soft metal ribbons 74 and 76, respectively, each comprising soft soldered portions 78, 80 and 82, 84. At least those portions of the planar walls 46, 48 to which the soft metal ribbons are soft soldered have been metallized, in particular by a double metal layer system, e.g. a tin/copper double layer. It is also possible to use a single soft metal ribbon which extends from the top supporting surface along the lateral wall to the bottom supporting surface (not shown).

In a preferred embodiment of the invention the flat panel solar collector 1' is used in combination with a half cylindrical or trough-like mirror 54 thereby furnishing a flat panel solar collector system 56. In one embodiment which is shown in Fig. 9 flat panel solar collector 1' is located along the axis of a half cylindrical mirror 54 covering essentially one half of said mirror opening. Solar light can then enter that portion of the half cylinder which is not covered by the solar collector 1', and can thus be reflected on the back of said collector. In this way the incident solar flux on the absorber can be most effectively increased. Preferably, the absorber is coated with a black surface on its top as well as on its back part. The concept underlying the flat panel solar collector system 56 can also be exploited with an arrangement as depicted in Fig. 10. The flat panel solar collector system 56' of Fig. 10 makes use of two adjacent half cylindrical mirrors which are joined or attached or at least in close vicinity at there respective edge portions thereby being essentially W-shaped. On top of this junction of both half cylindrical mirrors 58, 60 the flat panel solar collector 1' is placed, thereby covering a portion of the half cylindrical mirror 58 as well as a portion of the half cylindrical mirror 60. Solar light can then enter both half cylindrical mirrors 58 and 60 via those portions which are not covered by flat panel solar collector 1'.

While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings in the above description, the same is to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character, it being understood that only the preferred embodiment has been shown and described and that all changes and modifications that come within the scope of the invention as defined by the claims are desired to be protected.

Reference List

1, 1'
flat panel solar collector
2
holding structure
4
transparent planar wall
6
bottom part of the housing
8
lateral frame of the housing
10
longitudinal spacer metal barr
12
transversal spacer metal barr
14
pumping port
16
cooling pipe
17
connecting port
18
cooling pipe
19
connecting port
20
absorber plate
24
expansion bellows
26
expansion bellows
28
lateral wall segment of the frame 8
30
supporting surface
32
soft metal ribbon
34
soft soldered first portion
36
soft soldered second portion
38
cooling pipe
40
expansion bellows
42
lateral connection
44
connecting port
46
top transparent planar wall
48
bottom transparent planar wall
50
perimetric frame
52
spacer metal barr
54
half-cylindrical mirror
56, 56'
flat panel solar collector system
58
half-cylindrical mirror
60
half-cylindrical mirror
68
lateral wall
70
supporting surface
72
supporting surface
74
soft metal ribbon
76
soft metal ribbon
78
soft soldered portion
80
soft soldered portion
82
soft soldered portion
84
soft soldered portion


Anspruch[de]
Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1'), der eingerichtet ist, evakuierbar und vakuumdicht zu sein, umfassend: zumindest einen Absorber (20), im besonderen einen Plattenabsorber, zumindest eine Leitung (16, 18), die zumindest zum Teil thermisch in Verbindung mit dem zumindest einen Absorber (20) steht, eine Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen aus Metall, die einen perimetrischen Rahmen (8) und zumindest eine erste transparente, im besonderen planare, Wand (4, 46, 48), im besonderen eine Glasscheibe, umfasst, wobei die, im besonderen der Perimeter der, erste(n) transparente(n) Wand (4, 46, 48) und die Haltestruktur, im besonderen eine erste Auflagefläche des Rahmens (8), einen überlappenden Bereich, im besonderen einen überlappenden Perimeterbereich, aufweisen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zumindest eine Seite der ersten transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48) zumindest zum Teil, im besonderen auf zumindest einem Teil des überlappenden Bereichs und/oder dem Perimeter der Seite der ersten transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48), eine Metallbeschichtung umfasst, im besonderen eine erste Metallschicht, im besonderen eine mittels Plasma aufgetragene Kupferschicht, und eine zweite Metallschicht, im besonderen eine Zinndeckschicht, umfassend, wodurch zumindest ein metallisierter Bereich auf der transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48) bereitgestellt wird, wobei der Flachplattensonnenkollektor weiterhin ein, im besonderen erstes, Weichmetallband (32) umfasst, im besonderen ein Blei- und/oder Kupferband, das eingerichtet ist, die Verbindungsstelle zwischen der ersten transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48) und der Haltestruktur (2) zu versiegeln und das auf die Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen auf den Perimeterrahmen (8), und auf den metallisierten Bereich der ersten transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48) gelötet, im besonderen weichgelötet, wird. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1) nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend ein Bodenteil (6), das an der Haltestruktur (2) angebracht ist und dadurch ein Gehäuse ausbildet, das eingerichtet ist, vakuumdicht zu sein. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1') nach Anspruch 1, weiterhin umfassend zumindest eine zweite transparente, im besonderen planare, Wand, im besonderen eine Glasscheibe, von der ersten transparenten Wand durch die Haltestruktur (2) beabstandet, wobei die, im besonderen der Perimeter der, zweite(n) transparente(n) Wand und der Rahmen (8), im besonderen die zweite Auflagefläche des Rahmens (8), einen überlappenden Bereich, im besonderen Perimeterbereich, aufweisen, wobei zumindest eine Seite der zweiten transparenten Wand zumindest zum Teil, im besonderen auf zumindest einem Teil des überlappenden Bereichs und/oder dem Perimeter der Seite der zweiten transparenten Wand, eine Metallbeschichtung umfasst, im besonderen umfassend eine erste Metallschicht, im besonderen eine mittels Plasma aufgetragene Kupferschicht, und eine zweite Metallschicht, im besonderen eine Zinndeckschicht, wodurch zumindest ein metallisierter Bereich auf der zweiten transparenten Wand bereitgestellt wird; und ein, im besonderen zweites, Weichmetallband, im besonderen ein Blei- und/oder Kupferband, das eingerichtet ist, die Verbindungsstelle zwischen der transparenten zweiten Wand und der Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen den Rahmen (8), zu versiegeln, und das eingerichtet ist, auf die Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen auf den Perimeterrahmen (8), und auf den metallisierten Bereich der zweiten transparenten planaren Wand gelötet, im besonderen weichgelötet, zu werden. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zumindest ein Weichmetallband (32) zumindest zum Teil im wesentlichen parallel zu der Metallhaltestruktur (2) ausgerichtet ist. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Perimeter der transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48) und der Rahmen (8) und/oder das Bodenteil (6) der Haltestruktur (2) miteinander durch die Verwendung eines Weichmetallbandes (32) verbunden sind, das eingerichtet ist, über zumindest einen ersten weichgelöteten Abschnitt (34) auf die Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen auf den Rahmen (8), und/oder das Bodenteil der Haltestruktur weichgelötet zu werden und/oder über zumindest einen zweiten weichgelöteten Abschnitt (36) auf die transparente Wand (4, 46, 48), im besonderen auf den metallisierten Bereich der transparenten Wand, weichgelötet zu werden. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Haltestruktur (2) weiterhin zumindest einen Abstandhalter (10, 12, 52) umfasst, im besonderen in Form einer Abstandhalteranordnung, im besonderen aus Metallstäben. Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, der weiterhin zumindest eine Abschirmplatte umfasst, im besonderen eine Abschirmplatte mit geringem Emissionsvermögen, die eingerichtet ist, zwischen dem Absorber und dem an der Haltestruktur angebrachten Bodenteil eingesetzt zu werden. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Abstand zwischen dem Bodenteil (6), wenn es an der Haltestruktur (2) oder zwischen der zweiten transparenten Wand (48) und der ersten transparenten Wand (4, 46) angebracht ist, im Bereich von zirka 1 bis 10 cm liegt. Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zumindest die Haltestruktur, im besonderen zumindest ein Teil der Innenwand der Haltestruktur, zumindest ein Abstandhalter und/oder das Bodenteil, im besonderen die Innenwand des Bodenteils, aus Kupfer, Stahl oder Aluminium gefertigt sind und/oder mit einer Schicht mit niedrigem Infrarotabsorptionsvermögen beschichtet sind, umfassend im besonderen Kupfer und/oder Aluminium. Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das für die Haltestruktur und/oder für das Bodenteil verwendete Material eingerichtet ist, widerstandsfähig gegen Korrosion zu sein, im besonderen an der Außenseite des Flachplattensonnenkollektors. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend zumindest einen konzentrierten Getter und/oder zumindest zum Teil eine Getterbeschichtung, im besonderen mit einer durchschnittlichen Dicke von weniger als 1000 nm, auf zumindest einem Teil des Absorbers (20) und/oder der Haltestruktur (2). Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend zwischen der transparenten Wand und dem Absorber zumindest eine zusätzliche transparente Wand und/oder eine Infrarotspiegelbeschichtung auf der Innenseite der transparenten Wand und/oder auf einer oder auf beiden Seiten der zusätzlichen transparenten Wand. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Leitung (Leitungen) einen vakuumdichten Verbindungsanschluss bzw. vakuumdichte Verbindungsanschlüsse (17, 19) umfaßt bzw. umfassen, die in den Perimeterrahmen (8) integriert sind und im besonderen zumindest einen Dehnungsausgleicher (24, 26) umfassen. Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend zumindest einen Verbindungsanschluss in Form eines Pumpanschlusses (44), die in den Perimeterrahmen oder in die Seitenwand der Haltestruktur integriert ist und/oder zumindest eine Pumpe, die eingerichtet ist, mit dem Pumpanschluss verbindbar zu sein. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen der Rahmen (8), eine Seitenwand (28) und eine, im besonderen senkrecht dazu verlaufende, Auflagefläche (30) umfasst, die mit der Seitenwand verbunden ist und eingerichtet ist, die transparente Wand (4, 46, 48), im besonderen den Perimeter der transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48), zu tragen. Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1) nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zumindest ein erster Abschnitt (34) eines Weichmetallbandes (32) an das Gehäuse (2), im besonderen an den Rahmen (8) und/oder an die Auflagefläche (30) des Rahmens, gelötet, im besonderen weichgelötet, ist, und wobei ein zweiter Abschnitt (36) des Weichmetallbandes (32) an die transparente Wand (4), im besonderen an einen metallisierten Bereich der planaren Wand, gelötet, im besonderen weichgelötet, ist. Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Absorber zumindest eine Kupferplatte, im besonderen eine OFE- und/oder OFS-Kupferplatte, umfasst, die mit einer selektiven Absorberschicht, im besonderen Chromschwarz, beschichtet ist, zumindest auf der Seite, die der Sonnenstrahlung aussetzbar ist. Flachplattensonnenkollektor nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zumindest eine, im besonderen im wesentlichen U-förmige, Leitung thermisch an zumindest einem Absorber befestigt ist, im besonderen durch Schweißen oder Hartlöten und/oder wobei die Leitung/Leitungen so angeordnet ist/sind, dass sie nicht in direktem thermischen Kontakt mit der Haltestruktur, im besonderen dem Perimeterrahmen und/oder zumindest einem Abstandhalter stehen. Flachplattensonnenkollektorsystem (56, 56'), umfassend zumindest einen Flachplattensonnenkollektor (1, 1') nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche und zumindest einen Spiegel (54, 58, 60), im besonderen einen im wesentlichen halbzylindrischen Spiegel, wobei der Spiegel eingerichtet ist, Licht auf zumindest eine transparente Wand des Flachplattensonnenkollektors zu reflektieren. Flachplattensonnenkollektorsystem (56, 56') nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Sonnenkollektor (1, 1') im wesentlichen entlang der Achse eines halbzylindrischen Spiegels (54, 58, 60) ausgerichtet ist. Flachplattensonnenkollektorsystem nach Anspruch 19 oder 20, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Querschnitt des Spiegels die Form eines Kreisbogens oder eines Teils desselben aufweist, der im besonderen kleiner als ein Halbkreis ist. Flachplattensonnenkollektorsystem (56') nach einem der Ansprüche 19 bis 21, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Sonnenkollektor (1, 1') oberhalb von zwei benachbarten halbzylindrischen Spiegeln (58, 60) oder von Spiegeln plaziert ist, deren Querschnitt die Form eines Kreisbogens oder eines Teils desselben aufweist. Sonnenkollektoranordnung, die zumindest zwei Flachplattensonnenkollektoren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 18 und/oder Flachplattensonnenkollektorsysteme nach einem der Ansprüche 19 bis 22 umfasst. Verfahren für die Herstellung eines Flachplattensonnenkollektors (1, 1') nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 18, umfassend a) Bereitstellung zumindest einer Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen zumindest eines Perimeterrahmens (8) und/oder zumindest eines Abstandhalters, zumindest eines Absorbers (20), im besonderen eines Plattenabsorbers, zumindest einer Leitung (16, 18), zumindest einer ersten transparenten Wand (4, 46, 48), zumindest eines Bodenteils und/oder zumindest einer zweiten transparenten Wand, wobei die, im besonderen der Perimeter der, erste(n) und/oder zweite(n) transparente(n) Wand zumindest zum Teil eine Metallbeschichtung umfassen, im besonderen eine erste Metallschicht, im besonderen eine mittels Plasma aufgetragene Kupferschicht, und eine zweite Metallschicht, im besonderen eine Zinndeckschicht, umfassend; b) Einpassen des Abstandhalters/der Abstandhalter in den Perimeterrahmen; c) Anbringen der zumindest einen Leitung (16, 18), die thermisch mit dem Absorber (20) verbunden ist, im besonderen durch Schweißen oder Hartlöten, auf den zumindest einen Abstandhalter, im besonderen durch zumindest ein Schnappverriegelungselement, und an die Verbindungsanschlüsse im Perimeterrahmen (8); d) Schweißen der Enden der Leitung (16, 18) an die Verbindungsanschlüsse; e) Anbringen der ersten transparenten Wand auf die Metallbeschichtung, von der ein Weichmetallband (32) an die Haltestruktur (2) weichgelötet worden ist; f) Löten des Weichmetallbandes (32) auf die Haltestruktur (2), wodurch im besonderen zumindest ein Teil des Weichmetallbandes (32) im wesentlichen parallel zur Haltestruktur (2) ausgerichtet wird; g) Evakuierung der Solarplatte (1, 1'), im besonderen über einen Pumpanschluss, durch den Einsatz von zumindest einer externen Pumpe; h) Erhitzen des Flachplattensonnenkollektors (1, 1') auf etwa 120° C bis etwa 170° C, im besonderen auf zirka 150° C, über einen Zeitraum, im besonderen von zumindest 30 Minuten, um für eine ausreichende Ausgasung des Kollektors (1, 1') zu sorgen, i) Erhitzen des Flachplattensonnenkollektors (1, 1'), im besonderen der Teile des Flachplattensonnenkollektors (1, 1'), die einen konzentrierten [lumped] Getter und/oder eine Getterbeschichtung umfassen, auf Temperaturen oberhalb von 170° C, im besonderen auf etwa 180° C oder mehr, um den Getter zu aktivieren, und j) Isolieren des Flachplattensonnenkollektors (1, 1'), im besonderen durch das Schließen eines Ventils oder durch Abklemmen der Leitungsverbindung an dem Pumpanschluss. Verfahren nach Anspruch 24, weiterhin umfassend den Schritt der Befestigung des Bodenteils an der Haltestruktur (2), im besonderen an ihrem Rahmen (8), in vakuumdichter Weise. Verfahren nach Anspruch 24, weiterhin umfassend den Schritt des Anbringens der zweiten transparenten Wand auf die Metallbeschichtung, von der ein Weichmetallband (32) auf die Haltestruktur weichgelötet worden ist, und Löten des Weichmetallbandes (32) auf die Haltestruktur (2).
Anspruch[en]
A flat panel solar collector (1, 1') which is adapted to be evacuable and vacuum-tight comprising at least one absorber (20), in particular a plate absorber, at least one conduit (16, 18) which is at least partially thermally associated with the at least one absorber (20), a holding structure (2), in particular made from metal, comprising a perimetric frame (8), and at least one first transparent, in particular planar, wall (4, 46, 48), in particular a glass pane, wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the first transparent wall (4, 46, 48) and the holding structure, in particular a first bearing surface of the frame (8), have an overlapping, in particular perimetric, area, characterised in that at least one side of the first transparent wall (4, 46, 48) comprises at least partially, in particular on at least part of the overlapping area and/or the perimeter of said side of the first transparent wall (4, 46, 48), a metal coating, in particular comprising a first metal layer, in particular a plasma spread copper layer, and a second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer, thereby furnishing at least one metallized area on the transparent wall (4, 46, 48), said flat panel solar collector further comprising a, in particular first, soft metal ribbon (32), in particular a lead and/or copper ribbon, which is adapted to seal the junction between the first transparent wall (4, 46, 48) and the holding structure (2) and which is soldered, in particular soft-soldered, to the holding structure (2), in particular to the perimetric frame (8), and to the metallized area of the first transparent wall (4, 46, 48). The flat panel solar collector (1) according to claim 1, further comprising

a bottom part (6) attached to the holding structure (2), thereby forming a housing being adapted to be vacuum-tight.
The flat panel solar collector (1') according to claim 1, further comprising

at least one second transparent, in particular planar, wall, in particular glass pane, spaced apart from the first transparent wall by the holding structure (2), wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the second transparent wall and, in particular the second bearing surface of, the frame (8) have an overlapping, in particular perimetric, area, wherein at least one side of the second transparent wall comprises at least partially, in particular on at least part of the overlapping area and/or the perimeter of said side of the second transparent wall, a metal coating, in particular comprising a first metal layer, in particular a plasma spread copper layer, and a second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer, thereby furnishing at least one metallized area on the second transparent wall; and a, in particular second, soft metal ribbon, in particular a lead and/or copper ribbon, which is adapted to seal the junction between the transparent second wall and the holding structure (2); in particular the frame (8), and which is adapted to be soldered, in particular soft-soldered, to the holding structure (2), in particular to the perimetric frame (8), and to the metallized area of the second transparent planar wall.
The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that

at least one soft metal ribbon (32) is at least partially aligned essentially parallel to the metal holding structure (2).
The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the perimeter of the transparent wall (4, 46, 48) and the frame (8) and/or the bottom part (6) of the holding structure (2) are fixed together by use of a soft metal ribbon (32), which is adapted to be soft soldered via at least one first soft soldered portion (34) to the holding structure (2), in particular to the frame (8) and/or bottom part (6) of the holding structure, and/or via at least one second soft soldered portion (36) to the transparent wall (4, 46, 48), in particular to the metallized area of the transparent wall. The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the holding structure (2) further comprises at least one spacer (10, 12, 52), in particular in form of a spacer array, in particular of metal bars. The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising at least one shielding plate, in particular a low emissivity shielding plate, which is adapted to be interposed between the absorber and the bottom part attached to the holding structure. The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the distance between the bottom part (6) when attached to the holding structure (2) or between the second transparent wall (48) and the first transparent wall (4, 46) is about 1 to 10 cm. The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, wherein

at least the holding structure, in particular at least part of the inner wall of the holding structure, at least one spacer and/or the bottom part, in particular the inner wall of the bottom part, is/are made from copper, steel or aluminium and/or are coated with a low infrared absorbtivity film, in particular comprising copper and/or aluminium.
The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, wherein

the material used for the holding structure and/or the bottom part is adapted to be resistant to corrosion, in particular at the outside of said flat panel solar collector.
The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising at least one lumped getter and/or at least partially a getter coating, in particular having an average thickness of less than 1000 nm, on at least part of the absorber (20) and/or the holding structure (2). The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising between the transparent wall and the absorber at least one additional transparent wall and/or an infrared mirror coating on the internal side of the transparent wall and/or on one or both sides of the additional transparent wall. The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the conduit(s) comprise(s) vacuum-tight connecting port(s) (17, 19) being integrated into the perimetric frame (8) and in particular comprising at least one expansion bellow (24, 26). The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, further comprising at least one connecting port in the form of a pumping port (44) being incorporated into the perimetric frame or lateral wall of the holding structure and/or at least one pump which is adapted to be connectable to said pumping port. The flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the holding structure (2), in particular the frame (8), comprises a lateral wall (28) and a, in particular perpendicular thereto, supporting surface (30) connected to said lateral wall which is adapted to carry, in particular the perimeter of, the transparent wall (4, 46, 48). The flat panel solar collector (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein

at least one first portion (34) of a soft metal ribbon (32) is soldered, in particular soft soldered, to the housing (2), in particular to the frame (8) and/or to the supporting surface (30) of the frame, and wherein a second portion (36) of the soft metal ribbon (32) is soldered, in particular soft soldered, to the transparent wall (4), in particular to a metallized area of said planar wall.
The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, wherein

the absorber comprises at least one copper plate, in particular an OFE and/or OFS copper plate, which is coated with a selective absorber film, in particular chromium black, at least on that side which is subjectable to solar radiation.
The flat panel solar collector according to one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one, in particular essentially U-shaped, conduit is thermally attached to at least one absorber, in particular by welding or brazing, and/or wherein the conduit(s) is/are arranged to not be in direct thermal contact with the holding structure, in particular the perimetric frame and/or at least one spacer. A flat panel solar collector system (56, 56'), comprising

at least one flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of the preceding claims and at least one mirror (54, 58, 60), in particular an essentially half cylindrical mirror, the mirror being adapted to reflect light onto at least one transparent wall of said flat panel solar collector.
The flat panel solar collector system (56, 56') according to claim 19, wherein

said solar collector (1, 1') is essentially aligned along the axis of a half-cylindrical mirror (54, 58, 60).
The flat panel solar collector system according to claims 19 or 20, wherein the cross-section of the mirror exhibits the shape of a circular arc or of a part thereof, in particular being smaller than a semi-circle. The flat panel solar collector system (56') according to one of claims 19 to 21, wherein the solar collector (1, 1') is located above two adjacent half cylindrical mirrors (58, 60) or mirrors the cross-section of which exhibits the shape of a circular arc or of a part thereof. A solar collector array comprising at least two flat panel solar collectors according to one of claims 1 to 18 and/or flat panel solar collector systems according to one of claims 19 to 22. A method for the preparation of a flat panel solar collector (1, 1') according to one of claims 1 to 18, comprising a) providing at least one holding structure (2), in particular at least one perimetric frame (8) and/or at least one spacer, at least one absorber (20), in particular a plate absorber, at least one conduit (16, 18), at least one first transparent wall (4, 46, 48), at least one bottom part and/or at least one second transparent wall, wherein, in particular the perimeter of, the first and/or second transparent wall comprises at least partially a metal coating, in particular comprising a first metal layer, in particular a plasma spread copper layer, and a second metal layer, in particular a tin cover layer, b) fitting the spacer(s) into the perimetric frame, c) fitting the at least one conduit (16, 18) being thermally associated to the absorber (20), in particular by welding or brazing, onto the at least one spacer, in particular by at least one snap fitting element, and into connection ports in the perimetric frame (8), d) welding the ends of the conduit (16, 18) to the connecting ports, e) fitting the first transparent wall onto the metal coating of which a soft metal ribbon (32) has been soft-soldered onto the holding structure (2), f) soldering said soft metal ribbon (32) to the holding structure (2), thereby in particular aligning at least part of the soft metal ribbon (32) essentially in parallel to the holding structure (2), g) evacuating the solar panel (1, 1'), in particular via a pumping port, by use of at least one external pump, h) heating the flat panel solar collector (1, 1') from about 120°C to about 170°C, in particular to about 150°C, for a period of time, in particular for at least 30 min, to provide a sufficient outgassing of the collector (1, 1'), i) heating the flat panel solar collector (1, 1'), in particular those parts of said flat panel solar collector (1, 1') which comprise a lumped getter and/or a getter coating, to temperatures above 170°C, in particular to about 180°C or higher, in order to activate the getter, and j) isolating the flat panel solar collector (1, 1'), in particular by closing a valve or by pinching off the conduit connection at the pumping port. The method according to claim 24, further comprising the step of fitting the bottom part to the holding structure (2), in particular to its frame (8), in a vacuum-tight manner. The method according to claim 24, further comprising the step of fitting the second transparent wall onto the metal coating of which a soft metal ribbon (32) has been soft-soldered onto the holding structure, and soldering said soft metal ribbon (32) to the holding structure (2).
Anspruch[fr]
Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') qui est adapté pour pouvoir être évacué et étanche au vide, comportant au moins un absorbeur (20), en particulier un absorbeur en plaque, au moins un conduit (16, 18) qui est associé thermiquement, au moins partiellement, avec le au moins un absorbeur (20), une structure de support (2), en particulier réalisée en métal, comportant un cadre périphérique (8), et au moins une première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48), en particulier plane, en particulier un panneau de verre, dans lequel en particulier le périmètre de la première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48) et la structure de support, en particulier une première surface d'appui du cadre (8), ont une zone de chevauchement, en particulier une périphérie, le au moins un côté de la première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48) comporte au moins partiellement, en particulier sur au moins une partie de la zone de chevauchement et/ou le périmètre dudit côté de la première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48), un revêtement métallique, comportant en particulier une première couche de métal, en particulier une couche de cuivre répandue par plasma, et une seconde couche de métal, en particulier une couche de recouvrement d'étain, en fournissant ainsi au moins une zone métallisée sur la paroi transparente (4, 46, 48), ledit capteur solaire formant panneau plat comportant en outre en particulier un premier ruban métallique mou (32), en particulier un ruban de plomb et/ou cuivre, qui est adapté pour étanchéifier la jonction entre la première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48) et la structure de support (2) et qui est soudé, en particulier par une soudure tendre, sur la structure de support (2), en particulier sur le cadre périphérique (8), et la zone métallisée de la première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48). Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1) selon la revendication 1, comportant en outre une partie inférieure (6) fixée sur la structure de support (2), en formant ainsi un boîtier adapté pour être étanche au vide. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1') selon la revendication (1), comportant en outre au moins une seconde paroi transparente, en particulier plane, en particulier un panneau de verre, espacée de la première paroi transparente par la structure de support (2), dans lequel en particulier le périmètre de la seconde paroi transparente, et en particulier la seconde surface d'appui du cadre (8), ont une zone de chevauchement en particulier périphérique, dans lequel au moins un côté de la seconde paroi transparente comporte au moins partiellement, en particulier sur au moins une partie de la zone de chevauchement et/ou le périmètre dudit côté de la seconde paroi transparente, un revêtement métallique, comportant en particulier une première couche de métal, en particulier une couche de cuivre répandue par plasma, et une seconde couche de métal, en particulier une couche de recouvrement d'étain, en fournissant ainsi au moins une zone métallisée sur la seconde paroi transparente ; et en particulier un second ruban métallique mou, en particulier un ruban de plomb et/ou de cuivre, qui est adapté pour étanchéifier la jonction entre la seconde paroi transparente et la structure de support (2), en particulier le cadre (8), et qui est adapté pour être soudé, en particulier par une soudure tendre, sur la structure de support (2), en particulier sur le cadre périphérique (8), et sur la zone métallisée de la seconde paroi plane transparente. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce qu'au moins un ruban métallique mou (32) est aligné au moins partiellement sensiblement parallèlement à la structure de support métallique (2). Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le périmètre de la paroi transparente (4, 46, 48) et le cadre (8) et/ou la partie inférieure (6) de la structure de support (2) sont fixés ensemble par l'utilisation d'un ruban métallique mou (32), qui est adapté pour une soudure tendre avec au moins une première partie de soudure tendre (34) sur la structure de support (2), en particulier sur le cadre (8) et/ou la partie inférieure (6) de la structure de support, et/ou via au moins une seconde partie de soudure tendre (36) sur la paroi transparente (4, 46, 48), en particulier sur la zone métallisée de la paroi transparente. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la structure de support (2) comporte au moins une première entretoise (10, 12, 52), en particulier sous la forme d'un réseau d'entretoises, en particulier de barres métalliques. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comportant en outre au moins une plaque de protection, en particulier une plaque de protection à faible émissivité, qui est adaptée pour être interposée entre l'absorbeur et la partie inférieure fixée sur la structure de support. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la distance entre la partie inférieure (6), lorsqu'elle est fixée sur la structure de support (2), ou entre la seconde paroi transparente (48) et la première paroi transparente (4, 46) est d'environ 1 à 10 cm. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel au moins la structure de support, en particulier au moins une partie de la paroi intérieure de la structure de support, au moins une entretoise et/ou au moins la partie inférieure, en particulier la paroi intérieure de la partie inférieure, et/sont réalisées en cuivre, acier ou aluminium et/ou sont recouvertes d'un film à faible absorption d'infrarouges, comportant en particulier du cuivre et/ou de l'aluminium. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le matériau utilisé pour la structure de support et/ou la partie inférieure est adapté pour résister à la corrosion, en particulier à l'extérieur dudit capteur solaire formant panneau plat. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comportant en outre au moins un dégazeur bosselé et/ou au moins partiellement un revêtement dégazeur, en particulier ayant une épaisseur moyenne inférieure à 1000 mm, sur au moins une partie de l'absorbeur (20) et/ou de la structure de support (2). Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comportant en outre, entre la paroi transparente et l'absorbeur, au moins une paroi transparente supplémentaire et/ou au moins un revêtement réflecteur d'infrarouges sur le côté intérieur de la paroi transparente et/ou sur un ou les deux côtés de la paroi transparente supplémentaire. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le ou les conduits comportent des orifices de connexion étanches au vide (17, 19) intégrés dans le cadre périphérique (8), et comportant en particulier au moins un joint de dilatation (24, 26). Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comportant en outre au moins un orifice de connexion sous la forme d'un orifice de pompage (44) incorporé dans le cadre périphérique ou la paroi latérale de la structure de support et/ou au moins une pompe qui est adaptée pour pouvoir être connectée audit orifice de pompage. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la structure de support, en particulier le cadre (8), comporte une paroi latérale (28) et, en particulier perpendiculairement à celle-ci, une surface de support (30) reliée à ladite paroi latérale, qui est adaptée pour supporter en particulier le périmètre de la paroi transparente (4, 46, 48). Capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel au moins une première partie (34) d'un ruban métallique mou (32) est soudée, en particulier par soudure tendre, sur le boîtier (2), en particulier sur le cadre (8) et/ou sur la surface de support (30) du cadre, et dans lequel une seconde partie (36) du ruban métallique mou (32) est soudée, en particulier par soudure tendre, sur la paroi transparente (4), en particulier sur une zone métallisée de ladite paroi plane. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel l'absorbeur comporte au moins une plaque de cuivre, en particulier une plaque de cuivre OFE et/ou OFS, qui est recouverte d'un film absorbeur sélectif, en particulier du noir de chrome, au moins sur ce côté qui peut être soumis à un rayonnement solaire. Capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel au moins un conduit partiellement essentiellement en forme de U est relié thermiquement à au moins un absorbeur, en particulier par soudage ou brasage, et/ou dans lequel le ou les conduits et/sont agencés pour ne pas être contact thermique direct avec la structure de support, en particulier le cadre périphérique et/ou la au moins une entretoise. Système de capteur solaire formant panneau plat (56, 56'), comportant

au moins un capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, et au moins un miroir (54, 58, 60), en particulier un miroir essentiellement semi-cylindrique, le miroir étant adapté pour refléter de la lumière sur au moins une paroi transparente dudit capteur solaire formant panneau plat.
Système de capteur solaire formant panneau plat (56, 56') selon la revendication 19, dans lequel ledit capteur solaire (1, 1') est essentiellement aligné le long de l'axe d'un miroir semi-cylindrique (54, 58, 60). Système de capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon la revendication 19 ou 20, dans lequel la coupe transversale du miroir présente la forme d'un arc circulaire ou d'une partie de celui-ci, en particulier inférieure à un demi-cercle. Système de capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications 19 à 21, dans lequel le capteur solaire (1, 1') est positionné au-dessus de deux miroirs semi-cylindriques adjacents (58, 60), ou de miroirs dont la coupe transversale présente la forme d'un arc circulaire, ou d'une partie de celui-ci. Réseau de capteurs solaires comportant au moins deux capteurs solaires formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 18 et/ou système de capteur solaire formant panneau plat selon l'une quelconque des revendications 19 à 22. Procédé pour la préparation d'un capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 18, comportant les étapes consistant à a) fournir au moins une structure de support (2), en particulier au moins un cadre périphérique (8) et/ou au moins une entretoise, au moins un absorbeur (20), en particulier un absorbeur en plaque, au moins un conduit (16, 18), au moins une première paroi transparente (4, 46, 48), au moins une partie inférieure et/ou au moins une seconde paroi transparente, dans lequel, en particulier, le périmètre de la première et/ou seconde paroi transparente comporte au moins partiellement un revêtement métallique, comportant en particulier une première couche de métal, en particulier une couche de cuivre répandue par plasma, et une seconde couche de métal, en particulier une couche de recouvrement d'étain, b) agencer la ou les entretoises dans le cadre périphérique, c) agencer le au moins un conduit (16, 18) associé thermiquement à l'absorbeur (20), en particulier par soudage ou brasage, sur la au moins une entretoise, en particulier par au moins un élément d'agencement par encliquetage, et dans des orifices de connexion situés dans le cadre périphérique (8), d) souder les extrémités du conduit (16, 18) sur les orifices de connexion, e) agencer la première paroi transparente sur le revêtement métallique dont un ruban métallique mou (32) a été soudé par soudure tendre sur la structure de support (2), f) souder ledit ruban métallique mou (32) sur la structure de support (2), en alignant ainsi en particulier au moins une partie du ruban métallique mou (32) essentiellement parallèlement à la structure de support (2), g) évacuer le panneau solaire (1, 1'), en particulier via un orifice de pompage, par l'utilisation d'au moins une pompe externe, h) chauffer le capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') d'environ 120°C à 170°C, en particulier à environ 150°C, pendant une période de temps, en particulier pendant au moins 30 min, pour fournir un dégazage suffisant du collecteur (1, 1'), i) chauffer le capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1'), en particulier ces parties du capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1') qui comportent un dégazeur bosselé et/ou un revêtement dégazeur, à des températures supérieures à 170°C, en particulier d'environ 180°C ou plus, pour activer le dégazeur, et j) isoler le capteur solaire formant panneau plat (1, 1'), en particulier en fermant une vanne ou en pinçant la connexion par conduit au niveau de l'orifice de pompage. Procédé selon la revendication 24, comportant en outre l'étape consistant à agencer la partie inférieure sur la structure de support (2), en particulier sur son cadre (8), d'une manière étanche au vide. Procédé selon la revendication 24, comportant en outre l'étape consistant à agencer la seconde paroi transparente sur le revêtement métallique dont un ruban de métal mou (32) a été soudé par soudure tendre sur la structure de support, et souder ledit ruban de métal mou (32) sur la structure de support (2).






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