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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1077063 11.10.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001077063
Titel Methoden zur Behandlung der Hautpigmentierung
Anmelder Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, N.J., US
Erfinder Seiberg, Miri, Princeton, NJ 08540, US;
Shapiro, Stanley S., Livingston, NJ 07039, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60036169
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 26.07.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 003063526
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 21.02.2001
EP date of grant 29.08.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 11.10.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse A61Q 19/02(2006.01)A, F, I, 20070731, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse A61K 8/64(2006.01)A, L, I, 20070731, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
1. Field of the Invention

This invention is related to methods and compositions for bringing about skin pigmentation and/or for causing skin depigmentation. More particularly, this invention relates to compounds which affect melanogenesis and can be used as depigmenting agents or as agents for darkening skin.

2. Background of the Invention

Skin coloring has been of concern to human beings for many years. In particular, the ability to remove hyperpigmentation, such as found in age spots, freckles or aging skin generally, is of interest to individuals desiring a uniform complexion. In certain areas of the world, general body whitening is desirable. There are also hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation disorders that are desirable to treat. Likewise, the ability to generate a tanned appearance without incurring photodamage due to solar radiation is important to many individuals. There have been many methods proposed to accomplish depigmentation, as well as to accomplish darkening of the skin. For example, kojic acid, hydroquinone, retinoids and other chemical compounds have been used for depigmentation. Dihydroxyacetone and like chemical compounds have been utilized for their ability to "tan" the skin without exposure to the sun.

Many of these previous solutions have not been found acceptable. There is often a distinct line of demarcation between the areas of skin to which such previous compositions have been applied. Therefore, precise application of all these compounds is necessary in order to achieve the desired result. Many of these compounds have been found to be quite irritating to the skin and therefore undesirable for use.

The understanding of the chemical and enzymatic basis of melanogenesis is heavily documented. Melanocytes migrate from the embryonal neural crest into the skin to produce secretory granules, melanosomes, which produce melanin. Melanogenesis occurs within the melanosome, and the melanin is later distributed to keratinocytes via the melanocyte dendrites. The key enzyme in melanogenesis is tyrosinase, which initiates a cascade of reactions which convert tyrosine to the biopolymer melanin. Two tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP's) are known, TRP-1 and TRP-2. These proteins share with tyrosinase about 40% homology and have catalytic activities as well as regulatory roles in melanogenesis. TRP-1 is the most abundant glycoprotein in melanocytes.

In spite of the fact that the chemical and enzymatic basis of melanogenesis is well-documented, its regulation at the cellular level is only partially understood. Tyrosinase and the TRP's share structural and biological properties with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) gene family, therefore their targeting to the melanosomal membrane might induce their activation. A phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reaction at the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins could be involved in the regulation of melanogenesis. The beta isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family has been shown to regulate human melonogenesis through tyrosinase activation. Gene expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 is coordinated. All three enyzmes are expressed in human epidermis. In melanocytes co-cultured with keratinocytes, these transcripts are expressed at a ratio of 45:45:10, respectively. In melanocytes cultured alone, only TRP-1 transcripts are present, indicating that a keratinocyte-derived signal is involved in the coordinate expression of these genes. The regulation of keratinocyte-melanocyte interactions and the mechanism of melanosome transfer into keratinocytes are not yet understood.

The Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor, that is related to, but distinct from the thrombin receptors (TR, also named PAR-1, and PAR-3) in its sequence. Both receptors are activated proteolytically by an arginine-serine cleavage at the extracellular domain. The newly created N-termini then activate these receptors as tethered ligands. Both receptors could be activated by trypsin, but only the TRs are activated by thrombin. Only PAR-2 is activated by mast cell tryptase. Both receptors could also be activated by the peptides that correspond to their new N-termini, independent of receptor cleavage. SLIGRL, the mouse PAR-2 activating peptide, is equipotent in the activation of the human receptor. While the function of the TR is well documented, the biology of the PAR-2 has not yet been fully identified. A role for PAR-2 activation in the inhibition of keratinocyte growth and differentiation has been recently described ( Derian et al., "Differential Regulation of Human Keratinocyte Growth and Differentiation by a Novel Family of Protease-activate Receptors", Cell Growth & Differentiation, Vol. 8, pp. 743-749, July 1997 ).

Summary of the Invention

In accordance with this Invention, we have found a method for reducing mammalian skin pigmentation comprising topically applying to the skin of a mammal a Bowman-Birk Inhibitor, in the absence of Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor.

Soybean-derived extracts and mixtures that were suggested in WO-A-9904752 as depigmenting agents contain both STI and BBI. We have now found that BBI alone is effective to depigment skin. BBI may be used in all the formulations and compositions set forth in WO-A-9904752 in the same range of concentration as STI.

Brief Description of the Drawings

  • Figure 1 shows epidermal equivalents containing melanocytes of an African-American donor. Treatment with BBI reduces pigment deposition in these equivalents, as demonstrated by top view of the equivalents, with no staining.
  • Figure 2 shows epidermal equivalents containing melanocytes of an African-American donor. Treatment with BBI reduces pigment deposition in these equivalents, as demonstrated by Fontana-Mason staining of histological sections of these equivalents.
  • Figure 3 shows epidermal equivalents containing melanocytes of an African-Ametican donor. Treatment with increasing concentrations of BBI reduces pigment deposition in these equivalents in a dose-dependent fashion, as demonstrated by Fontana-Mason staining of histological sections of these equivalents.
  • Figure 4 is a graph quantifying the percent of inhibition of pigment deposition following BBI treatment.
  • Figure 5 shows F&M stained histological sections from swine skin treated with BBI and STI. Melanin deposition in the swine skin is dramatically reduced following BBI or STI treatment.
  • Figure 6 is a graph of computerized image analysis of pigment deposition in skin sections such as those demonstrated in Figure 5. The graph quantifies the percent of Inhibition of pigment deposition in the swine skin following BBI or STI treatment.

Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments

While not willing to be bound by the following theory, we theorize that the compounds capable of affecting the pigmentation of the skin do so by interacting directly or indirectly with the keratinocyte PAR-2 or with its activating protease, and thereby affect melanogenesis, directly or indirectly. Possibly, the compounds of this invention induce, in the case of increased pigmentation or reduce, in the case of decreased pigmentation, the signal to transport melanosomes by melanocytes, or to receive melanosomes by keratinocytes in the skin.

Recently we have identified that the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor ("BBI"), a group of legume-derived proteins, are depigmenting agents.

While STI is a 21 KD protein with primarily trypsin inhibitory activity, the soybean-derived BBI is a smaller, 8 KD protein, which inhibits chymotrypsin and trypsin. Unlike STI, BBI does not have a Kunitz-type domain, suggesting different interactions with serine proteases. BBI is known for its ability to prevent carcinogenesis in numerous in vivo and in vitro models. In some animal carcinogenesis models BBI was found to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. BBI is more resistant than STI to hear-denaturation. For a review on BBI see Kennedy AR, Chemopreventive agents: protease inhibitors, Pharmacol Ther 78: 3, 167-209, Jun, 1998 .

The compounds which are active in the compositions and methods of this invention may be delivered topically by any means known to those of skill in the art. If the delivery parameters of the topically active pharmaceutical or cosmetic agent so require, the topically active composition of this invention may preferably be further composed of a pharmaceutically or cosmetically acceptable vehicle capable of functioning as a delivery system to enable the penetration of the topically active agent into the skin.

One acceptable vehicle for topical delivery of some of the compositions of this invention, may contain liposomes. The liposomes are more preferably non-ionic and contain a) glycerol dilaurate (preferably in an amount of between about 5% and about 70% by weight); b) compounds having the steroid backbone found in cholesterol (preferably in an amount of between about 5% and about 45% by weight); and c) one or more fatty acid ethers having from about 12 to about 18 carbon atoms (preferably in an amount of between about 5% and about 70% by weight collectively), wherein the constituent compounds of the liposomes are preferably in a ratio of about 37.5:12.5:33.3:16.7. Liposomes comprised of glycerol dilaurate / cholesterol/ polyoxyethylene -10-stearyl ether/polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether (GDL liposomes) are most preferred. Preferably the liposomes are present in an amount, based upon the total volume of the composition, of from about 10 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL, and more preferably from about 20 mg/mL to about 50 mg/mL. A ratio of about 37.5:12.5:33.3:16.7 is most preferred. Suitable liposomes may preferably be prepared in accordance with the protocol set forth in Example 1, though other methods commonly used in the art are also acceptable.

The above described composition may be prepared by combining the desired components in a suitable container and mixing them under ambient conditions in any conventional high shear mixing means well known in the art for non-ionic liposomes preparations, such as those disclosed in Niemiec et al., "Influence of Nonionic Liposomal Composition On Topical Delivery of Peptide Drugs Into Pilosebacious Units. An In Vivo Study Using the Hamster Ear Model," 12 Pharm. Res. 1184-88 (1995 ) ("Niemiec"), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. We have found that the presence of these liposomes in the compositions of this invention may enhance the depigmenting capabilities of some of the compositions of this invention.

Other preferable formulations may contain, for example, liquid formulations derived directly from legumes or other suitable plant.

Oil-in-water emulsions, water-in-oil emulsions, solvent-based formulations and aqueous gels known to those of skill in the art may also be utilized as vehicles for the delivery of the compositions of this invention. Products of natural extracts can be purified according to techniques known in the art. Recombinant sources of compounds are also available to those of ordinary skill in the art.

In alternative embodiments, the topically active cosmetic composition may be optionally combined with other ingredients such as moisturizers, cosmetic adjuvants, anti-oxidants, bleaching agents, tyrosinase inhibitors and other known depigmentation agents, surfactants, foaming agents, conditioners, humectants, fragrances, viscosifiers, buffering agents, preservatives, sunscreens and the like. The compositions of this invention may also contain active amounts of retinoids (i.e., compounds that bind to any members of the family of retinoid receptors), including, for example, tretinoin, retinol, esters of tretinoin and/or retinol and the like.

The topically active cosmetic composition should be applied in an amount effective to affect changes in the pigmentation of mammalian skin. As used herein "amount effective" shall mean an amount sufficient to cover the region of skin surface where a change in pigmentation is desired. Preferably, the composition is liberally applied to the skin surface such that, based upon a square cm of skin surface, from about 2 µl / cm2 to about 200 µl / cm2 of topically active agent is present when a change in pigmentation is desired.

Liquid derivatives and natural extracts made directly from plants or botanical sources may be employed in the compositions of this invention in a concentration (w/v) from about 1 to about 99%. Fractions of natural extracts and naturally-derived protease inhibitors may have a different preferred range, from about 0.01% to about 20% and, more preferably, from about 1% to about 10% of the composition.

We have unexpectedly found that when a BBI is topically applied to an animal's skin, a significant change in pigmentation was achieved. Preferably, depigmenting agents (as well as other pigmentation-affecting agents of this invention) are applied to the skin of a mammal at a relatively high concentration and dose (from about 20% to about 99% for liquid derivatives and extracts of botanical materials; and from about 1% to about 20% for fractions of natural extracts and naturally-derived protease inhibitors) between one and two times daily for a period of time until the skin evidences a change in pigmentation. This may be for from about four to about ten weeks or more. Thereafter, once the change in pigmentation has been achieved, a lower concentration and dose (from about 10% to about 90% for liquid derivatives and extracts of botanical materials; and from about 0.01% to about 5% for fractions of natural extracts and naturally-derived protease inhibitors) of active ingredient may be applied on a less frequent time schedule, e.g., about once per day to about twice per week The effects of the active agents of this invention are reversible, therefore, in order to maintain these effects, continuous application or administration should be performed. The invention illustratively disclosed herein suitably may be practiced in the absence of any component, ingredient, or step which is not specifically disclosed herein.

The invention illustratively disclosed herein suitably may be practiced in the absence of any component, ingredient, or step which is not specifically disclosed herein. Several examples are set forth below to further illustrate the nature of the invention and the manner of carrying it out, but do not serve to limit the scope of the methods and compositions of this invention.

Example 1: BBI Affects Pigmentation

In order to study the possible roles of BBI in pigmentation, an in vitro epidermal equivalent system containing melanocytes was used. The epidermal equivalent system used in this study is the MelanoDerm mel-300 system, available commercially from MatTek Co. of Ashland, MA. This system contains human normal melanocytes, together with normal, human-derived epidermal keratinocytes, derived from African-American foreskin. These cells have been cultured to form a multi-layered, highly differentiated model of the human epidermis. In the following examples, equivalents were treated with BBI (0.1%) for three days and samples were harvested on the fourth day after beginning of treatment. The harvested equivalents were first compared for their color without staining, following by histological examination with Fontana-Mason (F&M) staining, a stain known to those of skill in the art. F&M staining is a silver staining technique that clearly and cleanly marks melanins which have high silver nitrate reducing activity. Images of the stained sections were also captured for image analysis. At least three sections per equivalent, three equivalents per experiment were processed. Empire Images database 1.1 was used on a Gateway 2000 P5-100 computer (Media Cybernetics, Silver Springs, MD) for capturing images. Image Pro Plus version 3.0 was used for image analysis. Parameters measured were the surface area of silver deposits within melanocytes and the density luminosity of each pixel. A "pigmentation factor" was defined as the surface area of silver deposits divided by the total epidermal surface area. A value of one (100%) was assigned to untreated controls, and values of treatment groups were normalized to their relevant controls.

As shown in Figure 1, untreated mel-300 equivalents are visibly dark without any staining. BBI treated equivalents were lighter than these controls, demonstrating the ability of BBI to visually reduce pigmentation. Figure 2 shows the histological sections of these equivalents, following F&M staining. In this Figure, black areas represent melanin deposits within both melanocytes and keratinocytes. As shown in Figure 2, BBI treatment results in reduced melanin deposition both in the melanocytes and in the keratinocytes of the treated equivalents. Image analysis revealed that BBI treated equivalents have only 50.6% melanin deposits relative to controls.

Example 2: The depigmenting effect of BBI is dose-responsive.

Epidermal equivalents containing melanocytes as described in example 1 were treated with increasing concentrations of BBI, from 0.001% to 0.1%. Following the same experimental procedure described in example 1, the depigmenting effect of BBI was found to be dose-dependent. Figure 3 shows F&M stained sections of the treated equivalents, demonstrating the dose-response and the depigmenting effect of as low as 0.001% BBI. Computerized image analysis, shown in figure 4, quantifies this effect and further demonstrates its dose-responsive nature.

Example 3: In vivo demonstration of the depigmenting effect of BBI

A dark skin Yucatan microswine was treated with BBI, or STI,1%, in PBS, with 20/mg/ml liposomes. Non-ionic liposomes preparations, such as those disclosed in Niemiec et al., "Influence of Nonionic Liposomal Composition On Topical Delivery of Peptide Drugs Into Pilosebacious Units: An In Vivo Study Using the Hamster Ear Model," 12 Pharm. Res. 1184-88 (1995 ) ("Niemiec"), which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety, are well known in the art, and are described in JBP-430. We have found that the presence of these liposomes in the compositions of this invention may enhance the depigmenting capabilities of some of the compositions of this invention. GDL liposomes were prepared as set forth in Niemiec, et al., above, with the exception of the following changes: the non-ionic liposomal formulation contained glycerol dilaurate (Emulsynt GDL, ISP Van Dyk)/cholesterol (Croda)/polyoxyethylene-10-stearyl ether (Brij76, ICI)/polyoxyethylene-9-laurylether, as at ratio of 37.5:12.5:33.3:16.7. Hepes buffer, 0.05M, pH 7.4 (Gibco-BRL of Gaithersburg, MD) was used as the aqueous phase in the preparation of the liposomes.

The BBI, STI and liposome vehicle preparations were applied each onto two sites of the swine's flank, twice daily, five days per week, for eight weeks. After eight weeks of treatment, the application of either BBI or STI resulted in a visible lightening effect. Histological analysis of F&M stained skin sections from untreated and treated sites confirmed this observation. Figure 5 shows the F&M stained skin sections of the treated swine, demonstrating a dramatic reduction in pigment deposition in sites treated with BBI or STL Computerized image analysis, shown in figure 6, quantifies this effect and further demonstrates the depigmenting effect of BBI.


Anspruch[de]
Verwendung eines Bowman-Birk-Inhibitors in Abwesenheit von Sojabohnen-Trypsininhibitor für die Reduktion der Hautpigmentierung eines Säugetiers, unter der Voraussetzung, daß es keine therapeutische Verwendung ist. Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei der Bowman-Birk-Inhibitor aus einer oder mehreren der botanischen Familien Leguminosae, Solanaceae, Gramineae und Cucurbitaceae stammt. Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 2, wobei der Bowman-Birk-Inhibitor aus Hülsenfrüchten (Legumen) stammt. Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 3, wobei der Bowman-Birk-Inhibitor aus nicht denaturiertem Sojabohnen-Extrakt stammt. Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 4, wobei der Bowman-Birk-Inhibitor aus Fraktionen von nicht denaturiertem Sojabohnen-Extrakt stammt.
Anspruch[en]
The use of a Bowman-Birk Inhibitor in the absence of soybean trypsin inhibitor for reducing skin pigmentation in a mammal, provided that said use is not a therapeutic use. The use according to claim 1 wherein said Bowman-Birk Inhibitor is derived from one or more of the botanical families leguminosae, solanaceae, gramineae and cucurbitaceae. The use according to claim 2 wherein said Bowman-Birk Inhibitor is derived from legumes. The use according to claim 3 wherein said Bowman-Birk Inhibitor is derived from undenatured soybean extract. The use according to claim 4 wherein said Bowman-Birk Inhibitor is derived from fractions of undenatured soybean extract.
Anspruch[fr]
Utilisation d'un inhibiteur de Bowman-Birk en l'absence d'un inhibiteur trypsique du soja destiné à diminuer la pigmentation cutanée chez un mammifère, à condition que ladite utilisation ne soit pas une utilisation thérapeutique. Utilisation selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle ledit inhibiteur de Bowman-Birk est dérivé d'une ou de plusieurs parmi les familles botaniques des légumineuses, des solanacées, des graminées et des cucurbitacées. Utilisation selon la revendication 2 dans laquelle ledit inhibiteur de Bowman-Birk est dérivé de légumes. Utilisation selon la revendication 3 dans laquelle ledit inhibiteur de Bowman-Birk est dérivé d'un extrait de soja non dénaturé. Utilisation selon la revendication 4 dans laquelle ledit inhibiteur de Bowman-Birk est dérivé de fractions d'un extrait de soja non dénaturé.






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C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
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G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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