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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1839730 15.11.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001839730
Titel Verfahren zur Herstellung mikroporöser Membranen aus Polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF)
Anmelder GVS S.P.A., Zola Predosa, Bologna, IT
Erfinder Gaeta, Soccorso, 40050 MONTE SAN PIETRO (Bologna), IT;
Sidari, Felice, 40128 Bologna, IT
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LI, LT, LU, LV, MC, MT, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 28.03.2007
EP-Aktenzeichen 071051346
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 03.10.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 15.11.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse B01D 71/34(2006.01)A, F, I, 20070904, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse B01D 67/00(2006.01)A, L, I, 20070904, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of microporous membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF).

PVDF membranes are widely used in various filtration, separation processes and venting systems. Venting systems are systems in which the microporous membrane allows the passage of air but does not allow the passage of water.

It is evident however that there is a limit water pressure above which water passes through the pores of membranes. There is therefore great interest in producing membranes which, with the same pore dimensions, have high air flows and a high resistance to the passage of water.

The resistance to the passage of water is expressed in water column metres. Normally with an increase in the air flow, the water column decreases, i.e. water break-through resistance.

The state of the art describes various types of processes for the preparation of microporous membranes also to be used in venting systems.

The document US 6,126,826 (Pacheco ) for example describes a method for the preparation of microporous membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) which comprises the formation of a solution of the polymer in a liquid consisting of a solvent and a cosolvent. According to the Pacheco invention it is possible to prepare PVDF membranes having nominal pore dimensions of 0.02 to 6 microns characterized by a high water flow and consequently a low water break-through resistance. The document US 6,146,747 (Wang ) describes a method for the preparation of microporous membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), internally isotropic and highly asymmetrical characterized by high water flows, which comprises the formation of a solution of the polymer in a liquid consisting only of a solvent. The membranes produced according to this invention are also characterized by a low water break-through resistance.

The document US 2004/004324 (Stenberg ) describes, analogously to US' 826, a method for the preparation of hydrophobic, gas-permeable, biocompatible membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) which comprises the formation of a solution of polymer in a liquid consisting of a solvent or a mixture of several solvents. Analogously US 3,642,668 (Bailey ) describes a method for the preparation of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) microporous membranes which comprises the formation of a solution of the polymer in a solvent. These have limited water break-through resistance however. In order to increase the water passage resistance, Stenberg envisages a post-treatment of the membrane formed by means of a coating with a fluorinated acrylic polymer. Analogously, all the other processes described so far in US patents 5,217,802 , 5,554,414 , 5,342,434 and 5,462,586 require numerous additional passages to increase the water break-through resistance of PVDF or PTFE (ethylene polytetrafluoride) and are extremely costly.

The Applicant has now surprisingly found that the particular process according to the present invention allows the drawbacks of the state of the art to be overcome.

In particular, the process according to the present invention allows a microporous membrane to be obtained which has an increased water break-through resistance, without reducing the air flow and also avoids post-treatment for improving the hydrorepellence. The process according to the present invention, in fact, does not require any post-treatment and allows the production of membranes having water passage resistance characteristics equivalent to those indicated in US patents 5,217,802 , 5,554,414 , 5,342,434 and 5,462,586 .

An object of the present invention therefore relates to a process for the preparation of microporous membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) which comprises the following passages:

  1. a) preparation of a mixture of polymer (PVDF), solvent and non-solvent-1;
  2. b) heating the mixture thus obtained to a temperature ranging from 15 to 80°C, for a time longer than 10 minutes;
  3. c) mixing of the polymer until dissolution and formation of a solution;
  4. d) possible spreading of the solution thus obtained on a carrier or imbibition of the carrier in the solution thus obtained;
  5. e) immersion in a coagulation bath consisting of a non-solvent-2 at a temperature ranging from 15°C to 70°C and subsequent formation of pores;
  6. f) extraction of the residual solvent and non-solvent-2 in water;
  7. g) drying of the membrane.

The main advantage of the process according to the present invention consists in the production of a membrane which is extremely interesting from an industrial point of view, as an increase equal to about 10% is obtained in the water break-thorugh resistance in the membrane with respect to the values obtained with a membrane prepared according to the processes described in the patents cited above or without the addition of a non-solvent-1, without reducing the air-flow. This result is specifically obtained thanks to the presence of the non-solvent-1 in the starting mixture.

A further advantage in using the non-solvent-1 in the initial polymeric solution is that it avoids post-treatment for improving the hydrorepellence and water break-through resistance.

An additional advantage of the process for the preparation of microporous membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) according to the present invention is the following: by effecting the mixing of the system (solvent + polymer + non-solvent-1) at a preestablished temperature, rather than heating the already-formed solution to the same temperature, it is also possible to control the pore size.

In particular, in phase a) for the preparation of a mixture of polymer (PVDF) the solvent can be N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, dimethylacetamide (DMA),tetrahydrofuran, methyl ethyl ketone, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and other solvents. The non-solvent-1 can be a convenient hydrofluoro-ether (HFE), alcohol, hydrofluorochlorocarbide (HCFC), perfluorocarbide (PFC), perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and acetone.

The solvent is preferably dimethylacetamide (DMA). The preferred non-solvent-1 is a hydrofluoro-ether (HFE).

The spreading of the solution obtained in phase c) can be effected on a carrier made of non-woven fabric, on a carrier made of woven fabric or without a carrier.

In phase e) for immersion in a coagulation bath consisting of a non-solvent-2 and subsequent pore formation, the coagulation bath consists of a non-solvent-2 which is water at a temperature ranging from 15 to 80°C, alcohol (isopropanol, methanol, etc.) mixtures of water and solvent, mixtures of water and alcohol.

The non-solvent-2 is preferably selected from water at a temperature ranging from 15 to 80°C and/or isopropanol.

The characteristics and advantages of a process according to the present invention will appear more evident from the following illustrative and non-limiting description, referring to the following examples.

Example 1

A mixture of 18 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF, 79.5 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA and 2.5 parts by weight of hydrofluoro-ether HFE, was stirred at 25°C for two hours, until dissolution of the polymer and the formation of a solution.

The solution thus obtained was spread on a carrier made of non-woven fabric, by means of a laboratory spreader (Doctor Blade), with a thickness of 350 microns and subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath consisting of isopropyl alcohol at room temperature with extraction of the residual solvent and non-solvent-2 in water, at room temperature. The membrane was then dried at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 0.2 microns, an air flow value equal to 5.6 l/minute 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg and a WBT equal to 25 mH2O.

Example 2 (comparative)

The procedure described in Example 1 was repeated, without HFE, i.e. the non-solvent-1, and therefore with a starting mixture consisting of 18 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and 82 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 0.2 microns, an air flow value equal to 5.7 l/minute, 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg and a WBT equal to 22 mH2O.

The lowering of the WBT (water break through) by 12% is evident, whereas the variation in the air flow is negligible (+1.8%).

Example 3

A mixture of 18 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF, 72 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA and 10 parts by weight of hydrofluoro-ether HFE, was stirred at 55°C for two hours, until dissolution of the polymer and the formation of a solution.

The solution thus obtained was spread on a carrier made of non-woven fabric, by means of a laboratory spreader (Doctor Blade), with a thickness of 350 microns and subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath consisting of isopropyl alcohol with extraction of the residual solvent and non-solvent-2 in water, at room temperature. The membrane was then dried at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 1.2 microns, an air flow value equal to 56 1/minute 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg and a WBT equal to 3.6 mH2O.

Example 4 (comparative)

The procedure described in Example 3 was repeated, without HFE, i.e. the non-solvent-1, and therefore with a starting mixture consisting of 18 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and 82 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 1.2 microns, an air flow value equal to 63 l/minute, and a WBT equal to 2.1 mH2O.

The lowering of the WBT (water break through) by 41.7% is evident.

Example 5

A mixture of 16 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF, 74 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA and 10 parts by weight of hydrofluoro-ether HFE, was stirred at 55°C for two hours, until dissolution of the polymer and the formation of a solution.

The solution thus obtained was spread on glass (without a fabric carrier), by means of a laboratory spreader (Doctor Blade), with a thickness of 350 microns and subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath consisting of isopropyl alcohol with extraction of the residual solvent and non-solvent-2 in water, at room temperature. The non-supported membrane was then dried at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 1.2 microns, an air flow value equal to 61 l/minute 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg and a WBT equal to 5.2 mH2O.

Example 6

The procedure described in Example 5 was repeated, in the presence of a different quantity of HFE, i.e. the non-solvent-1, and therefore with a starting mixture consisting of 16 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), 69 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA and 15 parts by weight of hydrofluoro-ether (HFE).

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 1.2 microns, an air flow value equal to 58 1/minute 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg, and a WBT equal to 6.2 mH2O.

The increasing of the WBT (water break through) by 16.1% is evident.

Example 7

A mixture of 16 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride PVDF, 74 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA and 10 parts by weight of hydrofluoro-ether HFE, was stirred at 60°C for two hours, until dissolution of the polymer and the formation of a solution.

The solution thus obtained was spread on glass (without a fabric carrier), by means of a laboratory spreader (Doctor Blade), with a thickness of 350 microns and subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath consisting of isopropyl alcohol with extraction of the residual solvent and non-solvent-2 in water, at room temperature. The non-supported membrane was then dried at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 3 microns, an air flow value equal to 70 1/minute 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg and a WBT equal to 3.4 mH2O.

Example 8 (comparative)

The procedure described in Example 7 was repeated, without HFE, i.e. the non-solvent-1, and therefore with a starting mixture consisting of 16 parts by weight of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and 84 parts by weight of dimethylacetamide DMA.

The resulting membrane has pore dimensions of 3 microns, an air flow value equal to 71 l/minute 3.7 cm2 @ 440 mmHg, and a WBT equal to 1.3 mH2O.

The lowering of the WBT (water break through) by 61.8% is evident, whereas the variation in the air flow is negligible (+1.4%).

The following Table clearly indicates the advantages obtained by means of the process according to the present invention. It demonstrates, in fact, how the addition of HFE, i.e. the non-solvent-1 causes an increase in the WBT (water break through) by at least 10%. This increase has been demonstrated and is specified for membranes with a different porosity (from 0.2 to 3 microns) both supported and non-supported. Table 1 Membrane nominal porosity microns Example Thermal treatment °C Carrier TNT PVDF % Solvent DMA % Solvent HFE % Air flow l/min @ 3.7 cm2 @441 mmHg WBT m H2O Air Flow variation WBT variation 0.2 Ex.2 25 yes 18 82 0 5.7 22 -1.8% 12.0% 0.2 Ex. 1 25 yes 18 79.5 2.5 5.6 25 1.2 Ex.4 55 yes 18 82 0 63 2.1 -12.5% 41.7% 1.2 Ex. 3 55 yes 18 72 10 56 3.6 1.2 Ex.5 55 no 16 74 10 61 5.2 -5.2% 16.1% 1.2 Ex. 6 55 no 16 69 15 5 58 6.2 3 Ex. 8 60 no 16 84 0 71 1.3 -1.4% 61.8% 3 Ex. 7 60 no 16 74 10 70 3.4


Anspruch[en]
A process for the preparation of microporous membranes made of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) which comprises the following passages: a) preparation of a mixture of polymer (PVDF), solvent and non-solvent-1; b) heating the mixture thus obtained to a temperature ranging from 15 to 80°C, for a time longer than 10 minutes; c) mixing of the polymer until dissolution and formation of a solution; d) possible spreading of the solution thus obtained on a carrier or imbibition of the carrier in the solution thus obtained; e) immersion in a coagulation bath consisting of a non-solvent-2 at a temperature ranging from 15°C to 70°C and subsequent formation of pores; f) extraction of the residual solvent and non-solvent-2 in water; g) drying of the membrane. The process according to claim 1, characterized in that in phase a) of the preparation of a mixture of polymer (PVDF), solvent and non-solvent-1, the solvent is selected from N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, dimethylacetamide (DMA), tetrahydrofuran, methyl ethyl ketone, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and other solvents. The process according to claim 2, characterized in that the solvent is dimethylacetamide (DMA). The process according to claim 1, characterized in that in phase a) of the preparation of a mixture of polymer (PVDF), solvent and non-solvent-1, the non-solvent-1 is selected from hydrofluoro-ether (HFE), alcohol, hydrofluorochlorocarbide (HCFC), perfluorocarbide (PFC), perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and acetone. The process according to claim 4, characterized in that the non-solvent-1 is hydrofluoro-ether (HFE). The process according to claim 1, characterized in that the spreading of the solution obtained in phase c) is effected on a non-woven fabric carrier, on a woven fabric carrier or without a carrier. The process according to claim 1, characterized in that in phase e) for immersion in a coagulation bath consisting of a non-solvent-2 and subsequent pore formation, the coagulation bath consists of a non-solvent-2 which is selected from water at a temperature ranging from 15 to 80°C, alcohol (isopropanol, methanol, etc.), water and solvent mixtures, water and alcohol mixtures. The process according to claim 7, characterized in that the non-solvent-2 is selected from water at a temperature ranging from 15 to 80°C and/or isopropanol.






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A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
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E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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