PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP2000032 22.01.2009
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0002000032
Titel Backzusammensetzung
Anmelder Nestec S.A.,1800 Vevey,CH
Erfinder Fleury Rey, Yvette,1670, URSY,CH
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten , AT, , BE, , BG, , CH, , CY, , CZ, , DE, , DK, , EE, , ES, , FI, , FR, , GB, , GR, , HU, , IE, , IS, , IT, , LI, , LT, , LU, , LV, , MC, , MT, , NL, , PL, , PT, , RO, , SE, , SI, , SK, , TR,
Sprache des Dokument en
EP-Anmeldetag 04.06.2007
EP-Aktenzeichen 071094957
WO-Anmeldetag 04.06.2007
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 10.12.2008
EP date of grant 10.10.2007
Veröffentlichungstag der Übersetzung europäischer Ansprüche 10.10.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 22.01.2009
IPC-Hauptklasse A21D 2/18  (2006.01)  A,  F,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP
IPC-Nebenklasse A21D 2/24  (2006.01)  A,  L,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP
A21D 13/00  (2006.01)  A,  L,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP
A23L 1/00  (2006.01)  A,  L,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP
A23L 1/227  (2006.01)  A,  L,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP
A21D 10/00  (2006.01)  A,  L,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP
A21D 10/04  (2006.01)  A,  L,  I,  20080401,  B,  H,  EP

Beschreibung[en]
Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a baked foodstuff with an improved flavour and an improved texture. Also to compositions for generating these improved flavours and textures in baked foodstuffs which compositions comprise non pre-reacted flavour precursors which react on heating to generate the flavours. In particular, the present invention relates to baked components of confectionery with improved biscuit, buttery, fruity, nutty, caramel, golden syrup, honey, toasted, roasted bread-like and baked flavours.

Background to the Invention

The term "Maillard reaction" and "Maillard reactants/products" are terms of art which define the complex series of chemical reactions between carbonyl and amino components derived from biological systems and the associated reactants and products, respectively. The term Maillard reaction is used herein in the established broad sense to refer to these reactions, and includes the closely associated reactions which are usually coupled with the Maillard reaction sensu stricto (such as Strecker degradation).

In foods, the Maillard reaction results in both the production of flavours and browning (see Bailey, M.E. (1994) Maillard reactions and meat flavour development, pages 153-173, In: Flavour of meat and meat products, Ed. F. Shahidi, Academic Press ; Ames, J. M. (1992) The Maillard Reaction, pages 99-143, In: Biochemistry of Food Proteins, Ed. B. J. F. Hudson, Elsevier App. Sci. Lond on).

With respect to flavour generation, the Maillard reaction can be broken down into four stages. The first stage involves the formation of glycosylamines. The second stage involves rearrangement of the glycosylamines to form Amadori and Heyns rearrangement products (often abbreviated in the literature to "ARPs" and "HRPs", respectively). The third stage involves dehydration and or fission of the Amadori and Heyns rearrangement products to furan derivatives, reductones and other carbonyl compounds (which may have significant organoleptic qualities). (These "third stage products" may also be produced without the formation of ARP's or HRP's. The fourth stage involves the conversion of these furan derivatives, reductones and other carbonyl compounds into coloured and aroma/flavour compounds. Thus, products and reactants present in both the third and fourth stage of the Maillard reaction contribute towards aroma and or flavour.

Thus, the terms "Maillard reaction", "Amadori rearrangement product", "Heyns rearrangement product", "aroma compound" and "flavour compound", unless indicated otherwise, are used herein in the above-described senses.

Maillard reactions occur naturally in food, but it is also known to use Maillard reaction products to improve the flavour of foodstuffs.

Caramel and biscuit flavour generation has been described in many model reaction systems. 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone (corresponding to Furaneol a registered trademark of Firmenich Inc.) is one compound associated with caramel flavour. 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone can be produced in high levels from 6-deoxy-hexoses such as rhamnose (6deoxy-L-mannose), fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) and 6-deoxy-fructose by reaction with an amine ( Wong et al. 1983, J Org Chem 48: 3493-3497 ; Whitehead 1998, Food Technology Feb 52: 40-46 ). Specifically, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone can be generated from a rhamnose and amine interaction by Amadori formation via the loss of an amine group, forming 2,3-enolization leading to a diketone, which leads to 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)furanone after dehydration and cyclization ( Pisamitskii et al. 1992, Appl Biochem Microbio128 : 97-100 ). At basic pH, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone can be generated from rhamnose alone, whereas under acidic conditions formation is only found in presence of an amino acid (e. g. arginine). The combination of rhamnose and arginine results in 4-hydroxy 2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone formation, which is 40-50 fold higher than any other sugar amine combination ( Haleva-Toledo et al. 1997, J Agric Food Chem 45: 1314-1319 ; 1999, J Agric Food Chem 47: 4140-4145 ). Maximum 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone generation is found at pH 8.0 with increasing temperature (90 °C) in aqueous buffers. Lower amount of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone can also be generated during base catalyzed fructose degradation ( Shaw et al. 1968, J Agric Food Chem 16:979-982 ).

Amino acids as flavour precursors have been extensively studied in combination with reducing sugars in water or ethanol model Maillard reaction systems. Among the compounds known to be generated from proline and rhamnose are 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone and several 2,3-dihydr(1H)-pyrrolizines ( Shaw and Ho 1989, Thermal generation of aromas, eds. Parliament TH, McGorrin RJ, Ho C-T, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC .; Shaw et al. 1990, Perfumer & Flavorist 15: 60-66 ; Tressl et al. 1985, J Agric Food Chem 33: 919-923 and J Agric Food Chem 33: 934-928 ). As 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3 (2H)-furanone is thermally unstable, its concentration is strongly reduced at temperatures higher than 150°C in model aqueous reaction systems. The biscuit/bready/roast flavour attributes have also been studied in many model systems. Proline was described by Hodge et al. (1972, Cereal Sci Today 17: 3440 ) as the key amino acid precursor for roast aroma. It was further shown by Schieberle (1990, Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 191: 206-209 ) that a key impact compound,2-acetyl-1- pyrroline was generated from proline and ornithine. In US-A-3687692 and US-A-3782973 it was reported that proline-based reaction mixtures produced a caramel character upon heating with cyclic ketones. US 4,022,920 disclosed that Amadori rearrangement compounds have been produced from proline and 6-deoxy-aldohexoses such as rhamnose under reflux in ethanol followed by drying. The dried mixture was incorporated into a food matrix followed by heating.

US 4,940,592 is directed to a process wherein rhamnose is mixed with amino acids such as leucine, alanine, and phenylalanine in water or propylene glycol, coated onto uncooked foodstuff followed by microwave radiation. US 5,041,296 also disclosed flavour precursors treated by microwave radiation before mixing with a foodstuff. EP 0 398 417B1 also disclosed reactions between rhamnose and proline in other non-fat systems such as water, ethanol, propylene glycol and glycerol.

WO0249452 discloses a process for the production of flavour concentrates comprising the addition of a mixture of flavour precursors comprising proline, ornithine or protein hydrolysate, and rhamnose, fructose or fucose, to a fat-based medium and heating the mixture to about 100-140 C for about 10-120 minutes.

However, there are problems associated with the introduction into baked foodstuffs of flavour active molecules generated by Maillard reactions.

The time taken to generate appreciable quantities of flavour active materials, for example by reacting amino acids and reducing sugars, is long relative to the baking times of many baked products. For example, in US 4,022,920 example 1, 6-deoxy-D-galactose and L-proline are refluxed in ethanol for 3 hours to generate flavourants. The flavour active reaction products, extracted into fat, are added to a shortcake dough and baked in example 9 of US 4,022,920 rather than the un-reacted amino acid and reducing sugar.

If mixtures of flavour active molecules are added to ingredients which are then baked (e.g. in the production of wafer or extruded cereals), many desirable volatile flavour components are lost. This has a number of disadvantages. The desirable aromas/flavours associated with volatile compounds are only found in low levels in the finished product (having been lost during the preparation process). Moreover, many components of the finished flavour may be flashed off during cooking (so leading to loss from the flavour profile of important aroma volatiles). This is a particular problem in wafer baking as large volumes of steam are vented during the baking process which will carry away volatile and water soluble flavour active molecules. This has two major disadvantages as it removes flavour from the final product and leads to an unpleasant working environment around the ovens.

WO9962357 discloses flavour releasing compositions using micro emulsions where a flavour precursor is converted into an active flavour in the mouth. The increase in water activity activates an enzyme to convert the flavour precursor into a flavour. However, such compositions are not readily applied to ingredients which are baked to form baked foodstuffs. During baking the micro emulsions will be dehydrated and break down, and any enzymes will be denatured by the heat.

In baked goods that comprise other components, such as a chocolate coated wafer biscuit, it is possible to add flavour active molecules generated by reacting flavour precursors into the non baked component. However, consumers expect the desirable baked flavours to come from the baked component, and tasting these flavours in a different component such as the chocolate coating is undesirable as it can seem artificial to the consumer.

Summary of the invention

It has been surprisingly found that the addition of flavour precursors (amino acids and reducing sugars) according to the invention directly to ingredients which are then baked to form baked foodstuffs overcomes these issues and allows an improved delivery of flavour by the formation of the aroma molecules even when the baking duration is short. Consequently, the flavour active molecules generated from the flavour precursors are exposed to high temperatures for a shorter time leading to a unique and desirable flavour profile and improved texture.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, the high temperature and pressure generated in such baking environments as between wafer plates or in the barrel of an extruder create aqueous conditions above 100°C which accelerate the formation of flavour active molecules.

In addition, by adding the flavour precursors to the ingredients of the baked goods they can react with other components (such as amino acids and sugars in flour) to generate a wider range of flavour and, as the structure of the baked goods forms at the same time as the flavour active molecules are generated, the flavour active molecules become trapped within the food matrix.

Preferred embodiments of the invention are described in the claims.

Claim 1 deals with a baked foodstuff with an improved flavour characterised in that flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff comprise 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline.

In one embodiment, the invention deals with the baked foodstuff of claim 1 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with the foodstuff of claim 1 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline.

Another embodiment of the invention, claim 4, deals with a baked foodstuff with an improved flavour characterised in that the flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff comprise

  1. a) 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline

    and at least one of the following flavours:
  2. b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 109000,
    • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 149000,
    • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 47000,
    • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 72000,
    • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 11000,
    • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 17000,
    • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 37000,
    • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 32000,
    • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 16000,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 327000,

  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 933000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 236000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 598000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 49000,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 148000,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 241000,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 175000,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 164000,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a level of

b)

  • 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 54000,
  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 148000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 146000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 141000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 14000,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 46000,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 16000,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b)

  • 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 7000,
  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 20000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 24000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 12000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 800,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 200,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1600,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 5500,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 800,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a level of

b)

  • 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 110000,
  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 415000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 201000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 514000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 78000,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 148000,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 127000,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 122000,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 145000,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b)

  • 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 7000,
  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 58000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 106000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 50000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1000,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 900,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4400,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 21000,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b)

  • 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 8000,
  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 80000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 117000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 50000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1000,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1000,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 10000,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 12000,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000,

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 4

wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b)

  • 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 275000,
  • Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 1428000,
  • 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1818000,
  • 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 845000,
  • 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 144000,
  • 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 159000,
  • 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1084647,
  • 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 359000,
  • 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 212000,

In another embodiment, the invention (claim12) deals with a baked foodstuff with an improved flavour according to any one of claims 1 to 3 characterised in that flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff comprise 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene, ethyl-pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff of claim 12 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene and/or a minimum level of 90000 for the peak corresponding to ethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 35000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 5000 for the peak corresponding to 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 3000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 11000 for the peak corresponding to 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 12000 for the peak corresponding to 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 4000 for the peak corresponding to 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff of claim 12 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene a minimum level of 90000 for the peak corresponding to ethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine a minimum level of 35000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine a minimum level of 5000 for the peak corresponding to 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 3000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 11000 for the peak corresponding to 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 12000 for the peak corresponding to 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine a minimum level of 4000 for the peak corresponding to 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 14 wherein the improved flavour comprises at least of the of the flavour characteristics: biscuit, buttery, fruity, nutty, caramel, golden syrup, honey, toasted, roasted bread-like and baked.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 15 wherein the baked foodstuff exhibits improved texture.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 16 wherein the baked foodstuff comprises cereal flour.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 17 wherein the cereal flour is wheat flour.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff of any of claims 1 to 16 wherein the baked foodstuff is wafer, extruded cereal or biscuit.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff of any of claims 1 to 19 wherein the cooking time of the foodstuff is shorter than 5 minutes, preferably less than 3 minutes.

In another embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 20, wherein the flavour is generated by heating using a convection oven, impingement oven, wafer baking oven, infra red heating system, steam heating system, extruder, microwave oven, retort or pasteurization system.

In a further embodiment the invention deals with a Confectionery product comprising the baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 21.

In a further embodiment, the invention deals with a composition for generating a baked foodstuff with an improved flavour wherein said composition comprises non pre-reacted flavour precursors which react on heating to generate the flavours wherein said composition comprises: Flour 100 parts Water from 5 to 200 parts Amino acid 0.3 parts (preferably a range: from 0.03 to 0.66 %) Reducing sugar 0.9 parts (preferably a range: from 0.09 to 2 %)

In a further embodiment, the invention deals with a composition according to claim 23 wherein the amino acid is selected from the group of ornithine, glycine, glutamine, citrulline, arginine, proline, histidine and mixtures thereof and the reducing sugar is selected from the group of fructose, glucose, xylose, tagatose, rhamnose, maltose, lactose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and mixtures thereof.

In a further embodiment, the invention deals with a composition according to claim 24

wherein the

  1. a) amino acid is proline and the reducing sugar rhamnose, or
  2. b) amino acid is histidine and the reducing sugar rhamnose,or
  3. c) amino acid is histidine and the reducing sugar xylose, or
  4. d) amino acid is praline and the reducing sugar xylose, or
  5. e) amino acid is ornithine and the reducing sugar rhamnose, or
  6. f) amino acid is ornithine and the reducing sugar xylose, or
  7. g) amino acid is glutamine and the reducing sugar rhamnose, or
  8. h) amino acid is glutamine and the reducing sugarxylose,

In a further embodiment, the invention deals with a process for producing a foodstuff according to any one of claims 1-21comprising the step of adding to said foodstuff the composition according to anyone of claims 23-25.

In a further embodiment, the invention deals with a baked foodstuff according to claim 1 characterised in that flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff additionally comprise 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene, ethyl-pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine, wherein the ratio of peak areas measured by GC-MS for the baked foodstuff to the peak areas of a wafer prepared from a batter having the following formulation: Flour 100.0 parts Water 160.0 parts Sucrose 2.0 parts Fat 1.0 parts Lecithin 0.2 parts Sodium bicarbonate 0.2 parts
and baked for 2 minutes between two metal plates heated to 160°C gives a minimum ratio of 4 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum ratio of 7 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum ratio of 1.5 for the peak corresponding to ethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.5 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.6 for the peak corresponding to 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2.5 for the peak corresponding to 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.6 for the peak corresponding to 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2 for the peak corresponding to 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.5 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl.

The baked foodstuff with an improved flavour according to the invention comprises 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. These aroma compounds impart desirable flavour attributes to the baked foodstuff, particularly in combination where they provide a balanced flavour to the baked foodstuff. The exact nature of the flavour notes they provide depends on the relative concentrations, but examples of the desirable flavour attributes are biscuit, buttery, fruity, nutty, caramel, golden syrup, honey, toasted, roasted bread-like and baked. The aroma compounds serve to add organoleptic interest to the baked goods, and provide a particularly desirable flavour for baked foodstuffs which are used as components of confectionery products.

The baked foodstuff with an improved flavour according to the invention may valuably additionally comprise 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene, ethyl-pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine.

These aroma compounds also impart desirable flavour attributes to the baked foodstuff, particularly in combination where they provide a balanced flavour to the baked foodstuff.

In particular, the baked foodstuff according to the invention comprises 5-methylfurfural, diacetyl, 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline such that when the aroma compounds are measured by GC-MS there is a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural, and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl, and/or a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

As used herein and unless otherwise stated, measurement by GC-MS refers to the method of sample preparation, solid phase microextraction and GC-MS analysis described in example 2.

The baked foodstuff of the invention may be for example; cake, pastry, snack food, breakfast cereal, biscuits or cookies, dry petfood, pasteurized foodstuffs, retorted foodstuffs, microwaveable products, bread, crispbread, breadcrumbs, fried food, ready to re-heat frozen food items, and mixtures thereof.

In a preferred embodiment, the baked foodstuff of the invention may be baked components of confectionery.

The baked foodstuff of the invention may be produced by adding the composition of the invention to other ingredients and then heating e.g. by convection oven, impingement oven, wafer baking, infra red heating, steam heating, extrusion cooking, microwave cooking, retorting or during pasteurization.

Particularly good results are obtained on improved delivery of the flavours for confectionery products , and specially when the baked foodstuff is wafer, crackers or extruded cereal and/or when the baked foodstuff has a cooking time below 5 minutes, preferably below 3 minutes.

In a preferred embodiment the composition according to the invention is used in confectionery products, said composition being added to the ingredients of baked components of the confectionery before they are baked. For example the batter in the case of wafer, dough in the case of biscuits and the ingredient mixture for extruded cereal products.

Wafers are baked products which are made from wafer batter and have crisp, brittle and fragile consistency. They are thin, with an overall thickness usually between < 1 and 4 mm and typical product densities range from 0.1 to 0.3 g/cm3. The surfaces are precisely formed, following the surface shape of the plates between which they were baked. They often carry a pattern on one surface or on both. Wafers may also be produced by extrusion, according to our European co-pending patent application No. 06018976.8 .

Two basic types of wafer are described by K.F. Tiefenbacher in "Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition p 417-420 - Academic Press Ltd London - 1993 ":

  1. 1) No- or low-sugar wafers. The finished biscuits contain from zero to a low percentage of sucrose or other sugars. Typical products are flat and hollow wafer sheets, moulded cones or fancy shapes.
  2. 2) High-sugar wafers. More than 10% of sucrose or other sugars are responsible for the plasticity of the freshly baked sheets. They can be formed into different shapes before sugar recrystallization occurs. Typical products are moulded and rolled sugar cones, rolled wafer sticks and deep-formed fancy shapes.

Extrusion-cooking of cereal-based compositions is commonly used in the food industry. It is described for the preparation of edible food product cups in US 5,962,055 , in the making of multiple, complexly patterned extrudates in US 6,251,452 B1 , in the manufacture of confectionery having coloured fine line ( US 6,579,555 B1 ). US 6,054,166 further describes a process for making cooked snack by extrusion having a texture similar to traditional tortillas, crisps, or crackers. The common features of the extrusion processes include the step of forming an extrudable dough, which may be cooked in a single or a twin-screw extruder under high temperature, and which is then extruded through a die. Extrusion through a die may be accompanied by expansion, depending on the water content of the dough and depending on the pressure at the die. The product may then be cut and/or further processed and cooled.

It is also an object of the present invention to provide materials and methods for efficiently generating cooked flavours and aromas in foods which overcome the aforementioned problems.

According to the present invention there is provided a composition for generating a cooked flavour in a foodstuff, the composition comprising flavour precursors, which precursors are non pre-reacted flavour and which react during the cooking of the foodstuff to generate flavour within the foodstuff.

As used herein, the term "flavour" as applied to a foodstuff includes its aroma, and may refer in general terms to the organoleptic qualities of the foodstuff. Indeed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the perceived flavour of any given food depends to a large extent on its aroma.

As used herein, the term "flavour precursor" is intended to define compounds or chemical moieties which can take part in one or more reactions which yield products which contribute to the generation of flavour in a food. Such flavour precursors therefore need not be flavouring compounds per se.

Thus, the compositions of the invention are activated within the foodstuff, and so generate flavour compounds in situ. This improves the distribution of the flavour/aroma compounds throughout the foodstuff and ensures that volatiles (and other "top notes") are more effectively introduced into the flavour profile.

The precursors selected for use in the invention are such that they give rise to a satisfactorily broad range of products after entry into the Maillard reaction. This leads to a particularly rich flavour profile in the food. The precursors for use in the invention may be in powder form, but preferably the precursors are dissolved/dispersed in water and mixed into the ingredients of the baked goods.

The composition of the invention comprises a combination of at least one amino acid with at least one sugar or sugar alcohol. Preferably the composition of the invention comprises a combination of at least one amino acid with at least one reducing sugar. Examples of suitable amino acids are ornithine, glycine, glutamine, citrulline, arginine, proline, histidine or mixtures thereof. Examples of suitable reducing sugars are fructose, glucose, xylose, tagatose, rhamnose, maltose, lactose, fucose, arabinose, galactose or mixtures thereof.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention the amino acid is ornithine and the reducing sugar is xylose. In another preferred embodiment of the invention the amino acid is ornithine and the reducing sugars is rhamnose. In another preferred embodiment of the invention the amino acid is proline and the reducing sugars is rhamnose. In another preferred embodiment of the invention the amino acid is histidine and the reducing sugar is rhamnose. In another preferred embodiment of the invention the amino acid is glutamine and the reducing sugars is rhamnose.

The flavour generated by the compositions of the invention may be biscuit, buttery, fruity, nutty, caramel, bread-like, golden syrup, honey, toasted, roasted and baked.

The composition of the invention may be used with the ingredients of any foodstuff, for example; baked components of confectionery, breadcrumbs, dry petfood, pasteurized foodstuffs, retorted foodstuffs, microwaveable products, bread, snack food and mixtures thereof.

The composition of the invention is typically prepared by mixing the at least one amino acid with the at least one reducing sugar. These can be dry powders, or dissolved/dispersed in water. Preferably the at least one amino acid and the at least one reducing sugar are mixed together with the ingredients of baked goods before the ingredients are baked. A typical composition comprises: Flour 100 parts Water from 5 to 200 parts Amino acid from 0.03 to 0.80%, more preferably from 0.03 to 0.70%, most preferably from 0.03 to 0.66 % Reducing sugar from 0.09 to 5 %, more preferably from 0.09 to 3 %, most preferably from 0.09 to 2%

In one embodiment of the invention the at least one amino acid and the at least one reducing sugar are mixed with the ingredients of a ready to bake product which is then frozen to be baked at a later time.

It is also contemplated that the at least one amino acid and at least one reducing sugar may be partially pre-reacted. That is to say, reacted by one of the methods known in the art to generate flavour active molecules, but for temperatures and times which do not completely react away the amino acids and reducing sugars. This provides the benefit of using precisely controlled conditions to manipulate the formation of desirable flavour active molecules, but permits the remaining flavour pre-cursors in the mixture also to take part in flavour generating reactions during the cooking process.

In another aspect, the invention contemplates a process for producing a foodstuff comprising the step of adding to a foodstuff the composition of the invention (for example by dusting or by inclusion, optionally followed by heating (e.g. by convection oven, impingement oven, wafer baking, infra red heating, steam heating, extrusion cooking, microwave cooking, retorting or during pasteurization.)

The baked foodstuff of the invention also exhibits improved texture, especially increased crispness.

Crispness is an attribute that relates to the number of mechanical fractures that occur upon application of a certain force and to the magnitude of the force needed to cause a fracture. Ways to quantify crispness are known in the art, notably from Mitchell, J.R. et al. in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 1679-1685, 2000 . Thus, crispness can be quantified by a number of parameters.

In the case of wafer, it is possible to measure crispness using a crush test (described in example 2). This measures the force needed to fracture a wafer. The test uses a cylindrical probe having a 4mm diameter and a flat face for penetrating the wafer.

By applying a force onto the wafer with the probe, micro fractures occur until the wafer can no longer be crushed. These fractures are related to the crispness perception when eating the product.

Referring to Figure 3 showing a typical crush test force diagram, it can be seen that each time a microfracture occurs, a force drop is observed in the force applied to the wafer (indicated by arrows on Figure 3). How many force drops occur in a specified distance (mm) and the magnitude of the force drops are indicative of the crispness of the wafer.

It has been determined that force drops greater than or equal to 0.6N in magnitude are especially relevant to the assessment of crispness as they provide a good correlation to the sensory perception of crispness, notably to the acoustics associated with crispness.

Thus, by selecting only the force drops which are greater than or equal to 0.6N in magnitude, it is possible to establish a number of force drops per mm of distance travelled by the crush test probe.

This is illustrated in Figure 4, wherein several wafers are compared. A wafer formulated without an amino acid and a reducing sugar (wafer A) exhibit fewer force drops per mm than the same recipe but with added amine and reducing sugar (wafers C-I). That is to say wafer A is less crisp. The effect is an additional benefit to the flavour impact and is equivalent to adding extra sugar into the wafer batter (wafer B), but without the effect of extra sweetness which can be undesirable.

FIGURES

Figure 1 illustrates gas chromatography - olfactometry (GC-O) of a wafer not of the invention (Wafer A). The figure shows a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) trace (mass spectrometer total ion response plotted against time in minutes) annotated at the corresponding time with descriptions of aroma recorded by human sniffers.

The descriptions are numbered as follows Odour description 1 green, earthy 2 biscuit 4 floral, fresh 4 chemical, solvent

Figure 2 illustrates gas chromatography - olfactometry (GC-O) of a wafer of the invention (Wafer D). The figure shows a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) trace (mass spectrometer total ion response plotted against time in minutes) annotated at the corresponding time with descriptions of aroma recorded by human sniffers.

The descriptions are numbered as follows Odour description 5 floral, fruity 6 bread, fruit bread, baked 7 bread, biscuit 8 green, earthy 9 biscuit, bread, baked 10 caramel, candy 11 caramel 12 burnt sugar

Figure 3 is a graph illustrating a typical force variation during a crush test. Such a test is described in detail herein.

Figure 4 illustrates the crush test measurements of force drops per mm for a variety of wafers including the wafers of the invention. Measurements of force drops greater than or equal to 0.6N are considered representative for crispness.

EXAMPLES

The following examples further illustrate the present invention.

Example 1: Preparation of wafers

A series of 11 different wafers A-J were produced.

For Wafer A, a batter was prepared having the following formulation: Flour 100.0 parts Water 160.0 parts Sucrose 2.0 parts Fat 1.0 parts Lecithin 0.2 parts Sodium bicarbonate 0.2 parts

For Wafer B, the batter composition was: Flour 100.0 parts Water 160.0 parts Sucrose 5.0 parts Fat 1.0 parts Lecithin 0.2 parts Sodium bicarbonate 0.2 parts

For Wafers C-J, the batter composition was: Flour 100.0 parts Water 160.0 parts Sucrose 2.0 parts Fat 1.0 parts Lecithin 0.2 parts Sodium bicarbonate 0.2 parts Amino acid 0.3 parts Reducing sugar 0.9 parts

The amino acids and reducing sugars were added as powders and mixed with the other batter ingredients. The specific amino acids and reducing sugars used for wafers C-J were as follows: Wafer recipe Amino acid Reducing Sugar C proline Rhamnose D histidine Rhamnose E histidine xylose F proline xylose G ornithine rhamnose H ornithine xylose I glutamine xylose J glutamine rhamnose

Wafers were prepared by baking the batters for 2 minutes in an oven (25-plate wafer oven, Hebenstreit Moerfelded, West Germany) between two metal plates heated to 160°C.

Example 2: Chemical analysis of the wafers

Wafers A-J produced in example 1, were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC_MS). In addition, commercially available wafers KNISTERBROT® (3 Pauly®) and HANUTA® (Ferrero®) (purchased in Germany in April 2007) were also analysed. The results are tabulated in Table 1.

Equipment:

  • 20 mL vials for headspace analysis, Agilent Technologies 5182-0837.
  • 10 mL vials for headspace analysis, Supelco 33143.
  • 20 mm crimp caps, Agilent Technologies 9301-0718 with PTFE/white silicone septa, Agilent Technologies 9301-0719.
  • SPME fibre, 65 µm, PDMS-DVB, Supelco 57310-U, blue.
  • Multi-block heater, Lab-Line Instruments, model 2050-1CE
  • GC-MS system: Agilent Technologies model 6890N equipped with split-splitless injector including a SPME liner, 0.75 mm ID (Supelco 2-6375,01) and a 5973N mass detector.
  • GC capillary column: J&W Scientific, DB-WAX, 30 m, 0.32 mm ID, 0.25 µm coating.

Standards:

Four aroma molecules were quantified using authentic standards (standards for the other molecules not being commercially available). Aqueous solutions were prepared according to the following table: Dilutions [µg/ml] 1 2 3 4 5 Diacetyl, Aldrich B85307 10 20 30 40 50 Ethyl-pyrazine, Aldrich 250384 3 6 9 12 15 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine, Aldrich 292982 0.12 0.24 0.36 0.48 0.60 5-methyl-furfural Aldrich 13,731-6 2 4 6 8 10

Solid phase microextraction (SPME)

Wafer sample was crushed with pestle and mortar just before analysis. 200 mg of the powdered wafer were introduced into a 20 mL vial and suspended into 5 mL of 25% NaCl. A stirring magnet was added and the vial was immediately sealed by a septum. The slurry was stirred at 500 rpm and at room temperature. After equilibration for 1 hour, the SPME fibre was exposed to the headspace, for again 1 hour while temperature and stirring were maintained, before injection into the GC system. External standard calibration was performed using the same procedure, but adding 50 µl of each standard dilution to the suspension of wafer A.

The analysis for 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone was made by SPME of dry wafer as 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone is a polar molecule and would not be readily extracted from the aqueous phase. In this case, 2 g of powdered wafer were introduced into a 10 mL vial. After sealing, the latter was thermostated at 70°C without any stirring. After equilibration for 1 hour, the SPME fibre was exposed to the headspace, for again 1 hour while temperature and stirring were maintained, before injection into the GC system.

GC-MS analysis

Manual injection was performed introducing the fibre into the injector set at 220°C. Splitless mode was used with a purge after 3 min at a flow rate of 50 mL/min. After 5 min, the fibre was removed from the injector and immediately exposed to the next sample. The oven temperature gradient started with a delay of 5 min, from 20°C to 220°C at a rate of 4°C/min. The final temperature was hold for another 5 min period. Helium was used as carrier gas at a constant flow of 1.5 mL/min. the mass spectrometer was operated in electron impact mode at 70 eV, with transfer line and source temperatures of 150°C and 230°C respectively. Masses were scanned from 20 to 400 Da. Specific ion chromatograms were then extracted for each individual aroma molecule, according to the following list: Aroma molecule Specific ion m/e Retention time [min] 5-methyl-furfural 110 27.6 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene 97 29.1 ethyl-pyrazine 107 20.0 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine 121 21.8 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine 121 22.0 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine 121 24.1 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine 121 24.2 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine 135 23.4 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine 135 24.3 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine 149 25.4 Diacetyl 43 6.8 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline 83 20.1 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone * 128 32.1 *: analyzed by SPME of dry wafer

As an example of how to read Table 1, it can be seen that for wafer E (the ingredients of which comprised histidine and xylose) the amount of 5-methyl-furfural is quantified by a peak area of 53512 based on the mass spectrometer response for the ion m/e =110 . The peak had a retention time of 27.6 minutes. By comparison, KNISTERBROT wafer had a lower amount of 5-methyl-furfural with a peak area of 4872.

For each wafer, the ratio of peak area to the corresponding peak area for wafer A was calculated for each aroma molecule. These ratios are presented in Table 2. As an example of how to read Table 2, it can be seen that for wafer E (the ingredients of which comprised histidine and xylose) the amount of 5-methyl-furfural is quantified by peak area ratio as 59 times higher than in Wafer A based on the mass spectrometer response for the ion m/e =110. The peak had a retention time of 27.6 minutes. By comparison, KNISTERBROT wafer had only 6.4 times more of 5-methyl-furfural than Wafer A.

Example 3: Examination of wafers by Gas Chromatography - Olfactometry

Wafers A and D of example 1 were also analysed by Gas Chromatography - Olfactometry (GC-O). The analysis was carried out in a similar manner to the GC-MS, except that an odour port supplied with humidified air (SGE, ODO-1) was substituted for the Agilent 5973N mass spectrometer and extra wafer was used to ease detection by human sniffers. Wafer was ground to a powder using a mechanical grinder. In this case, wafer powder (2g) was weighed into a 20ml crimp-top headspace vial and 1g of saturated sodium chloride solution was added. Each vial was equilibrated for 60min at 55 °C and the headspace volatiles adsorbed onto a PDMS-DVB SPME fibre (Supelco) for 30min, again at 55 °C. The volatiles were desobed for 5min at 220 °C in the injector of an Agilent 6890 GC in splitless mode, and separated on a 60m x 0.25mm i.d DB-Wax column (J&W) using the following conditions: 40 °C (5min) - 230 °C (10min) at 3 °C min-1. Trained subjects ("Sniffers") sniffed compounds eluting from the end of the GC-column and recorded their comments together with the time at which the odours were perceived.

A CombiPal (CTC Analytics) was used to automate the equilibration, adsorption and desorption processes.

This process was repeated with column outlet connected to an Agilent 5793N mass spectrometer. Eluting compounds were fragmented by electron impact ionisation (EI). Peaks were detected using Agilent GC-MS data analysis software. Identification of components was by comparison of fragmentation patterns to those of spectral libraries such as NIST05.

Reference materials of known identity were injected into both GC-O and GC-MS instruments in order to calibrate for any time differences associated with the high vacuum of the mass spectrometer and to allow correlation between the compounds detected and their individual odours. Such analyses have been performed a minimum of two times.

Figures 1 and 2 shows the GC-MS trace (mass spectrometer total ion response plotted against time in minutes) annotated at the corresponding time with the descriptions of aroma recorded by the Sniffers. Figure 1 is the result for Wafer A and Figure 2 for Wafer D. It is worth noting that the proximity of a description to a prominent peak does not necessarily mean that the aroma being described comes from that peak. The sensitivity of the human nose is different to the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer and so very small peaks on the GC-MS trace may provide a strong aroma and conversely large peaks on the GC-MS trace may not have a discernable aroma. It is also worth noting that the retention times for the peaks in Figure 1 are not directly comparable with those in example 2 (Table 1) as a different length column and GC oven temperature conditions have been used.

Example 4: Texture analysis of wafers by crush test

The wafers produced in example 1 were analyzed by a crush test

  • Sample: wafer of at least 2cm2.
  • Measurements were repeated for 10 samples of each product type and an average was taken.
  • Instrument: Stable Micro Systems TA-XTplus
  • Penetration probe: 4mm diameter cylinder (Stable Micro Systems P/4)
  • Instrument settings:
    • Compression mode
    • Test speed: 1mm s-1
    • Target strain: 90%
    • Trigger force: 0.5N

Analysis:

The force/distance curve (Figure 3) looks jagged because the force drops each time a fracture occurs; these fractures are related to the crispness perception when eating the product. At the end of the test the force rises sharply due to densification of the sample. The analysis macro calculates the average force for the whole test. It then selects a region for analysis from when the probe first contacts the sample to when the force first rises above the average value (this is to avoid including the densification region of the curve in the analysis). The macro then counts the number of force drops (i.e. negative peaks) above a threshold of 0.6N (threshold chosen on the basis of good correlation to sensory perception of crispness). The number of force drops in the analysis region is normalised by dividing through by the distance travelled in the analysis region, to give the number of force drops per unit distance.

Figure 4 shows the data obtained for the wafers. It can be seen that the wafer with no amino acid or reducing sugar (Wafer A) has a lower crispness than the other samples.


Anspruch[en]
A baked foodstuff with an improved flavour characterised in that flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff comprise 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. The baked foodstuff of claim 1 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. The baked foodstuff of claim 1 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. A baked foodstuff with an improved flavour characterised in that the flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff comprise a) 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline

and at least one of the following flavours:
b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 109000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 149000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 47000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 72000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 11000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 17000, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 37000, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 32000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 16000,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 327000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 933000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 236000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 598000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 49000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 148000, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 241000, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 175000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 164000,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 54000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 148000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 146000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 141000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 14000, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 46000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 16000,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 7000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 20000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 24000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 12000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 800, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 200, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1600, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 5500, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 800,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 110000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 415000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 201000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 514000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 78000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 148000, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 127000, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 122000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 145000,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 7000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 58000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 106000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 50000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 900, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4400, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 21000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 8000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 80000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 117000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 50000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1000, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 10000, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 12000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 4000,
A baked foodstuff according to claim 4 wherein a measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of

b) 1,2 Diacetylethylene, with a peak at a minimum level of 275000, Ethylpyrazine, with a peak at a minimum level of 1428000, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1818000, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 845000, 2,3-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 144000, 2,5-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 159000, 2,6-diethyl- pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 1084647, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 359000, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine with a peak at a minimum level of 212000,
A baked foodstuff with an improved flavour according to any one of claims 1 to 3 characterised in that flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff comprise 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone, 5-methylfurfural, 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene, ethyl-pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine, diacetyl, and 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. The baked foodstuff of claim 12 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene and/or a minimum level of 90000 for the peak corresponding to ethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 35000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 5000 for the peak corresponding to 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 3000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 11000 for the peak corresponding to 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 12000 for the peak corresponding to 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 4000 for the peak corresponding to 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and/or a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. The baked foodstuff of claim 12 wherein the measurement of peak areas by GC-MS gives a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone a minimum level of 10000 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene a minimum level of 90000 for the peak corresponding to ethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 50000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine a minimum level of 35000 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine a minimum level of 5000 for the peak corresponding to 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 3000 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 11000 for the peak corresponding to 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine a minimum level of 12000 for the peak corresponding to 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine a minimum level of 4000 for the peak corresponding to 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine a minimum level of 55000 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl and a minimum level of 1000 for the peak corresponding to 2-acetyl-1-pyroline. A baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 14 wherein the improved flavour comprises at least one of the of the flavour characteristics: biscuit, buttery, fruity, nutty, caramel, golden syrup, honey, toasted, roasted bread-like and baked. A baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 15 wherein the baked foodstuff exhibits improved texture. The baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 16 wherein the baked foodstuff comprises cereal flour. The baked foodstuff according to claim 17 wherein the cereal flour is wheat flour. The baked foodstuff of any of claims 1 to 16 wherein the baked foodstuff is wafer, extruded cereal or biscuit. The baked foodstuff of any of claims 1 to 19 wherein the cooking time of the foodstuff is shorter than 5 minutes, preferably less than 3 minutes. Baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 20, wherein the flavour is generated by heating using a convection oven, impingement oven, wafer baking oven, infra red heating system, steam heating system, extruder, microwave oven, retort or pasteurization system. Confectionery product comprising the baked foodstuff according to any of claims 1 to 21. A composition for generating a baked foodstuff with an improved flavour wherein said composition comprises non pre-reacted flavour precursors which react on heating to generate the flavours wherein said composition comprises: Flour 100 parts Water from 5 to 200 parts Amino acid 0.3 parts (preferably a range: from 0.03 to 0.66 %) Reducing sugar 0.9 parts (preferably a range: from 0.09 to 2 %)
Composition according to claim 23 wherein the amino acid is selected from the group of ornithine, glycine, glutamine, citrulline, arginine, proline, histidine and mixtures thereof and the reducing sugar is selected from the group of fructose, glucose, xylose, tagatose, rhamnose, maltose, lactose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and mixtures thereof. A composition according to claim 24 wherein the a) amino acid is proline and the reducing sugar rhamnose, or b) amino acid is histidine and the reducing sugar rhamnose,or c) amino acid is histidine and the reducing sugar xylose, or d) amino acid is praline and the reducing sugar xylose, or e) amino acid is ornithine and the reducing sugar rhamnose, or f) amino acid is ornithine and the reducing sugar xylose, or g) amino acid is glutamine and the reducing sugar rhamnose, or h) amino acid is glutamine and the reducing sugarxylose, Process for producing a foodstuff according to any one of claims 1-21 comprising the step of adding to said foodstuff the composition according to anyone of claims 23-25. The baked foodstuff according to claim 1 characterised in that flavour active molecules in the baked foodstuff additionally comprise 1,2-diacetyl-ethylene, ethyl-pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine, 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine, 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine, wherein the ratio of peak areas measured by GC-MS for the baked foodstuff to the peak areas of a wafer prepared from a batter having the following formulation: Flour 100.0 parts Water 160.0 parts Sucrose 2.0 parts Fat 1.0 parts Lecithin 0.2 parts Sodium bicarbonate 0.2 parts
and baked for 2 minutes between two metal plates heated to 160°C gives a minimum ratio of 4 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-di-methyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone and/or a minimum ratio of 7 for the peak corresponding to 5-methylfurfural and/or a minimum ratio of 1.5 for the peak corresponding to ethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.5 for the peak corresponding to 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.6 for the peak corresponding to 2,3-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2 for the peak corresponding to 2,5-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2.5 for the peak corresponding to 2,6-diethyl-pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.6 for the peak corresponding to 5-ethyl-2,3-dimethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 2 for the peak corresponding to 2-methyl-3,5-diethyl pyrazine and/or a minimum ratio of 1.5 for the peak corresponding to diacetyl.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

Anmelder
Datum

Patentrecherche

  Patente PDF

Copyright © 2008 Patent-De Alle Rechte vorbehalten. eMail: info@patent-de.com